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Encyclopedia > Dextromethorphan
Dextromethorphan
Systematic (IUPAC) name
((+)-3-methoxy-17-methyl-(9α,13α,14α)-morphinan)
Identifiers
CAS number 125-71-3
ATC code R05DA09
PubChem 5360696
DrugBank APRD00655
Chemical data
Formula C18H25NO 
Mol. mass 271.4 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Physical data
Melt. point 111 °C (232 °F)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 11%[1]
Metabolism Hepatic (liver) enzymes: major CYP2D6, minor CYP3A4, and minor CYP3A5
Half life 1.4–3.9 hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

A(AU) C(US) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is one of the most important enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. ... Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) (EC 1. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Legal status

Pharmacy Only (S2)(AU) OTC(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons, abbreviated SUSDP, is a document used in the regulation of drugs and poisons in Australia. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Routes Oral

Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug found in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. Dextromethorphan has also found other uses in medicine, ranging from pain relief to psychological applications. Pure dextromethorphan occurs as a powder made up of white crystals, but it is generally administered via syrups, tablets, or lozenges manufactured under several different brand names and generic labels. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... A cough medicine is a drug used to treat coughing and related conditions. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Cough medicine often contains cough suppressants and expectorants. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up Generic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


When taken at doses higher than are medically recommended, dextromethorphan acts as a dissociative hallucinogenic drug. It is classified neurochemically as an NMDA receptor antagonist, producing effects similar to those of the controlled substances ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP),[2] which affords it a significant potential for abuse.[3] Dissociative drugs are a class of psychedelic drugs characterized by intense feelings of depersonalization, derealization, and analgesia. ... Hallucinogenic drug - drugs that can alter sensory perceptions. ... NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). ... Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic for use in human and veterinary medicine developed by Parke-Davis (1962). ... Phencyclidine (a contraction of the chemical name phenylcyclohexylpiperidine), abbreviated PCP, is a dissociative drug formerly used as an anesthetic agent, exhibiting hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects. ...

Contents

Chemistry

Dextromethorphan is the dextrorotatory enantiomer of the methyl ether of levorphanol, a narcotic analgesic. It is also a stereoisomer of levomethorphan, an opioid analgesic. It is named according to IUPAC rules as (+)-3-methoxy-17-methyl-9α,13α,14α-morphinan. As the pure free base, dextromethorphan occurs as an odorless, white to slightly yellow crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in chloroform and essentially insoluble in water. Commercially, dextromethorphan is commonly available as the monohydrated hydrobromide salt, although some newer extended-release formulations contain dextromethorphan bound to an ion exchange resin based on polystyrene sulfonic acid. Dextromethorphan's specific rotation in water is +27.6° (20°C, Sodium D-line). Dextrorotation is the property of rotating plane polarized light clockwise. ... In chemistry, enantiomers (from the Greek ἐνάντιος, opposite, and μέρος, part or portion) are stereoisomers that are nonsuperimposable complete mirror images of each other, much as ones left and right hands are the same but opposite. ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... Levorphanol is an opioid medication used to treat severe pain. ... Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. ... Levomethorphan is an optical isomer of dextromethorphan. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Morphinan is the base chemical structures of a subgroup of opioids. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Polystyrene sulfonate Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a type of polymer and ionomer based on polystyrene. ... The specific rotation of a chemical compound [α] is defined as the observed angle of optical rotation α when plane-polarized light is passed through a sample with a path length of 1 decimeter and a sample concentration of 1 gram per 1 millilitre. ...


Indications

The primary use of dextromethorphan is as a cough suppressant, for the temporary relief of cough caused by minor throat and bronchial irritation (as commonly accompanies the common cold), as well as other causes such as inhaled irritants.


Additionally, a combination of dextromethorphan and quinidine has been shown to alleviate symptoms of easy laughing and crying (pseudobulbar affect) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis.[4] Dextromethorphan is also being investigated as a possible treatment for neuropathic pain and pain associated with fibromyalgia.[5] Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent in the heart. ... Labile affect or Pseudobulbar affect refers to the pathological expression of laughter, crying, or smiling. ... Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, sometimes called Lou Gehrigs Disease, or Maladie de Charcot) is a progressive, usually fatal, neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons, the nerve cells in the central nervous system that control voluntary muscle movement. ... Neuropathy is a disease of the peripheral nervous system. ... Fibromyalgia (FM) is stated to be a disorder classified by the presence of chronic widespread pain and tactile allodynia. ...


