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Encyclopedia > Developmental psychology
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Social Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... Biological psychology is the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated ev-psych or EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain certain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as evolved adaptations, i. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organisational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, or personnel psychology) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is the scientific study of human happiness. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ...

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Therapies This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... link title Headline text --Cknuth7 16:35, 3 April 2006 (UTC) This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...

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Developmental psychology, also known as Human Development, is the scientific study of progressive psychological changes that occur in human beings as they age. Originally concerned with infants and children, and later other periods of great change such as adolescence and aging, it now encompasses the entire life span. This field examines change across a broad range of topics including motor skills and other psycho-physiological processes, problem solving abilities, conceptual understanding, acquisition of language, moral understanding, and identity formation. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Young Men Organization Teenager and Teen also redirect here. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... A motor skill is a skill required for proper usage of skeletal muscles. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Identity formation is the process of the fabrication of the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity in a particular stage of life in which individual characteristics are possessed by which a person is recognized or known (such as the establishment of a reputation). ...


Developmental psychologists investigate key questions, such as whether children are qualitatively different from adults or simply lack the experience that adults draw upon. Other issues that they deal with is the question of whether development occurs through the gradual accumulation of knowledge or through shifts from one stage of thinking to another; or if children are born with innate knowledge or figure things out through experience; and whether development is driven by the social context or by something inside each child. Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... The social environment or social context is a group of identical or similar social positions and social roles. ...


Developmental psychology informs several applied fields, including: educational psychology, child psychopathology and developmental forensics. Developmental psychology complements several other basic research fields in psychology including social psychology, cognitive psychology, cognitive development, and comparative psychology. Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Child psychopathology is a term referring to children and adolescents with a psychological disorder. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Cognitive development procesess and theories Cognitive development refers to ...how a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors (Straughan, 1999) Jean Piaget was a psychologist who believed there are stages of cognitive development that each... Comparative psychology, taken in its most usual, broad sense, refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings. ...

Contents

Theory

Many theoretical perspectives attempt to explain development, among the most prominent are: Jean Piaget's Stage Theory, Lev Vygotsky's Social Contextualism (and its heir, the Ecological Systems Theory of Urie Bronfenbrenner), and especially the information processing framework employed by cognitive psychology. Jean Piaget [] (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children and his theory of cognitive development. ... Although there is no general theory of cognitive development, one of the most historically influential theory was developed by Jean Piaget, a Swiss Psychologist (1896-1980). ... Lev Vygotsky Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (Лев Семенович Выготский) (November 17 (November 5 Old Style), 1896 – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet developmental psychologist and the founder of the Cultural-historical psychology. ... Lev Vygotsky Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (Лев Семенович Выготский) (November 17 (November 5 Old Style), 1896 – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet developmental psychologist and the founder of the Cultural-historical psychology. ... Ecological Systems Theory, also called Development in Context or Human Ecology theory, specifies four types of nested environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems. ... Urie Bronfenbrenner (April 29, 1917-September 25, 2005) was a renowned psychologist and a co-founder of the U.S. national Head Start program. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ...


Historical theories continue to provide a basis for additional research, among them are Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development and John B. Watson's and B. F. Skinner's Behaviorism. Many other theories are prominent for their contributions to particular aspects of development. For example, Attachment theory describes kinds of interpersonal relationships and Lawrence Kohlberg describes stages in moral reasoning. Human Development is also an area of study in Education. One of the pioneers in defining the stages of human development was Robert J. Havighurst. His major contribution was defining the developmental tasks for six basic age groups. Erik Erikson June 15, 1902 - May 12, 1994 Erik Homburger Erikson (June 15, 1902 – May 12, 1994) was a German developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis. ... Eriksons stages of psychosocial development describe eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. ... John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878–September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, after doing research on animal behavior. ... Drawing of B. F. Skinner Burrhus Frederic B. F. Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do—including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors, and as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs... Attachment theory is a psychological theory about the evolved adaptive tendency to maintain proximity to an attachment figure. ... Lawrence Kohlberg (October 25, 1927 – January 19, 1987) was born in Bronxville, New York. ... Kohlbergs stages of moral development are planes of moral adequacy conceived by Lawrence Kohlberg to explain the development of moral reasoning. ... Robert James Havighurst (June 5, 1900 in De Pere, Wisconsin – January 31, 1991 in Richmond, Indiana) was a professor, physicist, educator, and aging expert. ...


