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Encyclopedia > Devil's Island

Coordinates: 5°17′38″N, 52°35′0″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

For other uses, see Devils Island.
Devil's Island
Devil's Island

Devil's Island (French: Île du Diable) is the smallest and northernmost island of the three Îles du Salut located off the coast of French Guiana. It has an area of 14 hectares (34.6 acres). It was a small part of the notorious French penal colony in French Guiana until 1952. Devils Island (French Île du Diable), is an island located off the coast of French Guiana. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x576, 104 KB) Original picture: http://fr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x576, 104 KB) Original picture: http://fr. ... The ÃŽles du Salut (in English: Salvation Islands) are a group of small islands of volcanic origin about 11 km off the coast of French Guiana (14 km north of Kourou) in the Atlantic Ocean. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... A penis colony is a colony used to detain prisoners and generally use them for penal labor in an economically underdeveloped part of the states (usually colonial) territories, and on a far larger scale than a prison farm. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Used as penal colony

The rocky, palm-covered island is 40 meters (131 ft) high. The penitentiary was first opened by Emperor Napoleon III's government in 1852, and became one of the most infamous prisons in history. In addition to the prisons on all three islands, prison facilities were located on the mainland at Kourou. Over time, they became known collectively as "Devil's Island" in the English-speaking world, while they are known in France as the bagne de Cayenne, Cayenne being the main city of French Guiana. metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Kourou is a town and commune in French Guiana. ... Cayenne is the capital of the French overseas région of French Guiana. ...


Used by France from 1852 to 1946, the inmates were everything from political prisoners (such as anarchist Clément Duval) to the most hardened of thieves and murderers. A great many of the more than 80,000 prisoners sent to the harsh conditions at disease-infested Devil's Island were never seen again. Other than by boat, the only way out was through a dense jungle; accordingly, very few convicts ever managed to escape. 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Clément Duval was a famous French anarchist and criminal. ...


In May 30, 1854, law describes that convicts would be forced to stay in French Guiana following their release for a time equal to their forced labor time, or, for sentences exceeding eight years, for the remainder of their life. They were to be provided with land to settle on. In time, a variety of penal regimes emerged, convicts being divided into categories according to the severity of their crimes and their imprisonment or forced residence regime. In 1885, a law accelerated the process, since repeat offenders for minor crimes could also be sent. A limited number of convicted women were also sent to French Guiana, with the intent that they should marry the freed male inmates; however, the results were poor and the government discontinued the practice in 1907. [1] is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The horrors of the penal settlement became notorious in 1895 with the publicity surrounding the plight of the Jewish French army captain Alfred Dreyfus who had been wrongfully convicted of treason and was sent there on January 5. Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. ...


Aftermath

In 1938 the French government stopped sending prisoners to Devil's Island, and in 1952 the prison closed permanently. Most of the prisoners returned to Metropolitan France, although some chose to remain in French Guiana. Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ...


In 1965, the French government transferred the responsibility of most of the islands to the newly founded Guyana Space Center. The islands are under the trajectory of the space rockets launched eastwards, seawards from the Center (to geostationary orbit); they must be evacuated during each launch. The islands host a variety of measurement apparatus for space launches.[1] Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The Guiana Space Centre (French: Centre Spatial Guyanais) is a French spaceport near Kourou in French Guiana. ... Geostationary orbit A geostationary orbit (GEO) is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earths equator (0° latitude), with orbital eccentricity of zero. ...


The CNES space agency, in association with other agencies, has since had the historical monuments restored. Touristic facilities were added; the islands now welcome more than 50,000 tourists each year.[2] The Centre National dÉtudes Spatiales is the French government space agency (administratively, a public establishment of industrial and commercial character). Its headquarters are located in central Paris. ...


Cultural references

Several movies, songs, a stage play, as well as a number of books feature Devil's Island. The most famous was a 1970 best-selling book by an ex-Devil's Island convict named Henri Charrière published under the title Papillon. The book told of his numerous alleged escape attempts, and in 1973 it was made into a movie starring Steve McQueen and Dustin Hoffman. This article reads like an editorial. ... Categories: Literature stubs ... Papillon is a 1973 movie based on the memoir of the same title by Henri Charrière also known as Papillon, which is french for butterfly. ... Steve McQueen (March 24, 1930 – November 7, 1980) was an Academy Award-nominated American movie actor, nicknamed The King of Cool.[1] He was one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1960s and 1970s due to a popular anti-hero persona. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Before the bestseller Papillon, Rene Belbenoit's book, titled Dry Guillotine published in 1938, was instrumental in exposing the prison colony of Devil's Island. The novel "Plan de evasión" by Adolfo Bioy Casares contains many references to the island. Rene Belbenoit (1900-1959) was a French prisoner on Devils Island who successfully escaped to the USA. He wrote a book, Dry Guillotine, about his exploits. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Adolfo Bioy Casares (September 15, 1914 - March 18, 1999) was an Argentine fiction writer. ...


Thrash metal band Megadeth released a song on their 1986 album Peace Sells... But Who's Buying? titled Devil's Island. Megadeth is an American Thrash Metal band led by founder, frontman, and songwriter Dave Mustaine. ... Peace Sells. ...


There are suspicions that Black Bart Roberts' treasure, plundered from Portuguese vessels off the Coast of Bahia, Brazil, was hidden here. There is no documented proof to support these tales. However, several of his crew, upon capture, told of hiding swag in the caves of Devil's Island.


References

  1. ^ CNES, Dossier de presse Îles du Salut
  2. ^ CNES, Les Îles du Salut

The Centre National dÉtudes Spatiales is the French government space agency (administratively, a public establishment of industrial and commercial character). Its headquarters are located in central Paris. ... The Centre National dÉtudes Spatiales is the French government space agency (administratively, a public establishment of industrial and commercial character). Its headquarters are located in central Paris. ...

Further reading

  • Belbenoit, René. 1940. Hell on Trial. Translated from the Original French Manuscript by Preston Rambo. E. P Dutton & Co. Reprint by Blue Ribbon Books, New York, 1941.
  • Belbenoit, René. 1938. Dry guillotine: Fifteen years among the living dead. Reprint: Berkley (1975). ISBN 0-425-02950-6. Reprint: Bantam Books, 1971.
  • Charrière, Henri. Papillon. Reprints: Hart-Davis Macgibbon Ltd. 1970. ISBN 0-246-63987-3 (hbk); Perennial, 2001. ISBN 0-06-093479-4 (sbk).
  • CNES, Dossier de presse Îles du Salut

The Centre National dÉtudes Spatiales is the French government space agency (administratively, a public establishment of industrial and commercial character). Its headquarters are located in central Paris. ...

External Links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Seeing The Light - Devils Island Lighthouse (2474 words)
Devils Island is the northernmost island on the western edge of the Apostles Group, and represented an important turning point for both east and westbound vessels coasting along Superior's southern shore.
The Devils Island Light was exhibited for the first time on the evening of September 30, 1891, its light visible at a distance of 13 miles across the surface of the lake.
Work began on the island in earnest at the opening of navigation in 1892, with the construction of a 1½-story wood-framed outbuilding which would serve as temporary quarters for the construction crew as they worked through the summer, and by October the station was virtually complete.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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