Pharmacokinetics

At therapeutic doses, dextromethorphan acts centrally (meaning that it acts on the brain) as opposed to locally (on the respiratory tract). It elevates the threshold for coughing, without inhibiting ciliary activity. Dextromethorphan is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and converted into an active metabolite within 15 to 60 minutes of ingestion. The average dosage necessary for effective antitussive therapy is between 15 mg and 60 mg, depending on age. The duration of action after oral administration is approximately three to eight hours for dextromethorphan-hydrobromide, and ten to twelve hours for dextromethorphan-polistirex. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... cross-section of two cilia, showing 9+2 structure A cilium (plural cilia) is a fine projection from a eukaryotic cell that constantly beats in one direction. ... Gut redirects here. ...


Because administration of dextromethorphan can trigger a histamine release (an allergic reaction), its use in atopic children is very limited. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs cleanup. ... In medicine, the atopic syndrome is the clustering of eczema, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma in certain individuals. ...


Side-effects

Side-effects of dextromethorphan use can include:[6]

Can also cause increases in: A rash is a change in skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. ... An itch (Latin: pruritus) is a sensation felt on an area of skin that makes a person or animal want to scratch it. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Somnolence (or drowsiness, or hypersomnia) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping unusually long periods. ... Many different terms are often used to describe what is collectively known as dizziness. ... Excitation is the amount of energy (energy in a general sense, not energy as defined in physics) that Curtis has. ... Heaving redirects here. ... // Mydriasis is an excessive dilation of the pupil due to disease or drugs. ... Perspiration (also called sweating or sometimes transpiration) is the production and evaporation of a fluid, consisting primarily of water as well as a smaller amount of sodium chloride (the main constituent of table salt), that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... Urinary retention also known as ischuria is a lack of ability to urinate. ...

  • heart rate

Dextromethorphan can also cause other gastrointestinal disturbances. When injected directly into the blood stream, some studies suggest that dextromethorphan has the potential to cause Olney's Lesions.[7][8] In some rare documented cases, dextromethorphan has produced psychological dependence in people who abused it. However, it does not produce physical addiction, according to the WHO Committee on Drug Dependence. Heart rate is the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Olneys Lesions, also known as NMDA Receptor Antagonist Neurotoxicity (NAN), are a form of brain damage theorized to be caused by high doses of dissociative anaesthetics, particularly those referred to as noncompetitive NMDA-channel-blockers such as ketamine, phencyclidine, and dextromethorphan. ... This article is about the concept of addiction. ... WHO redirects here. ...


Drug interactions

Dextromethorphan should not be taken with either of the following:

CNS depressant drugs and substances, including alcohol, antihistamines, and some psychotropics, will have a cumulative CNS depressant effect if taken with dextromethorphan.[6] MAOI redirects here. ... SSRI redirects here; for other uses, see SSRI (disambiguation). ... See also sedative. ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ...


Contraindications

Because dextromethorphan can trigger a histamine release (allergic reaction), atopic children, who are especially susceptible to allergic reactions, should be administered dextromethorphan only if absolutely necessary, and only under the strict supervision of a health care professional.[6] In medicine, the atopic syndrome is the clustering of eczema, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma in certain individuals. ...


Clinical pharmacology

Following oral administration, dextromethorphan is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, where it enters the bloodstream and crosses the blood-brain barrier. The first-pass through the hepatic portal vein results in some of the drug being metabolized into an active metabolite of dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, the 3-hydroxy derivative of dextromethorphan. The therapeutic activity of dextromethorphan is believed to be caused by both the drug and this metabolite. Dextromethorphan is metabolized by various liver enzymes and subsequently undergoes O-demethylation (producing dextrorphan), N-demethylation, and partial conjugation with glucuronic acid and sulfate ions. Hours after dextromethorphan therapy, (in humans) the metabolites (+)-3-hydroxy-N-methylmorphinan, (+)-3-morphinan, and traces of the unchanged drug are detectable in the urine.[6] The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... Dextrorphan is a pharmacologically active metabolite of Dextromethorphan (DXM). ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ...


A major metabolic catalyst involved is the cytochrome P450 enzyme known as 2D6, or CYP2D6. A significant portion of the population has a functional deficiency in this enzyme and are known as poor CYP2D6 metabolizers. As CYP2D6 is a major metabolic pathway in the inactivation of dextromethorphan, the duration of action and effects of dextromethorphan can be increased by as much as three times in such poor metabolizers.[9] Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is one of the most important enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. ...


