FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Dharma" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Dharma

The Sanskrit term Dharma  (Devanāgarī: धर्म) (Pali: Dhamma) signifies the underlying order in nature and life (human or other) considered to be in accord with that order. The word dharma is generally translated into English as 'law' and literally translates as 'that which upholds or supports' (from the root, Dhr, - to hold), here referring to the order which makes the cosmos and the harmonious complexity of the natural world possible. As in the West, the concept of natural or divine law, has, throughout the history of Indian civilization, governed ideas about the proper conduct of living. The symbol of the dharma - the wheel - is the central motif in the national flag of India. You may be looking for: Dharma, a philosophical or religious concept of Indian origin Dharma is another name for the Hindu god Yama Dharma & Greg, a television series in the U.S. Dharma Bums (band) The Dharmas is the former name of the band Steadman. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Image File history File links Dharma. ... () is an abugida script used to write several Indo-Aryan languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Gujarati,Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Pahari (Garhwali and Kumaoni), Santhali, Nepali, Newari, Tharu and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... (Sanskrit: ऋत) as used in Vedic Sanskrit, or in English Rta, literally means the order or course of things, cognate to Avestan . ... This article is about the physical universe. ... The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... The Dharmacakra (Sanskrit) or Dhammacakka (Pāli), Tibetan , Chinese fălún 法轮, Wheel of Dharma is an auspicious Buddhist symbol representing a Buddhas teaching of the path to enlightenment. ... Indian National Flag Flag ratio: 2:3 The National Flag of India was adopted in its present form during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947, a few days before Indias independence from the British on 15 August, 1947. ...


In its most frequent usage (in the sphere of morality and ethics) dharma means 'right way of living', 'appropriate conduct', 'duty' or 'righteousness'. With respect to spirituality, dharma might be considered the Way of the Higher Truths. What is in the West called religion in India comes within the general purview of dharma. Thus the various Indian religions (sanatana dharma, Buddhadharma, Jain dharma, Sikh Dharma etc.) are so many versions of Dharma — versions of what is considered to be 'right' or in truest accord with the deepest realities of nature. Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... The word dharma (Sanskrit; धर्म in the Devanagari script) or dhamma (Indian origin, Dharmic faiths, namely Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma), Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ...


Each of the various Indian religions emphasize Dharma as the correct understanding of Nature (or God, as the origin of nature) in their teachings.[1][2][3] In these traditions, beings that live in accordance with Dharma proceed more quickly toward Dharma Yukam, Moksha or Nirvana (personal liberation). Dharma also refers to the teachings and doctrines of the founders of these traditions, such as those of Gautama Buddha and Mahavira. In traditional Hindu society with its caste structure, Dharma constituted the religious and moral doctrine of the rights and duties of each individual. (see dharmasastra). Dharma in its universal meaning shares much in common with the way of Tao or Taoism. Statue of Jain God Bahubali in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka attracts thousands of devotees. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Dharma Yukam or Satya Yuga is the eighth or final yukam (aeon or age), according to Ayyavazhi mythology. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... now. ... The Dharmashastra is a volume of Hindu legal texts, covering moral, ethical and social laws. ... This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ...


The antonym of dharma is adharma meaning unnatural or immoral. Adharma (Sanskrit: a + dharma): non-righteousness. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word is from a root common Indo-Iranian root dhar "to fasten, to support, to hold", continuing PIE *dher, in the IEW connected with Latin frēnum "rein, horse tack", Germanic words for "hidden, held back" (OHG tarni "latens"), and extended to dher-gh, with OCS drъžǫ, drъžati "to hold, possess". Etymological identity of dharma with Latin firmus (whence English firm) has been suggested, but remains uncertain. Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... The Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (The Indo-European Etymological Dictionary) by the Czech scholar and Irish nationalist Julius Pokorny, was published in 1959. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ...


In the Hindu text of the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem, dhárman-, with a range of meanings encompassing "something established or firm" (in the literal sense of prods or poles), figuratively "sustainer, supporter" (of deities), and in the abstract, similar to the semantics of Greek ethos, "fixed decree, statute, law". This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ...


From the Atharvaveda and in Classical Sanskrit, the stem is thematic, dhárma- (Devanāgarī: धर्म), and in Pāli, it takes the form dhamma. It is also often rendered dharam in contemporary Indo-Aryan. Monier-Williams attempts to gesture at the semantic field of the spiritual and religious meanings of the term with "virtue, morality, religion, religious merit". It being used in most or all philosophies and religions of Indian origin, sometimes summarized under the umbrella term of Dharmic faiths, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, it is difficult to provide a single concise definition for Dharma. The word has a long and varied history and straddles a complex set of meanings and interpretations. The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... ... () is an abugida script used to write several Indo-Aryan languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Gujarati,Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Pahari (Garhwali and Kumaoni), Santhali, Nepali, Newari, Tharu and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ... The semantic field of a word is the sum of the sememes expressed by it. ... Statue of Jain God Bahubali in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka attracts thousands of devotees. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ...


In modern Indian languages, such as Hindi, dharma can also mean simply "religion." Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism are called Hindu Dharma, Buddha-Dharma, Jain-Dharma and Sikh dharma, respectively. Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...


In scripture translations dharma is often best left untranslated, as it has acquired a lively life of its own in English that is more expressive than any simplistic translation. Common translations and glosses include "right way of living," Divine Law, Path of Righteousness, order, faith, "natural harmony," rule, fundamental teachings, and duty. Dharma may be employed to render the rules of the entwining operation and relationship of bodymind and Universe, microcosm and macrocosm; the binding metaphysical system, laws of reciprocity and comportment in, and of, an ethical and energetic complex. Bodymind is a compound conjunction of body and mind and may be used differently in different traditions, disciplines and knowledges. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Behavior (disambiguation). ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ...


