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Encyclopedia > Devil in Christianity
Raising the devil.

In mainstream Christianity, the Devil is named Satan, sometimes Lucifer. He is a fallen angel who rebelled against God, and is now roaming the Earth. He is often identified as the serpent in the Garden of Eden, whose persuasions led to original sin and the need for Jesus Christ's redemption. He is also identified as the Accuser of Job, the tempter of the Gospels, and the dragon in the Book of Revelation. Traditionally, Christians have understood the Devil to be the author of lies and promoter of evil. Many other Christians (especially liberal Protestant denominations) [1] however, view the devil metaphorically. It should be noted that much of the popular history of the Devil is not biblical; instead, it is a post-medieval Christian reading of the scriptures influenced by medieval and pre-medieval Christian popular mythology. Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Devil, on the central gate of Notre-Dame de Paris, 1225, France. ... Raising the devil - public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Raising the devil - public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Devil, on the central gate of Notre-Dame de Paris, 1225, France. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... This article is about the star or fallen angel. ... It has been suggested that Evil Angels be merged into this article or section. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... It has been suggested that European dragon be merged into this article or section. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...

Contents

Characteristics of the Devil

Teachings about the Devil vary, depending on the local folklore. Still, the characteristics present in the Bible are present in each depiction.


The Devil as rebel

According to the gospels of Matthew (chapter 4) and Luke (chapter 4), the Devil tempted Jesus at the beginning of his ministry. After Jesus fasted forty days in the wilderness, the Devil approached Jesus with offers of stones turned to bread, rulership over the kingdoms of the Earth (but with subservience to the Devil himself), and spectacular protection from physical harm. Satan uses the Scripture of the Old Testament to solidify his arguments. This would indicate Satan's full knowledge of all of Scripture, and a use of that knowledge to tempt and deceive man (Mat 4). Jesus refused all three temptations, rebuking Satan with His own knowledge of Scripture (Mat 4).


Christianity holds several different views on Christ's role in defeating Satan. Some emphasize Christ's death and resurrection as sealing Satan's fate, so that the Devil is already defeated though not banished. Others emphasize the Devil's final judgment when Christ returns, at which time the terror and deceit of Satan will have no more effect on the world. This is because mankind will face final judgment, and the earth will be purged or cleansed with fire. Satan will be bound to the lake of fire (Rev 20) with the Beast, the false prophet, and all those whose names are not in the Book of Life. There will no longer be any way for Satan to have an impact on mankind. In the Book of Revelation, the beast, the false prophet, the Satan, death, hades, and all those whose names arent written in the Book of Life are thrown into the lake of fire[1]. In some interpretations, the servants of iniquity are tortured forever in the lake. ... The Book of Life, Sefer HaChaim, is the allegorical book in which God records the names and lives of the righteous. ...


Devil as lord of demons

The Devil is said to rule a host of fallen angels (demons). In the New Testament, these unclean spirits cause physical and mental afflictions, and Jesus often cures people by driving out demons. In the Christian tradition, these demons are the source of non-Christian supernatural power. In a polytheistic culture, people accepted that the magic or miracles that other people performed were done by the power of the others' gods. In monotheistic Christianity, the only source of supernatural power other than God is the Devil. Tertullian (c. AD 200), for example, referred to the Pythian oracle (which proclaimed Socrates the wisest mortal) as demonic [2]. “Fiend” redirects here. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ... This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ...


The Devil ruling the non-Christian world

The Devil is said to rule either the whole world or most of it. Governments, religions, sciences, and academic pursuits that are not in accord with Christianity are said to be influenced or even run by Satan.


The Devil possessing mortals

The Devil, as well as his demons, are portrayed as able to possess and control humans. The Roman Catholic Church occasionally performs exorcisms, and some evangelicals do so regularly. Saint Francis exorcised demons in Arezzo, fresco of Giotto Exorcism (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure, correctly pronounced exercism) is the practice of evicting demons or other evil spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed (taken control of). ...


The Devil and black magic

Since the Middle Ages, the Devil has been described as granting spells and magic powers to sorcerers and witches. The Bible refers to the Devil and to sorcerers but never depicts them as related.