A large number of medications (including antidepressants) are potent inhibitors of CYP2D6. There exists, therefore, the potential of interactions between dextromethorphan and concomitant medications. Dextromethorphan crosses the blood-brain barrier, and the following pharmacological actions have been reported: Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is one of the most important enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ...

NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). ... The sigma-1 receptor is a transmembrane protein expressed in many different tissue types. ... Opioid receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors with opioids as ligands. ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are ionotropic receptors that form ion channels in cells plasma membranes. ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Brand names

Dextromethorphan is an active ingredient in many brand-name cough suppressant preparations, including:

  • Creomulsion
  • Delsym
  • Daro
  • Mucinex DM
  • Sucrets, Cough
  • Resilar
  • Robitussin
  • Triaminic
  • Tussal
  • Tussi12 D & DS
  • Tussidex
  • Vicks
  • Zicam Cough Plus D

Benylin This is a powerful cough mixture that has a chemical that stops the coughing reflex. ... W.K. Buckley Limited is a Canadian corporation founded in 1990, by W.K. Buckley, that manufactures medicines for health problems such as the common cold. ... Coricidin, Coricidin D (decongestant), or CoricidinHBP (for high blood pressure), is the name of a drug marketed by Schering-Plough that contains dextromethorphan (a cough suppressant) and chlorphenamine maleate (an antihistamine). ... Delsym is an American brand of over-the-counter cough medicine. ... Robitussin is a brand of cold and cough medicines produced by Wyeth Consumer Healthcare. ... 50g Vicks VapoRub. ...

History

Dextromethorphan was first patented under U.S. Patent 2,676,177 . The FDA approved dextromethorphan for over-the-counter sale as a cough suppressant in 1958. This filled the need for a cough suppressant lacking the sedative side-effects, stronger potential for abuse, and physically addictive properties of codeine phosphate, the most widely-used cough medication at the time (now prescription-only in the United States).[14] As with most cough suppressants, studies show that dextromethorphan's effectiveness is highly debatable,[15] especially in children.[16] The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... For the band, see Codeine (band). ... Cough medicine often contains cough suppressants and expectorants. ...


During the 1960s and 1970s, dextromethorphan became available in an over-the-counter tablet form by the brand name Romilar. In 1973, Romilar was taken off the shelves after a burst in sales due to frequent abuse, and was replaced by cough syrup in an attempt to cut down on abuse.[14] Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DXM for short) is an antitussive drug that is found in many over-the-counter cold remedies and cough syrups. ...


More recently (around 2000) gel capsule forms began reappearing in the form of Robitussin CoughGels as well as several generic forms of that preparation.


Recreational use

Main article: Non-medical use of dextromethorphan

Since their introduction, over-the-counter preparations containing dextromethorphan have been used in a manner inconsistent with their labeling, often as a recreational drug.[14] At doses higher than medically recommended, dextromethorphan is classified as a dissociative hallucinogenic drug, with visible effects that are similar to ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP). It has been suggested that Triple C be merged into this article or section. ... Over-the-counter substances, also abbreviated OTC, are drugs and other medical remedies that may be sold without a prescription and without a visit to a medical professional, in contrast to prescription only medicines (POM). ... A dissociative is a drug which reduces (or blocks) signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain, typically, but not necessarily, or limited to the physical senses. ... Hallucinogenic drugs or hallucinogens are drugs that can alter sensory perceptions, elicit alternate states of consciousness, or cause hallucinations. ... Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic for use in human and veterinary medicine developed by Parke-Davis (1962). ... Phencyclidine (a contraction of the chemical name phenylcyclohexylpiperidine), abbreviated PCP, is a dissociative drug formerly used as an anesthetic agent, exhibiting hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects. ...