In Hinduism

Rene Guenon, father of the 20th century school of perennial philosophy, said: René Guénon (aka Sheikh Abd Al Wahid Yahya) (1886-1951) was a French-born author, philosopher, and social critic of the early 20th century. ... The Perennial Philosophy (Latin philosophia perennis) is the idea that a universal set of truths common to all people and cultures exists. ...

Dharma is, so to speak, the essential nature of a being, comprising the sum of its particular qualities or characteristics, and determining, by virtue of the tendencies or dispositions it implies, the manner in which this being will conduct itself, either in a general way or in relation to each particular circumstance. The same idea may be applied, not only to a single being, but also to an organized collectivity, to a species, to all the beings included in a cosmic cycle or state of existence, or even to the whole order of the Universe; it then, at one level or another, signifies conformity with the essential nature of beings… (from Guenon's "Introduction to the Study of Hindu Doctrines").

Part of a series on
Hinduism Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...

Aum

History · Deities
Denominations
Literature Image File history File links Om. ... Hinduism has prehistoric roots, including suspected survivals of traditions of the Bronze Age and right through to when yamum got down and funky. ... Within Hinduism a large number of personalities, or forms, are worshipped as murtis. ... Hinduism encompasses many movements and schools fairly organized within Hindu denominations. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ...

Beliefs and practices

Dharma · Artha · Kama
Moksha · Karma · Samsara
Yoga · Bhakti · Maya · Puja
Mandir Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Artha is a Sanskrit term referring to the idea of material prosperity. ... Kāma (Skt. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... Karma is a concept in Hinduism, based on the Vedas and Upanishads, which explains causality through a system where beneficial events are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful events from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a persons reincarnated lives. ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yoga, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... Bhakti (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Maya (illusion) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ... The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with colourful icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ...

Scriptures

Vedas · Upanishads
Ramayana · Mahabharata
Bhagavad Gita · Purana
others Template:Hindu scriptures - Vedic Scriptures Hindu scripture, which is known as Shastra is predominantly written in Sanskrit. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... The following is a bibliography of Hindu scriptures and texts. ...

Related topics

Hinduism by country
Gurus and saints
Reforms · Ayurveda
Calendar · Criticism
Festivals · Glossary
Jyotisha Hinduism - Percentage by country The percentage of Hindu population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004. ... These are some of the most noteworthy Gurus and Saints of Hinduism (in alphabetical order): A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Adi Shankara Akhandanand Mata Amritanandamayi Sri Aurobindo Baba Lokenath Brahmachari Bhakti Tirtha Swami Bhakti Vaibhava Puri Maharaj Bhagawan Nityananda Bhagwan Swaminarayan Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Chinmayananda Sri Chinmoy Dharmsamrat Paramhans Swami Madhavananda... Hinduism is going through a phase of regeneration and reform through the vehicle of several contemporary movements, collectively termed as Hindu reform movements. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Glossary of terms in Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other...

Hindu swastika Image File history File links HinduSwastika. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

Development

The idea of dharma as appropriate action or righteousness becomes possible when the concept of a universal order is reached within early vedic culture. In the Rig veda the belief (or observation) that a natural justice and harmony pervades the natural world becomes manifest in the concept of rta. Rta is both 'nature's way' and the order implicit in nature. Thus rta bears a resemblance to the ancient Chinese concept of tao and the Heraclitan or stoic conception of the logos. RTA is a TLA that could mean: Chicagos Regional Transportation Authority (AAR reporting mark RTA) Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority Road Traffic Accident, see car accident Roads and Traffic Authority, in New South Wales, Australia Renal Tubular Acidosis Riverside Transit Agency, in Riverside County, California Rewriting Techniques and Applications... This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ...


This power that lay behind the marvel of nature keeping everything in balance becomes a natural forerunner or precursor to the idea of dharma as one can see in this early Vedic prayer, preempting the liturgical strains of classical Hindu mantras involving dharma: This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ...

"O Indra, lead us on the path of Rta, on the right path over all evils." (RV 10.133.6)

Thus we see the logical progression of an early 'course of things' into an all-encompassing moral order, a path and way of righteousness, a universal harmony, in the Vedic conception of Rta. (1) The tenth Mandala of the Rigveda has 191 hymns, to Agni and other gods. ...


An early and insightful demonstration of the continuity of thought from rta to dharma is a brief but "pregnant definition" ((3) of dharma given in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, a part of the Veda. Founded upon the Hindu ideas of, as R. E. Hume put it, "intelligent monism," with Brahman as the monad, the Upanishads saw dharma as the universal principle of law, order, harmony, all in all truth, that sprang first from Brahman. It acts as the regulatory moral principle of the Universe. It is sat, truth, a major tenet of Hinduism. This hearkens back to the conception of the Rig Veda that "Ekam Sat," (Truth Is One), of the idea that Brahman is "Sacchidananda" (Truth-Consciousness-Bliss). Dharma has imbibed the rarefied and sublime principles of Truth, and as such is the central guiding principle in the Dharmic Traditions' conception of existence. Dharma is not just law, or harmony, it is pure Reality. In the Brihadaranyaka's own words: The Upanishad is believed to be one of the older, primary (mukhya) Upanishads. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Brahman (nominative ) is a concept of Hinduism. ... Look up monad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Satchitananda is a Hindu term literally meaning truth (sat), consciousness (chit), and bliss (ananda). ... Dharmic tradition (Dharmic religion) refers to any religion, religious philosophy, or tradition that has a notion of dharma: Indian religions Buddhism Hinduism Jainism Sikhism Indian philosophy Eastern religions Far Eastern religions Abrahamic religions Category: ...