History of the Devil in Christianity

The Devil in the Old Testament

In some Christians' views, the Devil's first appearance in the Old Testament is as the serpent in the Garden of Eden that appears in the story of Adam and Eve eating the fruit (traditionally idenitified as an apple) of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. In God's rebuke to the serpent, he tells it "And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel." (Genesis 3:14-15) Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Christian scriptures identify the serpent with the Devil. The deuterocanonical Book of Wisdom says, "But by the envy of the devil, death entered the world, and they who are in his possession experience it." (Wisdom 2:24) Satan is identified several times with a serpent, including in Revelation 12:9: "This great dragon--the ancient serpent called the Devil, or Satan, the one deceiving the whole world--was thrown down to the earth with all his angels." Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ...


When identified with the term, "Satan" (from Hebrew, meaning "Adversary"), the Devil also appears in the heavenly court to challenge Job, with God's permission. This seems to be Satan's primary role - to challenge humans and to test their faiths. Elsewhere, the term is even used to describe humans playing the role of adversary or prosecuter. This article is about the concept of Satan. ...


Some Christian concepts of the Devil include Lucifer, which traditionally gives a name to the Devil. The name, Lucifer, is translated from the Latin, meaning loosely, "Light Giver" (analogous to the Greek, Phosphorus) and is also used symbolically to mean the "Morning Star", (i.e. Venus), which held some significant meanings for Babylonians as mentioned in Isaiah 14:12. This article is about the star or fallen angel. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ...


In Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Satan is one of humanity's three enemies, along with sin and death (in some other forms of Christianity the other two enemies of mankind are "the world",[3] and self (or the flesh), which is to be taken as man's natural tendency to sin). [4] Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Flesh by definition is composite of all the soft parts of the body of a human or animal which is between the skin and the bones. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ...


The Devil In the New Testament

The Devil figures much more prominently in the New Testament and in Christian theology generally. The overarching goal of the Devil is to destroy the work of God, condemning the souls of mankind to hell for eternity (1 Peter 5:8). The New Testament records numerous accounts of the Devil working against God and his plan. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


One major means the Devil uses is through demon possession. The Devil is neither omniscient nor omnipotent; thus he must utilize a force of demons who share his cause. The Devil is seen as the commander of the army of darkness. The Devil presumably directs these evil angels to do his bidding. The demons in turn seek to torment humans by inhabiting their bodies. Numerous occurrences of this phenomenon occur in the New Testament. Jesus encounters those who are possessed and exorcises (or casts out) the evil spirit(s). The work of possession, though not explained in depth by the New Testament, is illustrated to have levels of severity. A person may have one demon or multiple demons inhabiting their body. Jesus encountered a man filled with numerous demons in Mark 5:1-20. Addressing the demons, Jesus asked for their name. They replied "Legion, for we are many." Mary Magdalene is recorded to have been delivered from seven demons which tormented her. (Mark 16:9) Omniscience is the capacity to know everything infinitely, or at least everything that can be known about a character including thoughts, feelings, life and the universe, etc. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is power with no limits or inexhaustible, in other words, unlimited power. ...


Demon possession causes a variety of symptoms. Often these bear similarities to physical or emotional diseases. The New Testament records seizures, an inability to speak, self mutilation, ability to foresee the future, and loud wailings or other noises as evidence of an evil presence. A distinction is drawn between physical infirmities and demon possession. Not everyone who was sick was under demonic influence. Likewise, not everyone who was possessed by a demon showed these symptoms. Demonic possession is a form of spiritual possession; specifically, the act of one or more demons entering a living or dead human or animal body or an object with the intention of using it for a purpose, normally evil but sometimes instead as a punishment or test. ...


The widespread acceptance of the work of demons in the ancient Near East is shown by the Jewish teachers of the law. They saw the miraculous workings of Jesus Christ and accused him of doing these signs and wonders by the power of Beelzebub (Mark 3:22). They made no attempt to discredit the miracles of Jesus; rather, they equated them with the Devil and his power. This gives evidence to the common belief of that day that Satan did in fact send demons to possess human beings. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Another weapon the Devil uses to attack people is temptation. In the New Testament, Satan appears as a tempter for Jesus, for example. (Mark 4:1-11 and Luke 4:1-13) This has been the universal tool that Satan has attacked mankind with since the Garden of Eden. Satan himself or one of his allegiant demons offers a thought to the mind of a person (Luke 4:1-13). The thought is contrary to what God has deemed right and true. Thus, the person is urged to disobey and violate the commands of God. Temptation in itself is not sin. Yielding to temptation and acting on the thought, violating any command or statute of God, is sin. A temptation is an act that looks appealing to an individual. ... The temptation of Christ in Christianity, refers to the temptation of Jesus by the devil as detailed in each of the Synoptic Gospels, at Matthew 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13, and Luke 4:1-13. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ...