Ecological Systems Theory

Generally regarded as one of the world's leading scholars in the field of developmental psychology, Bronfenbrenner's primary contribution was his Ecological Systems Theory, in which he delineated four types of nested systems, with bi-directional influences within and between systems. Photograph of a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso taken in 1997 by Frédéric de la Mure. ... Photograph of a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso taken in 1997 by Frédéric de la Mure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ecological Systems Theory, also called Development in Context or Human Ecology theory, specifies four types of nested environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems. ...

  1. Microsystem: Immediate environments (family, school, peer group, neighborhood, and childcare environments)
  2. Mesosystem: A system comprised of connections between immediate environments (i.e., a child’s home and school)
  3. Exosystem: External environmental settings which only indirectly affect development (such as parent's workplace)
  4. Macrosystem: The larger cultural context (Eastern vs. Western culture, national economy, political culture, subculture)

Each system contains factors that can powerfully shape development, as can the interaction of factors across systems. A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the... Students in Rome, Italy. ... A peer group is a group of people of approximately the same age, social status, and interests. ... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city or suburb. ... Childcare (also written child care[1] and babycare) is the act of caring for and supervising minor children. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... In the West, the term Eastern culture refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western World. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with distinct sets of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. ...


The major statement of this theory, The Ecology of Human Development (1979) had widespread influence on the way psychologists and others approached the study of human beings and their environments. It has been said that before Bronfenbrenner, child psychologists studied the child, sociologists examined the family, anthropologists the society, economists the economic framework of the times and political scientists the structure. As a result of Bronfenbrenner's groundbreaking work in "human ecology," a field that he created, these environments - from the family to economic and political structures - were viewed as part of the life course from childhood to adulthood.


Role of experience

A significant question in developmental psychology is the relation between innateness and environmental influence in regard to any particular aspect of development. This is often referred to as "nature versus nurture" or nativism versus empiricism. A nativist account of development would argue that the processes in question are innate, that is, they are specified by the organism's genes. An empiricist perspective would argue that those processes are acquired in interaction with the environment. Today developmental psychologists rarely take such extreme positions with regard to most aspects of development; rather they investigate, among many other things, the relationship between innate and environmental influences. One of the ways in which this relationship has been explored in recent years is through the emerging field of evolutionary developmental psychology. The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individuals innate qualities (nature) versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. ... In the field of psychology, nativism is the view that certain skills or abilities are native or hard wired into the brain at birth. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Evolutionary developmental psychology, (or EDP), is the application of the basic principles of Darwinian evolution, particularly natural selection, to explain contemporary human development. ...


One area where this innateness debate has been prominently portrayed is in research on language acquisition. A major question in this area is whether or not certain properties of human language are specified genetically or can be acquired through learning. The nativist position argues that the input from language is too impoverished for infants and children to acquire the structure of language. Linguist Noam Chomsky asserts that, evidenced by the lack of sufficient information in the language input, there is a universal grammar that applies to all human languages and is pre-specified. This has led to the idea that there is a special cognitive module suited for learning language, often called the language acquisition device. Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... “Learned” redirects here. ... Avram Noam Chomsky, Ph. ... Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ... A typical phrenology chart depicts the modules of the human mind as compartmentalised physical locations in the brain. ... The Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is a postulated organ of the brain that is supposed to function as a congenital device for learning symbolic language (ie. ...


The empiricist position on the issue of language acquisition suggests that the language input does provide the necessary information required for learning the structure of language and that infants acquire language through a process of statistical learning. From this perspective, language can be acquired via general learning methods that also apply to other aspects of development, such as perceptual learning. There is a great deal of evidence for components of both the nativist and empiricist position, and this is a hotly debated research topic in developmental psychology. Machine learning is an area of artificial intelligence concerned with the development of techniques which allow computers to learn. More specifically, machine learning is a method for creating computer programs by the analysis of data sets. ...