" Verily, that which is Dharma is truth.
Therefore they say of a man who speaks truth, 'He speaks the Dharma,'
or of a man who speaks the Dharma, 'He speaks the Truth.'
Verily, both these things are the same."
(Brh. Upanishad, 1.4.14) (2)

Sage Kanada, founder of the Vaisheshika system of philosophy, has given this definition of Dharma, in his Vaisheshika Sutras: "Yato-bhyudayanihsreyasa-siddhih sa dharmah", that which leads to the attainment of prosperity (in this life) and eternal bliss (beyond life) is Dharma. Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... Vaisheshika Sutra is by Kanada and it describes an atomic approach to matter. ...


In Mahabharata, Krishna defines Dharma as: "Dhaaranaad dharma ity aahur dharmena vidhrtaah prajaah, Yat syaad dhaarana sanyuktam sa dharma iti nishchayah", Dharma upholds both this-worldly and the other-worldly affairs (Mbh 12.110.11).


Dharma as a Purushartha

In moving through the four stages of life, viz. Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vaanprastha , Sanyaasa, a person also seeks to fulfill the four essentials (purushaartha) of Dharma, Artha (worldly gain), Kama (sensual pleasures), and Moksha (liberation from reincarnation or rebirth). Moksha, although the ultimate goal, is emphasized more in the last two stages of life, while Artha and Kama are primary only during Grihasthaashram. Dharma, however is essential in all four stages. The Ashram system of ancient India was an age-based social system that defined the roles and responsibilities of the people. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brʌmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... Pronunciation Gri as the Gru in Gruel Has as the Hus in Husk tha as in thaw Word Root This is a Sanskrit word. ... A vanaprastha (from Sanskrit vana, forest, and prus, dwelling) is a person who is living in the forest as a hermit after partially giving up material desires. ... Samnyasa (IAST , also spelled , Sannyasa) symbolizes the conception of the mystic life in Hinduism where a person is now integrated into the spiritual world after wholly giving up material life. ... Artha is a Sanskrit term referring to the idea of material prosperity. ... Kama may refer to several things Kama, a Hindu god, the God of Love, son of Lakshmi. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept. ...


Kane's view

According to Dr.Pandurang Vaman Kane, the word "Dharma" acquired a sense of "the privileges, duties and obligations of a man, his standard of conduct as a member of the Aryan community, as a member of the caste and as a person in a particular state of life." Dr. Pandurang Vaman Kane (1880-1972) was a famous Indologist and Sanskrit scholar. ...


The God Dharma

Dharma is also the name of a Deva in charge of Dharma. He is born from the right breast of Brahma, is married to ten daughters of Daksha and fathers Shama, Kama and Harahsa. He is also the father of the celebrated Rishis Hari, Krishna, Nara-Narayana. In Hinduism, Daksha, the skilled one, is an ancient creator god, one of the Prajapatis, the Rishis and the Adityas, and a son of Aditi and Brahma. ... Kama may refer to several things Kama, a Hindu god, the God of Love, son of Lakshmi. ... Nara-Narayana (Sanskrit: नर-नारायण; nara-nārāyaṇa) is broken down where Nara means human and Narayana means the Supreme Divinity, or Vishnu. ...


In the Epic Mahabharata,he is incarnate as Vidura.[4] Also, Dharma is invoked by Kunti and she begets her eldest son Yudhisthira from him. As such Yudhisthira is known as Dharmaputra. There is also an assimilation of God Dharma and Yama, the God of the Dead in the Mahabharata.[5] For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Vidura (Sanskrit: विदुर, vidūra) was a son of a maid-servant who served the Queens of Hastinapura, Queen Ambika and Ambalika. ... In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ... In the great Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhisthira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti, king of Hastinapura and Indraprastha, and World Emperor. ...


In technical literature

In technical literature, e.g., in Sanskrit grammar, dharma also means "property" and dharmin means "property-bearer".In a Sanskrit sentence like shabdo 'nityaḥ , "sound is impermanent", "sound" is the bearer of the property "impermanence". Likewise, in the sentence iha ghataḥ, "here, there is a pot", "here" is the bearer of the property "pot-existence" - this just goes to show that the categories property and property-bearer are closer to those of a logical predicate and its subject-term, and not to a grammatical predicate and subject. Sanskrit grammatical tradition (, one of the six Vedanga disciplines) begins in late Vedic India, and culminates in the AṣṭādhyāyÄ« of Pāṇini (ca. ... Shabd or Shabda literally means “sound” or “word” in Sanskrit. ...


In Buddhism

Main article: Dharma (Buddhism)

Part of a series on
Buddhism
Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life. ...



Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

Timeline· Buddhist councils
563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // Main article: First Buddhist council Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the nirvana of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by the monk Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Buddhist Precepts
Nirvana · Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad, Mongolian qutuɣtan-u naiman gesigün-ü mör) is, in... Śīla (Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics. ... Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE. The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ...

Key Concepts
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology
Samsara · Rebirth · Dharma
Dependent Origination · Karma
According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: ) or Paticcasamuppāda, Pali: ; Tibetan: ; Chinese: ) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Practices and Attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramitas · Meditation · Laity
Bodhi (Pali and Sanskrit. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā or PāramÄ« (Sanskrit and Pāli respectively): Perfection or Transcendent. In Buddhism & Jainism, the Paramitas refer to the perfection or culmination of certain practices. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Countries
Buddhism - Percentage by country The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ...

Bhutan · Cambodia · China
India · Indonesia · Japan
Korea · Laos · Malaysia
Mongolia · Myanmar · Nepal
Singapore · Sri Lanka
Thailand · Tibet · Vietnam
Western countries The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... Buddhism in Myanmar is predominantly of the Theravada tradition or the southern school. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Branches

Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna
Early and Pre-sectarian Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being. ...

Texts
Chinese Song Period Maha-prajna-paramita Sutra Page The texts can be categorized in a number of ways, but the most fundamental division is that between canonical and non-canonical texts. ...

Pali Canon · Mahayana Sutras
Tibetan Canon Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Mahayana Sutras Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of topics
Portal: Buddhism
The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel...

Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

For many Buddhists, the Dharma most often means the body of teachings expounded by the Buddha. The word is also used in Buddhist phenomenology as a term roughly equivalent to phenomenon, a basic unit of existence and/or experience. Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ...


In East Asia, the translation for Dharma is , pronounced in Mandarin, beop in Korean, in Japanese, and pháp in Vietnamese. However, the term Dharma can also be transliterated from its original form as well.


Buddha's teachings

For practicing Buddhists, references to "dharma" or dhamma in the singular, particularly as "the" Dharma, is used to mean the teachings of the Buddha, commonly known throughout the east as Buddha-Dharma. This latter signification has nothing to do with the personality of the spiritual teacher Siddhartha Gautama but rather signifies the importance of the attitude of bodymind that enables an adept or practitioner to re-harmonise their personal nature with the underlying principle (Dharma) behind natural phenomena leading towards the undoing of all egoistic falsehood constituted by the aggregates and ultimately release in nirvana - generically referred to in Indian religions as liberation (moksha). Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... Bodymind is a compound conjunction of body and mind and may be used differently in different traditions, disciplines and knowledges. ... Skanda is a name of a deity that is popular amongst practicing Hindus and Buddhists Skanda is a Hindu deity also known as Kartikeya and Murugan. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ...


The status of the Dharma is regarded variably by different traditions. Some regard it as an ultimate and transcendent truth utterly beyond worldly things, somewhat like the Christian logos. Others, who regard the Buddha as simply an enlightened human being, see the Dharma as the 84,000 different teachings that the Buddha gave to various types of people based on their propensity and capacity. This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ...


"Dharma" usually refers not only to the sayings of the Buddha but also to the later traditions of interpretation and addition that the various schools of Buddhism have developed to help explain and expand upon the Buddha's teachings. For others still, they see the dharma as referring to the "truth" or ultimate reality or "the way things are" (Tib. Cho). There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ...


The Dharma is one of the Three Jewels of Buddhism of which practitioners of Buddhism seek refuge in (what one relies on for his/her lasting happiness). The three jewels of Buddhism are the Buddha (mind's perfection of enlightenment), the Dharma (teachings and methods), and the Sangha (awakened beings who provide guidance and support). Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE. The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ... Bodhi (Pali and Sanskrit. ... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ...


Qualities of Buddha Dharma

The Teaching of the Buddha also has six supreme qualities:

  1. (Svakkhato) The Dharma is not a speculative philosophy, but is the Universal Law found through enlightenment and is preached precisely. Therefore it is Excellent in the beginning (Sīla — Moral principles), Excellent in the middle (Samadhi — Concentration) and Excellent in the end (Pańña — Wisdom),
  2. (Samditthiko) The Dharma can be tested by practice and therefore he who follows it will see the result by himself through his own experience.
  3. (Akāliko) The Dharma is able to bestow timeless and immediate results here and now, for which there is no need to wait until the future or next existence.
  4. (Ehipassiko) The Dharma welcomes all beings to put it to the test and come and see for themselves.
  5. (Opāneyiko) The Dharma is capable of being entered upon and therefore it is worthy to be followed as a part of one's life.
  6. (Paccattam veditabbo viññūnhi) The Dharma can be perfectly realized only by the noble disciples (Ariyas) who have matured and enlightened enough in supreme wisdom.

Knowing these attributes, Buddhists believe that they will attain the greatest peace and happiness through the practice of the Dharma. Each person is therefore fully responsible for himself to put it in the real practice.


Here the Buddha is compared to an experienced and skilful doctor, and the Dharma to proper medicine. However efficient the doctor or wonderful the medicine may be, the patients cannot be cured unless they take the medicine properly. So the practice of the Dharma is the only way to attain the final deliverance of Nibbāna.


These teachings ranged from understanding karma (cause and effect) and developing good impressions in one's mind, to how to reach full enlightenment by recognizing the nature of mind. For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


Dharmas in Buddhist phenomenology

Other uses include dharma, normally spelled with a small "d" (to differentiate), which refers to a phenomenon or constituent factor of human experience. This was gradually expanded into a classification of constituents of the entire material and mental world. Rejecting the substantial existence of permanent entities which are qualified by possibly changing qualities, Buddhist Abhidharma philosophy, which enumerated seventy-five dharmas, came to propound that these "constituent factors" are the only type of entity that truly exists. This notion is of particular importance for the analysis of human experience: Rather than assuming that mental states inhere in a cognizing subject, or a soul-substance, Buddhist philosophers largely propose that mental states alone exist as "momentary elements of consciousness" and that a subjective perceiver is assumed. The abhidhamma is the name of one of the three pitakas, or baskets of tradition, into which the Tipitaka (Pali; Sanskrit: Tripitaka), the canon of early Buddhism, is divided. ...


One of the central tenets of Buddhism, is the denial of a separate permanent "I", and is outlined in the three marks of existence. The three signs: According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ...

  1. Dukkha - Suffering (Pali: Dukkha),
  2. Anitya - Change/Impermanence (Pali: Anicca),
  3. Anatman - No-I (Pali: Annatta).

At the heart of Buddhism, is the denial of an "I" (and hence the delusion) as a separate self-existing entity. Dukkha (Pāli दुक्ख ; according to grammatical tradition from Sanskrit uneasy, but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of unsteady, disquieted) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress... Impermanence (Sanskrit: anitya; Pali anicca; Tibetan: mi rtag pa; Chinese: 無常, wúcháng; Japanese: mujō) is one of the essential doctrines of Buddhism. ... The Buddhist doctrine of Anatta (Pāli) or Anātman (Sanskrit) specifies the absence of a permanent and unchanging self or soul (ātman). ...


Later, Buddhist philosophers like Nāgārjuna would question whether the dharmas (momentary elements of consciousness) truly have a separate existence of their own. (ie Do they exist apart from anything else?) Rejecting any inherent reality to the dharmas, he asked (rhetorically): For other uses, see Nagarjuna (disambiguation). ...