The Devil in the Christian tradition

St. Michael's defeat of Satan.

In John Milton's epic poem Paradise Lost, the theme is further developed — Satan is believed to have been an archangel who turned against God before the creation of man. Prophecies in Isaiah 14[5] and Ezekiel 28 are thought by some to be referring metaphorically to Satan, rather than to the king of Babylon. Babylon in Revelation is a symbol for an evil world, one of which Satan would be head in the Tribulational period of the end times.[citation needed] According to this view, Satan waged war against God, his Creator, and was banished from Heaven because of this. St. ... St. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Title page of the first edition (1667) Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. ... Archangels are superior or higher-ranking angels. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... Ezekiel (Hebrew: יחזקאל, ) is a prophet in the Hebrew Bible of the Book of Ezekiel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


According to most Christian eschatology, Satan will wage a final war against Jesus, before being cast into Hell for "aeonios." [6] The Unification Church, a sect that deviates from mainstream Christianity, teaches that Satan will be restored in the last days and become a good angel again [7]. A few early Church Fathers are known to have prayed for Satan's eventual repentance [citation needed]; it was not generally believed that this would happen. On the other hand, Dispensationalists teach that Jesus returns to earth before the Tribulational period to reclaim the righteous, dead and living, to meet Him in the air (known as the Rapture [8]. Many Fundamentalists believe that immediately following this, the Tribulational period will occur as prophesied in the book of Daniel, while others (especially Seventh-day Adventists) believe that immediately following Jesus' Second Coming, Satan will be bound on this Earth for a thousand years, after which he will be “loosed for a little season” [9]—this is when the battle of Armageddon (the final confrontation between good and evil) will be waged—and Satan and his followers will be destroyed once and for all, the Earth will be cleansed of all evil and there will be “a new Heaven and a new Earth” where sin will reign no more.[10] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian theology, Christian eschatology is the... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Unification Church is a new religious movement started by Sun Myung Moon in Korea in the 1940s. ... For the book by Pope Benedict XVI, see Eschatology (book). ... In Christian eschatology, the Tribulation is a period of immense suffering, greater than anything before in history, which some claim will occur before the end of the world. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In conservative Christian eschatology, rapture is... The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA), colloquially referred to as the Adventists, is an evangelical Protestant Christian denomination that grew out of the prophetic Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century. ... The evangelist John of Patmos writes the Book of Revelation. ...


In the New Testament, Letter of Jude (Jude 1:9) the Archangel Michael is described arguing with the Devil over the body of Moses. This dispute is shown in the painting by Guido Reni called "St. Michael the Archangel" showing Satan being crushed underfoot. The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Autoportrait Abduction of Deianira, 1620-21 Guido Reni (November 4, 1575, Calvenzano di Vergato, near Bologna - August 18, 1642, Bologna) was a prominent Italian painter of high-Baroque style. ...


Other views

Gnostics

In various Gnostic sects, Satan was praised as the giver of knowledge, sometimes with references to Lucifer, “the light-bringer.” Some claimed that the being imagined as God by Christians and Jews was in fact Satan, as a world as imperfect as ours could not be created by a perfect God. Non-Gnostic Christians typically explain the world's imperfection as the result of the Fall. Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... This article is about the star or fallen angel. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ...


Middle Ages

The Devil on horseback. Nuremberg Chronicle (1493).
The Devil on horseback. Nuremberg Chronicle (1493).