On the other hand, Chomsky's critique of a specific empiricist position on this issue, radical behaviorist Burrhus Frederic Skinner's Verbal Behavior written in 1957, is widely considered among developmental psychologists to have sparked the decline in influence of behaviorism and signaled the beginning of the cognitive revolution in psychology. Radical behaviorism is a philosophy that underlies the experimental analysis of behavior approach to psychology, developed by B. F. Skinner. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... Verbal Behavior (1957) is a book written by B.F. Skinner in which the author presents his ideas on language. ... The cognitive revolution is a name for an intellectual movement in the 1950s that combined new thinking in psychology, anthropology and linguistics with the nascent fields of computer science and neuroscience. ...


Mechanisms of development

Developmental psychology is concerned not only with describing the characteristics of psychological change over time, but also seeks to explain the principles and internal workings underlying these changes. Understanding these factors is aided by the use of models. Developmental models are often computational, but they do not necessarily need to be. A model must simply account for the means by which a process takes place. This is sometimes done in reference to changes in the brain that may correspond to changes in behavior over the course of the development. Computational accounts of development often use either symbolic, connectionist (neural network), or dynamical systems models to explain the mechanisms of development. An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents physical, biological or social processes, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program which attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... In animals the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for thought. ... Connectionism is an approach in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. ... A neural network is an interconnected group of neurons. ... The Lorenz attractor is an example of a non-linear dynamical system. ...


History of developmental psychology

The modern form of developmental psychology has its roots in the rich psychological tradition represented by Aristotle and Descartes. William Shakespeare had his melancholy character Jacques (in As You Like It) articulate the seven ages of man: these included three stages of childhood and four of adulthood. In the mid-eighteenth century Jean Jacques Rousseau described three stages of childhood: infans (infancy), puer (childhood) and adolescence in Emile: Or, On Education. Rousseau's ideas were taken up strongly by educators at the time. Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Scene from As you like it, Francis Hayman, c. ... William Shakespeares As You Like It contains a soliloquy in Act II, Scene 7 by the melancholy Jacques. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) was a Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment Biography of Rousseau The tomb of Rousseau in the crypt of the Panthéon, Paris Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland...


In the late nineteenth century, psychologists familiar with the evolutionary theory of Darwin began seeking an evolutionary description of psychological development; prominent here was G. Stanley Hall, who attempted to correlate ages of childhood with previous ages of mankind. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Granville Stanley Hall (February 1, 1844, Ashfield, Massachusetts - April 24, 1924) was a psychologist and educationalist who pioneered American psychology. ...


A more scientific approach was initiated by James Mark Baldwin, who wrote essays on topics that included Imitation: A Chapter in the Natural History of Consciousness and Mental Development in the Child and the Race: Methods and Processes. In 1905, Sigmund Freud articulated five psychosexual stages. Later, Rudolf Steiner articulated stages of psychological development throughout human life. The first three of these stages, which correspond closely with Piaget's later-described stages of childhood, were first presented in Steiner's 1911 essay The Education of the Child; his descriptions have been taken up by educators (in the Waldorf Schools) and by psychologists (in biographical therapy; see the works of Bernard Lievegoed). By the early to mid-twentieth century, the work of Vygotsky and Piaget, mentioned above, had established a strong empirical tradition in the field. James Mark Baldwin (Columbia, South Carolina, 1861—1934) was an American philosopher, educated at Princeton and several German universities. ... Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA: ) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... Piaget has several meanings: Jean Piaget - Professor of psychology Piaget SA - A Swiss watch making and jewellery company This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Waldorf Schools were developed for Emit Molt of the Waldorf Astoria Tobacco Company in 1919 by Rudolf Steiner. ... Bernard Lievegoed (1905-1992) was a Dutch medical doctor, psychiatrist and author. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Lev Vygotsky Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (November 17 (November 5 (O.S.)), 1896—June 11, 1934) was a Russian developmental psychologist, discovered by the Western world in the 1960s. ... Piaget has several meanings: Jean Piaget - Professor of psychology Piaget SA - A Swiss watch making and jewellery company This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ...


The role of mothers

Traditionally mothers (and women generally) were emphasized to the exclusion of other caregivers. This has begun to change, with the emphasis now placed on a primary caregiver (regardless of gender or biological relation), as well as all persons directly or indirectly influencing the child (the family system). However, studies are showing that the role of the mother/father are more significant than first thought as we moved into the concept of primary caregiver.


For example, the traditional father had little to do with an infant directly, but his method of interacting with the mother (supportive, abusive, neglectful) had a great deal of impact on the infant indirectly.