References

  1. ^ Plasma profile and pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan after intravenous and oral administration. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
  2. ^ DEXTROMETHORPHAN (Street Names: DXM, CCC, Triple C, Skittles, Robo, Poor Man’s PCP)
  3. ^ Psychology Today's Diagnosis Dictionary: Hallucinogens
  4. ^ Brooks B, Thisted R, Appel S, Bradley W, Olney R, Berg J, Pope L, Smith R (2004). "Treatment of pseudobulbar affect in ALS with dextromethorphan/quinidine: a randomized trial.". Neurology 63 (8): 1364-70. PMID 15505150. 
  5. ^ Cough Drug May Help Fibromyalgia Pain. WebMD.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Dextromethorphan. NHTSA.
  7. ^ Olney J, Labruyere J, Price M (1989). "Pathological changes induced in cerebrocortical neurons by phencyclidine and related drugs". Science 244 (4910): 1360-2. PMID 2660263. 
  8. ^ Hargreaves R, Hill R, Iversen L. "Neuroprotective NMDA antagonists: the controversy over their potential for adverse effects on cortical neuronal morphology". Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 60: 15-9. PMID 7976530. 
  9. ^ Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics - Abstract of article: The influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism and quinidine on the disposition and antitussive effect of dextromethorphan in humans[ast]. Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  10. ^ British Journal of Pharmacology - The dextromethorphan analog dimemorfan attenuates kainate-induced seizures via [sigma1 receptor activation: comparison with the effects of dextromethorphan]. Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  11. ^ Hernandez SC, Bertolino M, Xiao Y, Pringle KE, Caruso FS, Kellar KJ (2000). "Dextromethorphan and its metabolite dextrorphan block alpha3beta4 neuronal nicotinic receptors". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 293 (3): 962-7. PMID 10869398. 
  12. ^ Kamei J, Mori T, Igarashi H, Kasuya Y (1992). "Serotonin release in nucleus of the solitary tract and its modulation by antitussive drugs". Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 76 (3): 371-4. PMID 1636059. 
  13. ^ Verma A, Moghaddam B (Jan 1996). "NMDA receptor antagonists impair prefrontal cortex function as assessed via spatial delayed alternation performance in rats: modulation by dopamine". Journal of Neuroscience 1: 373-9. 
  14. ^ a b c Dextromethorphan (DXM) | CESAR
  15. ^ Cough medicines "have no benefit" BBC News: Health, Tuesday, July 6, 2004. Accessed July 28, 2007.
  16. ^ [1] "Kids' cough medicine no better than placebo" San Francisco Chronicle, July 8, 2004