śūnyeṣu sarvadharmeṣu kim anantaṁ kimantavat
kim anantam antavac ca nānantaṁ nāntavacca kiṁ
kiṁ tad eva kim anyat kiṁ śāśvataṁ kim aśāśvataṁ
aśāśvataṁ śāśvataṁ ca kiṁ vā nobhayam apyataḥ 'tha
sarvopalambhpaśamaḥ prapañcopaśamaḥ śivaḥ
na kva cit kasyacit kaścid dharmo buddhena deśitaḥ|

When all dharmas are empty, what is endless? What has an end?
What is endless and with an end? What is not endless and not with an end?
What is it? What is other? What is permanent? What is impermanent?
What is impermanent and permanent? What is neither?

Auspicious is the pacification of phenomenal metastasis, the pacification of all apprehending;
There is no dharma whatsoever taught by the Buddha to whomever, whenever, wherever. --Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, nirvṇānaparīkṣā, 25:22-24

Dharma as righteousness

According to S. N. Goenka, teacher of Vipassana Meditation, the original meaning of dhamma is "dhareti ti dhamma", or "that which is contained". Dharma in the Buddhist scriptures has a variety of meanings, including "phenomenon" and "nature" or "characteristic". Dharma also means 'mental contents' and is paired with citta, which means heart/mind. The pairing is paralleled with the pairing of kaya (body) and vedana (feelings or sensations, that which arise within the body but experienced through the mind), in major sutras such as the Mahasatipatthana sutra. Dharma is also used to refer to the teachings of the Buddha, not in the context of the words of one man, even an enlightened man, but as a reflection of natural law which was re-discovered by this man and shared with the world. A person who lives their life with an understanding of this natural law, is a "dhammic" person, which is often translated as "righteous". S.N. Goenka Sri Satya Narayan Goenka (born 1924) is a leading lay teacher of Vipassana meditation and a student of Sayagyi U Ba Khin. ... Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaśyanā (विपश्यना) in (Sanskrit) means insight and is often referred to by Buddhists and non-Buddhists alike as simply insight meditation. While it is a type of Buddhist meditation as taught by the Buddha, it is essentially non-sectarian in character and has universal application. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ...


Dharma in Ch'an

Dharma is employed in Ch'an in a specific context in relation to transmission of authentic doctrine, understanding and bodhi; recognized in Dharma transmission. Chán is a major school of Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Dharma transmission (Chinese: 傳法, ChuánfÇŽ or 印可, InkÄ›, Korean and Japanese: Inka) is the formal confirmation by a master of Zen or Chan Buddhism of a students awakening. ...


In Sikhism

Main article: Sikhism
Part of a series on
Sikhism

Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Image File history File links Khanda1. ...

  • Ik Onkar meaning One God

History of Sikhism
Sikh beliefs
Sikh
Simple Ek Onkar Devanagari Aum Stylised Ek Onkar Ik Onkar (also , , , Ek Omkar, Ik Onkar and other variants) means one God and is a central tenet of Sikh religious philosophy. ... The history of Sikhism is closely associated with the history of Punjab, the socio-political situation in medieval India, and the social structures and philosophies of Hinduism and Islam. ... // Ek Onkar There is only one God who has infinite qualities and names. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...

The Sikh Gurus
Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ...

Sikh Bhagats
Sikh Bhagats refers to the Saints and holy men of various faiths whose teachings are included in the Sikh holy book the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. ...

Other Important People
This article list historic personalites who are important to the Sikh religion: Bhai Gurdas (1551-1637) is one of the most eminent literary personalities in the history of the Sikh religion. ...

Philosophy
Beliefs and principles
Underlying values
Prohibitions
Technique and methods
Other observations · Bani
The Sikh religious philosophy is covered in great detail in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy text. ... // There is only one God who has infinite qualities and names. ... The Sikhs must believe in the following values: Equality: All humans are equal before God – No discrimination is allowed on the basis of caste, race, sex, creed, origin, color, education, status, wealth, etc. ... There are a number of religious prohibitions in Sikhism and by the SGPC: Cutting Hair: Cutting hair is strictly forbidden in Sikhism. ... Naam: Or Naam Japo. ... The Golden Temple is the most important sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism comes from the word Sikh, which means a strong and able disciple. ... Bani is the term used by Sikhs to refer to various sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books. ...

Sikh practices · List
The practice of the Sikh way of life has been laid out by the Gurus in simple, precise and practical manner. ...

Scripture
Guru Granth Sahib
Adi Granth · Dasam Granth
The principal Sikh scripture is the Adi Granth (First Scripture), more commonly called the Guru Granth Sahib. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ... The Dasam Granth (Punjabi: , ) is a scripture of Sikhism, containing texts composed by 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh and his assembly of scholars. ...

Categories
Practices · History
Family of the Sikh Gurus
Gurdwara
Places · Politics

Articles on Sikhism
Portal: Sikhism
This list is of topics related to Sikhs and Sikhism. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

For Sikhs, the word "Dharma" means the "path of righteousness". What is the "righteous path"? That is the question that the Sikh scriptures attempt to answer. The main holy scriptures of the Sikhs is called the Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS.) It is considered to be more than a holy book of the Sikhs. The Sikhs treat this Granth (holy book) as a living Guru. The holy text spans 1430 pages and contains the actual words spoken by the Sikh Gurus and various other Saints from other religions including Hinduism and Islam. Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ... Saints redirects here. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Sikh Dharma is a distinct religion revealed through the teachings of ten Gurus who are accepted by the followers as if they were spiritually the same. The Gurus are considered "the divine light" and they conveyed Gurbani (the word of God) in the form of the Guru Granth Sahib to the world. In this faith, God is described as both Nirgun (transcendent) and Sargun (immanent). Further, God pervades in His creation and is omnipresent, but cannot be incarnate. The principal Sikh belief lays stress on one's actions and deeds rather than people's religious labels, rituals or outward appearance or signs. The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Nirguna Brahman, stresses the Ultimate Truth which exists and pervades through the Universe. ... Saguna Brahman (lit. ...