The role of fathers

Studies [1] have show that children as young as 15 months benefit significantly from substantial engagement with their father.


Fathers have a substantial impact on child academic performance. Studies found that "fathers in two-parent families and nonresident fathers who were moderately or highly involved in their children's school had children who were significantly more likely than children with less involved fathers to receive mostly high marks, enjoy school, and never repeat a grade." [2]


There is a strong link between a child who is fatherless and criminal activity by that child. In a study of mostly low-income African-American and Hispanic families, professor Rebekah Levine Coley, found that "Nonresident fathers in low-income, minority families appear to be an important protective factor for adolescents…Greater involvement from fathers may help adolescents develop self-control and self-competence, and may decrease the opportunities adolescents have to engage in problem behaviors." [3]


Stages of development

Prenatal

The prenatal development of human beings is viewed in three separate stages:

  1. Germinal (conception through week 2)
  2. Embryonic (weeks 3 through 8)
  3. Fetal (week 9 through birth)

These stages are not the same as the trimesters of a woman's pregnancy. Mammalian embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation which leads to the development of a mammalian embryo. ... Fetal (U.S. English; Foetal UK English) development is the process in which a fetus (U.S. English; Foetus UK English) develops during gestation, from the times of conception until birth. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pregnancy#Timeline of a typical pregnancy. ...


The germinal stage least resembles a grown human. It begins when a sperm penetrates an egg in the act of conception (normally the result of sexual intercourse between a man and a woman). At this point a zygote is formed. Through the process of mitosis the cells divide and double. A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... For the video-related acronym, see OVA. A human ovum An ovum (or loosely, egg or egg cell) is a female sex cell or gamete. ... The term conception can refer to more than one meaning: Concept Fertilisation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Michelangelos David is widely considered to be one of the finest artistic portrayals of a man. ... Diverse women. ... A zygote (Greek: ζυγωτόν) is a cell that is the result of fertilization. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ...


The embryonic stage occurs once the zygote has firmly implanted itself into the uterine wall. It is in this stage that the vital organs are formed, and while the external body is still extremely dissimilar from an adult human, some features such as eyes and arms, and eventually ears and feet become recognizable. In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ...


The fetal period is when the brain most substantially forms, becoming more and more complex over the last few months.


During pregnancy the risk to the developing child from drugs and other teratogens, spousal abuse and other stress on the mother, nutrition and the age of the mother are quite acute. Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ... Spousal abuse is a wide spectrum of abuse types. ... In medical terms, stress is a physical or psychological stimulus that can produce mental or physiological reactions that may lead to illness. ... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption. ...

A baby in its mother's womb, viewed in a sonogram
A baby in its mother's womb, viewed in a sonogram

Three methods of determining fetal defects and health include the ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. ImageMetadata File history File links Baby_in_ultrasound. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Baby_in_ultrasound. ... Ultrasound is sound with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, this limit being approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz). ... Amniocentesis, or an Amniotic Fluid Test (AFT), is a medical procedure used for prenatal diagnosis, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is extracted from the amnion around a developing fetus. ... Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a form of prenatal diagnosis to determine genetic abnormalities in the fetus. ...


Ultrasound uses sound waves and a computer monitor, and is non-invasive, thus minimizing potential harm to fetus and mother. Unfortunately its ability to determine potential defect is also far less comprehensive than more risky methods. Ultrasound is sound with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, this limit being approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz). ...


Chorionic villus sampling is a form of prenatal diagnosis to determine genetic abnormalities in the fetus. It entails getting a sample of the chorionic villus (placental tissue) and testing it. It is generally carried out only on pregnant women over the age of 35 and those who have a higher risk of Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a form of prenatal diagnosis to determine genetic abnormalities in the fetus. ... Human fetus at eight weeks. ... The chorion undergoes rapid proliferation and forms numerous processes, the chorionic villi, which invade and destroy the uterine decidua and at the same time absorb from it nutritive materials for the growth of the embryo. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy), but a placenta has evolved independently also in other animals as well, for instance scorpions and velvet worms. ...