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

See also

Cough medicine often contains cough suppressants and expectorants. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A cough medicine or antitussive is a medication given to people to help them stop coughing. ... Tyloxapol is a nonionic liquid polymer of the alkyl aryl polyether alcohol type; used as a surfactant to aid liquefaction and removal of mucopurulent (containing mucus and pus) bronchopulmonary secretions, administered by inhalation through a nebulizer or with a stream of oxygen. ... R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa... Guaifenesin (IPA: ) (INN) or guaiphenesin (former BAN) is an expectorant drug usually taken orally to assist the expectoration (bringing up) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections. ... Binomial name Psychotria ipecacuanha Ipecacuanha (Psychotria ipecacuanha) of family Rubiaceae is a flowering plant, the root of which is most commonly used to make syrup of ipecac, a powerful emetic. ... Species Althaea armeniaca Althaea broussonetiifolia * Althaea cannabina - Hemp-leaved Marshmallow Althaea hirsuta - Hairy Marshmallow Althaea longifolia Althaea ludwigii Althaea narbonensis * Althaea officinalis - Marshmallow * Not accepted as distinct by all authors Althaea is a genus of 6-12 species of perennial herbs, including the marshmallow plant whence the confection got its... Senega is the dried root of the Polygala Senega, which is official in the British and United States pharmacopoeias. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Creosote is the name used for a variety of products: wood creosote, coal tar creosote, coal tar, coal tar pitch, and coal tar pitch volatiles. ... Guaiacolsulfonate is an aromatic sulfonic acid used in medicine as an expectorant. ... Levoverbenone is an expectorant. ... A mucolytic agent is any agent which dissolves thick mucus usually used to help relieve respiratory difficulties. ... Acetylcysteine (rINN) (IPA: ), also known as N-acetylcysteine (abbreviated NAC), is a pharmacological agent used mainly as a mucolytic and in the management of paracetamol overdose. ... Bromhexine is a mucolytic agent used in the treatment of respiratory disorders associated with viscid or excessive mucus. ... Carbocisteine is a mucolytic. ... Eprazinone is a mucolytic. ... Mesna (sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate) is an adjuvant used in cancer chemotherapy involving cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. ... Bromhexine is a mucolytic agent used in the treatment of respiratory disorders associated with viscid or excessive mucus. ... Sobrerol is a mucolytic. ... Domiodol is a mucolytic. ... Letosteine is a mucolytic. ... Stepronin is a mucolytic. ... Tiopronin (trade name Thiola) is a prescription thiol drug used to control the rate of cystine solidification and excretion in the disease cystinuria. ... A box of Pulmozyme Dornase alfa (Pulmozyme®) is a highly purified solution of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I (rhDNase), an enzyme which selectively cleaves DNA. Pulmozyme hydrolyzes the DNA in sputum/mucus of CF patients and reduces viscoelasticity in the lungs, promoting improved clearance of secretions. ... Neltenexine is a mucolytic. ... Erdosteine is a mucolytic. ... A cough medicine or antitussive is a medication given to people to help them stop coughing. ... This article is about the drug. ... Acetyldihydrocodeine is an opiate derivative developed as a cough suppressant and analgesic. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... For the band, see Codeine (band). ... Diacetylmorphine (INN), diamorphine (BAN), or more commonly heroin, is a semi-synthetic opioid. ... Dimemorfan is a cough suppressant. ... Ethylmorphine is a drug in the class of both opiates (representing a minor synthetic change from morphine) and opioids (being effective in the CNSs opioid reception system) . Its effects in humans mainly stem from its metabolic conversion to morphine. ... Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from two of the naturally occurring opiates, codeine and thebaine. ... Hydromorphone is a drug developed in Germany in the 1920s and introduced to the mass market beginning in 1926. ... The structure of Levopropoxyphene Levopropoxyphene is an antitussive. ... Methadone (Dolophine, Amidone, Methadose, Physeptone, Heptadon and many others) is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic, antitussive and a maintenance anti-addictive for use in patients on opioids. ... Nicocodeine (Lyopect) is an opiate derivative developed as a cough suppressant and analgesic. ... Nicodicodeine is an opiate derivative developed as a cough suppressant and analgesic. ... Normethadone is a cough suppressant. ... Noscapine (also known as Narcotine) is an opioid agonist without significant analgesic properties [1]. It is grouped as part of the benzylisoquinolines, of which papaverine is also included. ... Pholcodine is a drug which is an opioid cough suppressant (antitussive). ... The chemical structure of dihydrocodeinone enol acetate Dihydrocodeinone Enol Acetate, or Thebacon, formerly marketed as its hydrochloride salt under the trade name Acedicon, is a semisynthetic opioid once used as an antitussive, primarily in Europe. ... Tipepidine is a cough suppressant. ... Zipeprol is a cough suppressant. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Benproperine (INN) is a cough suppressant. ... Clobutinol is a cough suppressant distributed by Boehringer-Ingelheim, Novartiss Hexal (Sandoz), Stada and possibly other companies. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl as produced by Johnson & Johnson, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. ... Isoaminile is a cough suppressant. ... Pentoxyverine (rINN) or carbetapentane is a cough suppressant. ... Oxolamine is a cough suppressant. ... Oxeladin is a cough suppressant. ... Clofedanol (INN) or chlophedianol (BAN) is a centrally-acting cough suppressant used in the treatment of dry cough. ... Pipazetate (or pipazethate) is a cough suppressant. ... Bibenzonium bromide is a cough suppressant. ... Butamirate (or brospamin) is a cough suppressant. ... Fedrilate is a cough suppressant. ... Dibunate is a cough suppressant. ... Droxypropine is a cough suppressant. ... Prenoxdiazine (or libexin) is a cough suppressant. ... Dropropizine (or dipropizine) is a cough suppressant. ... Cloperastine is a cough suppressant. ... Meprotixol is a cough suppressant. ... Piperidione is a cough suppressant. ... Morclofone is a cough suppressant. ... Nepinalone is a cough suppressant. ... Levodropropizine is a cough suppressant. ... Dimethoxanate is a cough suppressant. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dextromethorphan (Robitussin-DM®) (626 words)
Dextromethorphan is available over the counter but should not be administered unless under the supervision and guidance of a veterinarian.
Dextromethorphan is used to suppress coughing in cases of tracheal or bronchial irritation.
Dextromethorphan should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
Drugs and Human Performance FACT SHEETS - Dextromethorphan (1087 words)
Dextromethorphan is widely distributed, and is rapidly and extensively metabolized by the liver.
Dextromethorphan is demethylated to dextrorphan, an active metabolite, and to 3-methoxymorphinan and 3-hydroxymorphinan.
Psychotropic effects of dextromethorphan are altered by the CYP2D6 polymorphism: a pilot study.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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