Background

The primary object of a Sikh's life is to seek union with God and hence, liberation from the cycle of births and deaths (cycle of re-incarnation) which is dictated by a person's thought, deeds and actions in this life. Liberation can be achieved through meditating on God, truthful living and sharing ones wealth in the context of a normal family life and through divine grace. Amrit Pahul – Sikh baptism for both men and women – was instituted in 1699 by Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru. All Sikhs, on taking Amrit, are enjoined to lead a disciplined life by following a code of ethics leading to a "Saint-Soldier" way of life. In 1708, Guru Gobind Singh vested spiritual authority in the Guru Granth Sahib (the Sikh Scriptures) as the eternal Guru and hence Sikh Dharma acknowledges the end of human Guruship. At the same time, the temporal authority was vested in the Khalsa Panth (a community of Sikhs who have taken Amrit). Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ) (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708) was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ... This article is about the ancient city of Amrit. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ...


Other important aspects of a Sikh's life include Sewa (dedication to the service of God's creation) where the emphasis is often upon manual work, undertaking of goodwill towards other faiths and their followers, to defend for justice and assistance of the oppressed. In contrast to many other faiths, Sikhs believe that when all other means to achieve justice are exhausted, then it is just to wield the sword. SEWA is the Self-Employed Womens Association of India, a trade union founded in 1972 after a split in the Textile Labour Association. ...


Congregational worship includes the following:

  1. Paath - Reading of the Holy scriptures
  2. Kirtan - Singing of Shabads (hymns).
  3. Langar - A communal vegetarian meal also call free kitchen is an important feature of the Sikh way of life, and food is served to everyone at the end of a Sikh service.
  4. Community Centre - Today, in most countries, a Gurdwara, the Sikh place of worship, also serves as a centre to promote Sikh culture and such other needs of the community.
  5. Ardas - Sikhs conclude their prayers by doing the Ardas and invoking God's blessings on everyone – not just on Sikhs.

PAATH or PATH, from the Sanskrit patha which means reading or recitation, is, in the religious context, reading or recitation of the holy texts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shabad: Word Shabad is the term used by Sikhs to refer to a hymn or paragraph or sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books. ... For the Sufi practice of Langar, see Langar (Sufism). ... The Harimandir Sahib. ... Arda (Bulgarian: Арда, Greek: Αρδας Ardas) is a river whose source lies in the Bulgarian Rhodope Mountains near the town of Smolyan, flowing 290 kilometres eastward past Kardzhali and Ivaylovgrad and through Greece in the northern portion of the Evros prefecture including Kastanies. ...

Scriptures and Dharma

The Guru Granth Sahib lays down the foundation of this "righteous path" and various salient points are found.

  1. Sikh is bound by Dharma: The followers of this faith are bound by Dharma as advocated in their holy scriptures. The committed Sikh is encouraged to follow this path at all times. The first recitation of the Guru Granth Sahib called the Japji Sahib says the following: "The path of the faithful shall never be blocked. The faithful shall depart with honor and fame. The faithful do not follow empty religious rituals. The faithful are firmly bound to the Dharma. Such is the Name of the Immaculate Lord. Only one who has faith comes to know such a state of mind." (14) (Guru Granth Sahib Japji page 3.)
  2. Deeds are recorded: The persons thoughts and deeds are said to be recorded and the faithful is warned that these will be read out in the presence of the "Lord of Dharma". Two scribes called "Chitr and Gupt" 1 , the angels of the conscious and the subconscious mind are busy writing ones thought and deeds. On death the soul of the person he brought before "Lord of Dharma" are these account are read out as recoded in this quote: "Day and night are the two nurses, in whose lap all the world is at play. Good deeds and bad deeds - the record is read out in the Presence of the Lord of Dharma. According to their own actions, some are drawn closer, and some are driven farther away." (Guru Granth Sahib Japji page 8, Salok.) 2
  3. Dharma administered by God: The scriptures further outline how the "Judge of Dharma" administers justice depending on the way that one has conducted life on Earth. The soul is either "cleared" or "subject to God's command" depending on the review of the person history. The holy text says: "The Righteous Judge of Dharma, by the Hukam of God's Command, sits and administers True Justice". (Guru Granth Sahib page 38) (4) and those followers who "chant the name of the Lord" are cleared as outlined thus: "Her account is cleared by the Righteous Judge of Dharma, when she chants the Name of the Lord, Har, Har." (Guru Granth Sahib page 78) 5

The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Japji Sahib consists of the Mool Mantra, a set of 38 hymns and a final Salok which appear at the very beginning of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Holy Book of the Sikhs. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Japji Sahib consists of the Mool Mantra, a set of 38 hymns and a final Salok which appear at the very beginning of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Holy Book of the Sikhs. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Japji Sahib consists of the Mool Mantra, a set of 38 hymns and a final Salok which appear at the very beginning of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Holy Book of the Sikhs. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ...