Particularly in the medieval period, Satan was often depicted as having horns and a goat's hindquarters. He has also been depicted as carrying a pitchfork, and with a forked tail. None of these images seem to be based on Biblical materials, as Satan's physical appearance is never described in the bible, Qur'an or any other religious text. Rather, this image is apparently based on pagan horned gods, such as Pan and Dionysus, common to many mythologies [11]. Pan in particular looks very much like the images of the medieval Satan. Some images are based on Baphomet, which is portrayed in Eliphas Lévi's 1854 Dogme et rituel de la haute magie (English translation Transcendental Magic, its Doctrine and Ritual)Levi. Even some Satanists use Baphomet as the image of Satan in Satanic worship. Neo-pagans and others allege that this image was chosen specifically to discredit the Horned God of ancient paganism to convert people to the Christian faith. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1656x1944, 1413 KB) Illustrations from the Nuremberg Chronicle, by Hartmann Schedel (1440-1514) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1656x1944, 1413 KB) Illustrations from the Nuremberg Chronicle, by Hartmann Schedel (1440-1514) Source: http://www. ... Depiction of God creating the world Juvenal The Nuremberg Chronicle is one of the best documented early printed books. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pashupati-like figure on the Gundestrup cauldron The Horned God is a modern syncretic term, invented to link together numerous male nature gods out of such widely-dispersed and historically unconnected mythologies as the Celtic Cernunnos, the Welsh Caerwiden, the English Herne the Hunter, the Hindu Pashupati, the Greek... Marble sculpture of Pan copulating with a goat, recovered from Herculaneum Pan (Greek Παν, genitive Πανος) is the Greek god who watches over shepherds and their flocks. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... Baphomet, by Eliphas Lévi. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... The Pashupati-like figure on the Gundestrup cauldron The Horned God is a modern syncretic term, invented to link together numerous male nature gods out of such widely-dispersed and historically unconnected mythologies as the Celtic Cernunnos, the Welsh Caerwiden, the English Herne the Hunter, the Hindu Pashupati, the Greek...


The medieval Cathars identified the devil with the demiurge of older gnostic and Neoplatonic tradition. Earlier sects believed the Old Testament Yahweh was, in fact, the devil, based partially on ethical interpretations of the Bible and partially on the beliefs of earlier gnostic sects (such as the Valentinians) who regarded the god of the Old Testament as evil or as an imperfect Demiurge. Early Gnostics called the Demiurge Yao, the Aramaic cognate to the Tetragrammaton, YHWH (Yahweh). Moreover, modern research into Ugaritic texts revealed that the names of the Jewish god were the same as earlier gods worshipped in the same region; Yahweh is cognate to Ugaritic Yaw who was the Semitic deity of chaos, evil, and world domination. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... The Demiurge, The Craftsman or Creator, in some belief systems, is the deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Valentinius more usually called Valentinus (c. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Yam, Yamm, or Yaw (jaʊ) is the name of the Levantine god of chaos and mass-destruction, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Els) or sons of El. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; meaning top/head/cape of the wild fennel in Arabic) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... Yam, Yamm, or Yaw (jaʊ) is the name of the Levantine god of chaos and mass-destruction, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Els) or sons of El. ...


Latter Day Saints

Latter Day Saints believe that Satan is a spirit creation of God, being called Lucifer in the pre-existence before the creation of the world. He rebelled against God and was cast down to the earth without having attained a physical body, and serves as a source of temptation for humanity to disrupt their quest to receive salvation.[1] A Latter Day Saint (LDS) is a person who identifies with the Latter Day Saint movement and is a follower of Mormonism. ...


Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Satan is a real person. Satan was created a perfect spirit creature, but he became "Satan the Devil" when he acted on his desire to turn Adam and Eve away from worship of Jehovah to himself. They do not regard "Lucifer" as his original name, but as descriptive designation applied to the "king of Babylon." [12]. The rendering Lucifer is derived from the Latin Vulgate. Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... This article is about the star or fallen angel. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ...


By use of the serpent in the Garden of Eden, Satan seduced Eve by implying that God's rulership was selfish and unjust. "Is it really so that God said you must not eat from every tree of the garden?" Eve's reply was that only one tree had been prohibited from their use on penalty of death. Satan challenged this: "You positively will not die. For God knows that in the very day of your eating from it your eyes are bound to be opened and you are bound to be like God, knowing good and bad". [13] So, Satan's approach was a dual deception: First, that God was withholding good from them and second that he was lying in the process. For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ...


Eve succumbed to this deception along with Adam, who allowed himself to become complicit in the matter. Jehovah cast them out of paradise where they did indeed begin their descent into death and imperfection. The Bible shows that the majority of their offspring followed them in this course.


Now humanity is caught between Satan and God falling to either side to prove which is right; whether mankind will fall to self-worship—thus falling under Satan's influence—or remain true to their Creator.


Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Satan is still the god of this world, citing references at 2 Cor. 4:4; 1 John 5:19; Mt 4:8-11.[14] Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Christadelphians

Christadelphians are almost unique amongst Christian groups for stating as an article of faith that Satan does not exist in a personal form.[15] They reject the idea of fallen Angels.[16] They believe that the word 'satan' simply refers to any 'adversary' and figuratively refers to human sin and temptation.[17] Christadelphians share these beliefs with the Church of the Blessed Hope.[18] Christadelphians (From the Greek Brothers in Christ) are a Christian denomination which developed in the United Kingdom and North America in the 19th century. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... The Church of the Blessed Hope (or Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith) is a small first-day Adventist Christian body. ...


As a sympathetic character

Satan, from Gustave Doré's illustations for Paradise Lost.
Satan, from Gustave Doré's illustations for Paradise Lost.

The epic poem by John Milton, Paradise Lost, has a stylized depiction of the devil that influenced C. S. Lewis (The Screwtape Letters and Space Trilogy), and the J. R. R. Tolkien characters Melkor and Sauron. Satan acts much like a protagonist of the first half of the story, styling himself as an ambitious underdog rebelling against Heaven. He becomes less sympathetic in the second half as the snake that tempts Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Image File history File links Plsatan. ... Image File history File links Plsatan. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Title page of the first edition (1667) Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. ... Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... The Screwtape Letters is a work of Christian fiction by C. S. Lewis first published in book form in 1942. ... The Space Trilogy, Cosmic Trilogy or Ransom Trilogy is a trilogy of three science fiction novels by C. S. Lewis. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Morgoth Bauglir (Morgoth means The Dark Enemy, Bauglir is The Constrainer), originally named Melkor (He Who Arises in Might), is a fictional character of Middle-earth, created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... For other uses, see Sauron (disambiguation). ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ...


Both Faust and The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus feature the demon known as Mephistopheles, (also spelled Mephistophilius), who is summoned by Faust to sell his soul for a limited number of years of pleasure. Mephistopheles often shows regret and remorse for rebelling against God. In one famous scene from Faustus, Mephistopheles tells Faust that he cannot leave Hell. When Faust tells him that he seems to be free of Hell at that moment, the devil responds with "Why this is hell, nor am I out of it./ Think’st thou that I, who saw the face of God,/And tasted the eternal joys of heaven,/ Am not tormented with ten thousand hells/ In being deprived of everlasting bliss?" Rather than glorifying the Devil, he is shown as a sad figure. Faust depicted in an etching by Rembrandt van Rijn (circa 1650) Faust or Faustus (the Latin for auspicious or lucky) is the protagonist of a popular German legend in which a mediæval scholar makes a pact with the Devil. ... The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus is a play by Christopher Marlowe, based on the Faust story (Faustus is Latin for Faust), in which a man sells his soul to the devil for power and knowledge. ... Mephistopheles flying over Wittenberg, in a lithograph by Eugène Delacroix. ... For other uses, see Hell (disambiguation). ...


"But here steps in Satan, the eternal rebel, the first free-thinker and emancipator of worlds. He makes man ashamed of his bestial ignorance and obedience; he emancipates him, stamps upon his brow the seal of liberty and humanity, in urging him to disobey and eat of the fruit of knowledge." - Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876) Freethought is a characteristic of individuals whose opinions are formed on the basis of an understanding and rejection of tradition, authority or established belief. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814 – June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian...

Views of higher criticism

Scholars who analyze the Bible and Christian tradition from a historical perspective regard current Christian views of the Devil as combining beliefs from various times and places. They generally see the serpent in the Garden of Eden, Lucifer, and Satan as unrelated entities, the serpent merely a snake, Lucifer a mortal king, and Satan an angel in Yahweh's court. According to this perspective, Jews adopted the idea of a "prince of darkness" from Zoroastrianism while in captivity in Babylon. This concept was then read into Old Testament texts. The Devil as an evil being on a cosmic scale doesn't appear in the Bible until the New Testament. This concept then continued to develop as Christianity itself grew and developed. Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


A similar approach has been taken by the Christadelphians, the only Christian denomination to formally reject the existence of a personal Satan as an article of faith (16) . Their belief is that 'Satan' ('adversary') is simply a personification of sin and evil (17) .


Names of the Devil in Christianity

Old and New Testament names

Originally, only the epithet of "the satan" ("the adversary") was used to denote the character in the Hebrew deity's court that later became known as "the Devil." (The term "satan" was also used to designate human enemies of the Hebrews that Yahweh raised against them.) The article was lost and this title became a proper name: Satan. There is no unambiguous reference to the Devil in the Torah, the Prophets, or the Writings. Tetragrammaton redirects here. ...