Karma and Dharma

Karma and Dharma are intrinsically linked in the Sikh faith. Karma is the baggage of one's thoughts, deeds and action in one's present and past lives. When one's mind is not fixed on the Almighty, one is governed by the Five Evils – Lust, Rage (anger), Ego, Attachment and Greed. The Sikh text tell the faithful that these "Five Evils" have the effect of restricting the person's spiritual development and the person falls into the trap of Maya (worldly affairs) which then begins to control the person's daily life and routine. Yogi Harbhanjan Singh Khalsa said the following regarding the influence of the "five evils" - "The folly of man is that all he seeks is self-praise for all that he has no right over – he grooms himself and compliments himself over how he looks like when he sees his reflection in the mirror; expects his wife and children to regard him as good;…" For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... FIVE EVILS or five thieves or pancadokh or panj vikar as they are referred to in Sikh Scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib, are, according to Sikhism, the five major weaknesses of the human personality at variance with its spiritual essence. ... Maya (illusion) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


In Jainism

Part of a series on
Jainism


Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Main Jain prayer
Navakar Mantra Navakar Mantra, also called the Namokar Mantra or the Namaskar Mantra, is the most important prayer used in Jainism. ...

Timeline Timeline of Jainism // ca. ...

Jain great vows
Ahimsa · Asteya
Brahmacharya · Satya
Nirvana · Aparigraha
Anekantavada The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa. ... Asteya is a Sanskrit word meaning avoidance of stealing or non-stealing. In Jainism, it is one of the five vows that all sravakas and shravikas as well as sadhus and sadhvis must take. ... Brahmacharya (pronounced /brʌmatʃərɪə/) is a Sanskrit word. ... Satya is a true badman. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... Aparigraha is the Jain concept of non-possessiveness. ... Anekantavada is a basic principle of Jainism dealing with the fact that reality may be percieved diferently from different points of views. ...

Key concepts
Kevala Jñāna · Cosmology
Samsara · Karma
Dharma · Moksha · Reincarnation
Swadhyay
( Sanskrit : केवलज्ञान ) in Jainism, also known as “absolute knowledge” , “Enlightement” and “Omniscience” is the highest form of transcendental knowledge that a soul can attain. ... According to Jain beliefs, the universe was never created, nor will it ever cease to exist. ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ... Karmic Theory The Jain religion places great emphasis on the theory of Karma. ... Jain texts assign a wide range of meaning to the word Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Prakrit: धम्म). It is often translated as “religion” and as such, Jainism is called as Jain Dharma by its adherents. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept. ... In Hinduism, Svadhyaya is the incorporation of the message of the Bhagavad Gita in ones life. ...

Major figures
The 24 Tirthankaras
Lord Rishabh to Mahavira
Acharyas · Ganadhars
Siddhasen Divakar · Haribhadra
The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... In Jainism, Lord Rishabh (also transliterated as Rishabanath and as Rushabh) was the first Tirthankar of Jainism. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... For the pen name of D. Murdock, see Acharya S. An acharya is an important religious teacher. ... Ganadhar((गणधर) means a group leader. ... Siddhasen Diwakar(Fifth century B.C.)(आचार्य सिद्दसैन दिवाकर) was highly intelligent Jain acharya of his time. ... Haribhadra Suri was an 8th Century Jainist author. ...

Practices and attainment
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation

Jainism by region
India · Western

Sects of Jainism
Svetambara · Digambara
Terapanthi · Early schools
Sthanakvasi · Bisapantha
Deravasi
The Shvetambara (White-Clad) are a Jainist sect. ... The Digambara (Sky-Clad) are a Jainist sect, these are the followers of Bhadrabahu. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Terapanth. ... Sthanakvasi is a sect of Jainism that believes that God is nirakar (i. ... Bisapantha is sub-sect of the Digambar sect of Jainism. ... Deravasi is a term for a sect of Jainism which includes all members of the Shvetambar sect who are not members of the Sthanakvasi division of the sect. ...

Texts
Kalpasutra
Agama (text) · Tattvartha Sutra
Sanmatti Prakaran
Kalpasutra is a Jain ancient text book containing the biography of the last two Jain Tirthankars, Parshvanath and Mahavira. ... Agama (Sanskrit:आगम) literally means that which has come down (i. ... Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra or Moksh-Shastra) is a Jaina text written by Acharya Umasvati or Umasvami. ...

List of topics
Portal: Jainism
Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Acaranga Sutra Adipurana Agama (text) Antakrddaasah Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh Arya Asteya Category: ...

This box: view  talk  edit
Main article: Dharma (Jainism)

Dharma is natural. Jain Acharya Samantabhadra writes: "Vatthu sahavo dhammo" the dharma is the nature of an object. It is the nature of the soul to be free, thus for the soul, the dharma ia paralaukika, beyond worldly. However the nature of the body is to seek self-preservation and be engaged in pleasures. Jain texts assign a wide range of meaning to the word Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Prakrit: धम्म). It is often translated as “religion” and as such, Jainism is called as Jain Dharma by its adherents. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... For the pen name of D. Murdock, see Acharya S. An acharya is an important religious teacher. ... Samantabhadra (also Viśvabhadra, 普賢 Chinese: Pǔxián; Japanese: Fugen) is the Lord of the Truth (理) in Buddhism, who represents the practice and meditation of all Buddhas. ...


Thus there are two dharmas.


The two Dharmas

Acharya Haribhadra (approx. 6-7th cent.) discusses dharma in Dharma-Bindu. he writes (Translation by Y. Malaiya): Haribhadra Suri was an 8th Century Jainist author. ...


soayam-anuṣṭhātṛ-bhedāt dvi-vidho
gṛhastha-dharmo yati-dharmaś ca |


Because of the difference in practice, dharma is of two kinds, for the householders and for the monks.


tatra gṛhastha-dharmo api dvi-vidhaḥ
sāmanyato viśeṣataś ca |


Of the householder's dharma, there are two kinds,"ordinary" and "special"


tatra sāmanayato gṛhastha-dharmaḥ kula-krama-agatam-anindyaṃ
vibhavady-apekshayā nyāto anuṣṭhānaṃ |


The ordinary dharma of the householder should be carried out according to tradition, such that it is not objectionable, according to ones abilities such as wealth, in accordance with nyaya (everyone treated fairly and according to laws).