Zechariah 3:1--"And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the Lord, and ha-satan standing at his right hand to resist him." This reading has since been erroneously interpreted by some to mean Satan, "the Devil", but such is not the case. The Hebrew Bible views ha-satan as an angel ministering to the desires of God, acting as Chief Prosecutor. 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ...

  • Azazel: Leviticus 16:8 "And Aaron shall cast lots over the two goats, one lot for the LORD and the other lot for Azazel." Also, Leviticus 16:10 Leviticus 16:26
  • Satan: Luke 10:18 "I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven." See also Matthew 4:10 Matthew 12:26 Mark 4:15 Luke 22:31 Acts 26:18 1Corinthians 5:5 2Corinthians 11:14 1Thessalonians 2:18 1Timothy 5:15 Revelation 3:9 Revelation 20:2
  • In Matthew 10:25, Matthew 12:24, Mark 3:22, and openly in Luke 11:18-19 there is an implied connection between Satan and Beelzebub (originally a Semitic deity called Baal, and referred to as Baal-zebul, meaning lord of princes) Beelzebub (lit. Lord of the Flies) has now come to be analogous to Satan.
  • The Wicked One: Matthew 13:19--"Then cometh the wicked one." Matthew 6:13, 1 John 5:19. This title suggests that Satan is one who is wicked himself. Abrahamic religions generally regarded sin as a physical manifestation of opposition to God, and therefore evil; dissent only comes from the topic of 'where does sin come from?'
  • In John 12:31 and John 14:30 Satan is called Prince of this World (Rex Mundi); this became a nickname for him.
  • In 2 Corinthians 6:15 the Devil is referred as Belial. "What agreement does Christ have with Belial?" Also, in the Old Testament, rebellious people and nonbelievers are sometimes called 'sons of Belial'. See also Deuteronomy 13:13 Judges 20:13 1Samuel 2:12 2Samuel 23:6 1Kings 21:10 2Chronicles 13:7
  • In 2 Corinthians 4:4 the Devil is called "the god of this world"
  • Peter 5:8--"Your Adversary the devil." By adversary is meant one who takes a stand against another. In the Christian worldview, Satan is the adversary of both God and the believers.
  • The Devil, diabolos: This name is ascribed to Satan at least 33 times in the Christian scriptures and indicates that Satan is an accuser or slanderer (Rev. 12:9).

There are some who erroneously claim that the word 'devil' is from 'd'evil' -'of evil.' Some also believe that because the word 'evil' itself is 'live' spelt backward, the word originated through the nature of evil being "against living things," or the antithesis of life itself. Both claims are false, as the words are etymologically derived from pre-existing languages. For other uses, see Azazel (disambiguation). ... For information on lightning precautions, see Lightning safety. ... The temptation of Christ in Christianity, refers to the temptation of Jesus by the devil as detailed in each of the Synoptic Gospels, at Matthew 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13, and Luke 4:1-13. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A woodcarving of Belial and some of his followers from Jacobus de Teramos book Buche Belial (1473) Belial (also Belhor, Baalial, Beliar, Belias , Beliall, Beliel; from Hebrew בְּלִיַּ֫עַל ; also named Matanbuchus, Mechembuchus, Meterbuchus in older scripts) is an evil being in Jewish apocrypha, and also a term used to characterise... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dragon. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


Further development

When the Bible was translated into Latin (the Vulgate), the name Lucifer appeared as a translation of "Morning Star", or the planet Venus, in Isaiah 14:12. Isaiah 14:1-23 is a passage largely concerned with the plight of Babylon, and its king is referred to as "morning star, son of the dawn". This is because the Babylonian king was considered to be of godly status and of symbolic divine parentage (Bel and Ishtar, associated with the planet Venus). This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... This article is about the star or fallen angel. ... Wikipedia articles with Morning Star, morning star or morningstar in the title include: Morning star (weapon), a spiked mace Morning Star (chief), a Cheyenne leader, also known as Dull Knife The Morning Star, a newspaper published in the U.K. since 1930 The Morning Star (19th century U.S. newspaper... Adjectives: Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean Atmosphere Surface pressure: 9. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Bel, signifying lord or master, is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in Babylonian relgion. ... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ...


While this information is available to scholars today via translated Babylonian cuneiform text taken from clay tablets, it was not as readily available at the time of the Latin translation of the Bible. Thus, early Christian tradition interpreted the passage as a reference to the moment Satan was thrown from Heaven. Lucifer became another name for Satan and has remained so due to Christian dogma and popular tradition. “Cuneiform” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ...