Somadeva suri (10th c.) terms the "ordinary" and "special" dharmas laukika ("worldly") and pralaukika ("extra-worldly") respectively: Somadeva, 11th century CE, from Kashmir was the author of a famous compendium of Indian legends, fairy tales and folk tales - the Kathasaritsagara. ...


dvau hi dharmau gṛhasthāṇam, laukikaḥ, pāralaukikaḥ |
lokāśrayo bhavedādyah, parah syād-āgama-āśrayaḥ ||


A householder follows both laukika and the paralaukika dharmas at the same time.


References in pop culture

TV

Title card from a Dharma Initiative orientation film featured in the Lost episode Orientation The Dharma Initiative is a fictional research project featured in the American television series Lost. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... LOST redirects here. ... Jenna Elfman (born September 30, 1971, in Los Angeles, California, USA) is an American television and film actress. ... Dharma & Greg was an American television situation comedy broadcast between 1997 and 2002 on ABC. The premise of the show was a relationship between two characters regarded as cultural opposites. ... For the British TV show, see Hippies (TV series). ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yoga, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

Music

  • Donald Roeser, guitarist for Blue Öyster Cult listed his name on albums as "Buck Dharma."
  • Up Dharma Down, a Filipino band, whose curious name is from the idea that everything in existence is connected no matter how diverse they are.
  • FM (Canadian band), wrote a song called Dialing For Dharma, which can be found on the album Black Noise.
  • The song Darkside of Aquarius by Iron Maiden (band) frontman Bruce Dickinson is about the heralds of Apocalypse, and about the wheel of dharma, which will not stop unless "From the starlit sky on the silver sea a lonely silver surfer comes to push the wheel for me". In the lyrics this wheel is also called the "wheel of torment".

For the 18th-century agriculturist after whom the band was named, see Jethro Tull (agriculturist). ... This Was (1968) is the first album by the rock band Jethro Tull. ... The Isle of Wight Festival is a music festival which takes place annually on the Isle of Wight, England. ... Blue Öyster Cult is an American rock band formed in New York in 1967 and still active in 2008. ... Up Dharma Down is a Filipino band that won the In The Raw Award at the 2005 NU 107 Rock Awards, and as Best New Artist and Best Female Award at the 2006 NU 107 Rock Awards. ... FM is a Canadian progressive rock band. ... Iron Maiden are a British heavy metal band from east London. ... For the record producer in the Saturday Night Live skit, see More cowbell. ... The eight-spoked dharma wheel is a common symbol in Buddhist iconography, representing the collective teachings of Buddha, known as the dharma. ...

Literature

  • Dharma Punx: A memoir by Noah Levine

Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ... The Dharma Bums cover This is an article about the novel by Jack Kerouac. ... Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... Born on February, 1971 in Santa Cruz, CA. Author of Dharma Punx; A Memoir and Against the Stream (HarperCollins). ...

See also

This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... The Perennial Philosophy (Latin philosophia perennis) is the idea that a universal set of truths common to all people and cultures exists. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... RTA is a TLA that could mean: Chicagos Regional Transportation Authority (AAR reporting mark RTA) Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority Road Traffic Accident, see car accident Roads and Traffic Authority, in New South Wales, Australia Renal Tubular Acidosis Riverside Transit Agency, in Riverside County, California Rewriting Techniques and Applications... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... The Dhammapada (Pali, translates as Path of the Dharma. ... The Dharmacakra (Sanskrit) or Dhammacakka (Pāli), Tibetan , Chinese fălún 法轮, Wheel of Dharma is an auspicious Buddhist symbol representing a Buddhas teaching of the path to enlightenment. ... ... Dharma transmission (Chinese: 傳法, Chuánfǎ or 印可, Inkě, Korean and Japanese: Inka) is the formal confirmation by a master of Zen or Chan Buddhism of a students awakening. ... Dharma or spiritual tradition has two aspects: 1. ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Fard (Arabic: ) also farida (Arabic: ) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... For other uses, see Essence (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Maat (disambiguation). ... Spontaneous order is a term that describes the spontaneous emergence of order out of seeming chaos. ...

References

  1. ^ From the River of Heaven: Hindu and Vedic Knowledge for the Modern Age by David Frawley
  2. ^ Pagan Theology: paganism as a world religion by Michael York
  3. ^ List of religions.
  4. ^ The Mahābhārata: Book 11: The Book of the Venus Book 12: The Book of Peace, Part 1 By Johannes Adrianus Bernardus Buitenen, James L. Fitzgerald pg.124
  5. ^ The Mahābhārata: Book 11: The Book of the Women Book 12: The Book of Peace, Part 1 By Johannes Adrianus Bernardus Buitenen, James L. Fitzgerald pg.124

Further reading

  1. Murthy, K. Krishna. "Dharma - Its Etymology." The Tibet Journal, Vol. XXI, No. 1, Spring 1966, pp. 84-87.
  2. Radhakrishnan, S. (1923): "Indian Philosophy Vol.1" (2nd Edition). New Delhi: Oxford India Paperbacks (Oxford University Press).
  3. Hume, R.E.: (1921): "The Thirteen Principal Upanishads" (2nd Edition, Revised). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. Easwaran, E. (1987): "The Upanishads" (Seventh Printing). Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press.

Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Dharma
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dharma Trading Co. Homepage (346 words)
If you'd rather speak with a human, please call toll-free from anywhere in the U.S. or Canada 8am to 5pm PST
Copyright © 2007 Dharma Trading Co. All Rights Reserved.
If you need to return something, no problemo.
Dharma-shastra (1008 words)
Dharma-shastra is the "science of dharma" and is a set of texts which teach the eternal immutable dharma found in the Vedas.
As the basis for the legal system dharma is a system of natural laws with specific rules derived from an ideal, moral, and eternal order of the universe.
It is in the form of the dharma revealed by Brahma to Manu, the first man, and passed on through Bhrigu, one of the ten great sages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m