The Hebrew Bible word which was later translated to "Lucifer" in English is הילל (transliterated HYLL). Though this word, Heilel, has come to be translated as "morning-star" from the Septuagint's translation of the Scriptures, the letter ה in Hebrew often indicates singularity, much as the English "the," in which case the translation would be ה "the" ילל "yell," or "the wailing yell." 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ...


Later, for unknown reasons, Christian demonologists appeared to designate "Satan", "Lucifer", and "Beelzebub" as different entities, each with a different rank in the hellish hierarchy. One hypothesis is that this might have been an attempt to establish a hellish trinity with the same person, akin to the Christian Trinity of Father, Son and the Holy Spirit, but most demonologists do not carry this view. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Son of God is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the...


In Christian tradition

Christian tradition differs from that of Christian demonology in that Satan, Lucifer, Leviathan and Beelzebub all are names that refer to "the Devil", and Prince of this World, The Beast and Dragon (and rarely Serpent or The Old Serpent) use to be elliptic forms to refer to him. The Enemy, The Evil One and The Tempter are other elliptic forms to name the Devil. Belial is held by many to be another name for the Devil. Christian demonology, in contrast, does not have several nicknames for Satan. A woodcarving of Belial and some of his followers from Jacobus de Teramos book Buche Belial (1473) Belial (also Belhor, Baalial, Beliar, Belias , Beliall, Beliel; from Hebrew בְּלִיַּ֫עַל ; also named Matanbuchus, Mechembuchus, Meterbuchus in older scripts) is an evil being in Jewish apocrypha, and also a term used to characterise...


It should be noted that the name Mephistopheles is used by some people to refer to the Devil, but it is a mere folkloric custom, and has nothing to do with Christian demonology and Christian tradition. Prince of Darkness and Lord of Darkness are also folkloric names, although they tend to be incorporated to Christian tradition. Mephistopheles flying over Wittenberg, in a lithograph by Eugène Delacroix. ...


Disputes

Is the Devil in Hell?

The belief that Satan is in Hell has its roots in Christian literature rather than in the Bible. The Bible states that he still roams heaven and earth. [19] It also states that Satan appeared with other angels "before the Lord," presumably in heaven. When God asked Satan where he had been, Satan replied, "From roaming through the earth and going back and forth in it". 1 Peter 5:8 declares, "Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour". For other uses, see Hell (disambiguation). ...


Passages such as these suggest that Satan is not in Hell, and likely prowls the earth seeking to destroy the lives of human beings.


How could an angel commit sin and rebel against God?

Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa Theologiae, said: Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ...

"An angel or any other rational creature considered in his own nature, can sin; and to whatever creature it belongs not to sin, such creature has it as a gift of grace, and not from the condition of nature. The reason of this is, because sinning is nothing else than a deviation from that rectitude which an act ought to have; whether we speak of sin in nature, art, or morals. That act alone, the rule of which is the very virtue of the agent, can never fall short of rectitude. Were the craftsman's hand the rule itself engraving, he could not engrave the wood otherwise than rightly; but if the rightness of engraving be judged by another rule, then the engraving may be right or faulty."

In fiction and popular culture

Many writers have incorporated the character of Satan into their works. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Satan: Does this evil being exist?
  2. ^ A treatise on the soul
  3. ^ Jam 4:4
  4. ^ Rom 6:6
  5. ^ For example, see Jerome, "To Eustochium", Letter 22.4, To Eustochium
  6. ^ Aeonios, literally translated, means of or pertaining to an age, which is incorrectly translated as "all eternity."
  7. ^ see Lucifer, A Criminal Against Humanity
  8. ^ see 1 Thess 4:17
  9. ^ a short time, see Rev 20:1-3
  10. ^ Rev 21:1-4
  11. ^ Powell, Barry B. Classical Myth. Second ed. With new translations of ancient texts by Herbert M. Howe. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998.
  12. ^ Isa. 14:4, 12
  13. ^ Gen 3:1, 4, 5
  14. ^ Who Really Rules the World?
  15. ^ Doctrines to be Rejected (available online), statement 14.
  16. ^ Budden, Ian. Angels – God’s Servants. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  17. ^ Do you Believe in a Devil?. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  18. ^ The Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  19. ^ Job 1:6-7

 
 

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