The advantage of CVS is that it can be carried out at 10-12 weeks of pregnancy, earlier than amniocentesis (which is carried out at 15-18 weeks). However, it is more risky than amniocentesis, with a 1 in 100 to 200 risk that it will cause a miscarriage. Amniocentesis, or an Amniotic Fluid Test (AFT), is a medical procedure used for prenatal diagnosis, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is extracted from the amnion around a developing fetus. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or accidental termination of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ...


Amniocentesis is another medical procedure used for prenatal diagnosis, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is extracted from the amnion around a developing fetus. It is usually offered when there may be an increased risk for genetic conditions (i.e. Down syndrome, sickle-cell disease, cystic fibrosis, etc) in the pregnancy. Amniocentesis done in the second trimester is often said to have a risk of fetal death between about 1 in 400 and 1 in 200. Often, genetic counseling is done before amniocentesis, or other types of genetic testing, is offered. Amniocentesis, or an Amniotic Fluid Test (AFT), is a medical procedure used for prenatal diagnosis, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is extracted from the amnion around a developing fetus. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Prenatal diagnosis is the diagnosis of disease or condition in a fetus or embryo before it is born. ... The amniotic sac is a tough but thin transparent pair of membranes which holds a developing embryo (and later fetus) until shortly before birth. ... For the alien race in Stephen Donaldsons The Gap Cycle, see Amnion (Gap Cycle). ... Human fetus at eight weeks. ... Sickle-cell disease is a group of genetic disorders caused by sickle hemoglobin (Hgb S or Hb S). ... Genetic counseling is the process by which patients or relatives, at risk of an inherited disorder, are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning in order to prevent, avoid or... Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a persons ancestry. ...


Although difficult, some methods of treating fetal disorders have been developed, both surgical and drug based. Genetic testing prior to pregnancy is also increasingly available.


Infancy

From birth until the child begins to speak, they are referred to as an infant. Developmental psychologists vary widely in their assessment of the infant's psychology, and the influence the outside world has upon it, but certain aspects are relatively clear. A human infant In basic English usage, an infant is defined as a child at the youngest stage of life, especially before they can walk or simply a child before the age of one. ...


While no agreement has yet been reached regarding the level of stimulation an infant requires, we are well aware that a normal level of stimulation is very important, and that a lack of stimulation and affection can result in retardation and a host of other developmental and social disorders. Some feel that classical music, particularly Mozart is good for an infant's mind. While some tentative research has shown it to be helpful to older children, no conclusive evidence is available involving infants. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ...


The majority of an infant's time is spent in sleep. At first this sleep is evenly spread throughout the day and night, but after a couple of months they generally become diurnal. A diurnal animal (dī-ŭrnəl) is an animal that is active during the daytime and sleeps during the night. ...


Infants can be seen to have 6 states, grouped into pairs:

  • quiet sleep and active sleep (dreaming, when REM occurs)
  • quiet waking, and active waking
  • fussing and crying

Infants respond to stimuli differently when in these different states. Habituation is frequently used in testing psychological phenomenon. Both infants and adults look less and less as a result of consistent exposure to a particular stimulus. The amount of time spent looking to a presented alternate stimulus (after habituation to the initial stimulus) is indicative of the strength of the remembered percept of the previous stimulus, or dishabituation. Dreaming is a common term among Indigenous Australians for a personal, or group, creation story and for the mythological time of creation, as well as for the places where the creation spirits now lie dormant in the land. ... Rapid eye movement (REM) is the stage of sleep during which the most vivid (though not all) dreams occur. ... Tears trickling down the cheeks Lacrimation is the bodys process of producing tears, which are a liquid to clean and lubricate the eyes. ... In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. ...


Habituation is used to discover the resolution of perceptual systems, for example, by habituating a subject to one stimulus, and then observing responses to similar ones, one can detect the smallest degree of difference that is detectable by the subject.


Infants have a wide variety of reflexes, some of which are permanent (blinking, gagging), and others transient in nature. Some with obvious purposes, some are clearly vestigial and some do not have obvious purposes. Primitive reflexes reappear in adults under certain conditions. Namely, neurological conditions like dementia, traumatic lesions, etc. A partial list of infantile reflexes includes: For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... A reflex action is essentially an automatic and specific response to a particular stimulus. ...

  1. Startle
  2. spreading out the arms (abduction)
  3. unspreading the arms (adduction)
  4. Crying (usually)
  • Tonic neck reflex or fencer's reflex
  • Rooting reflex, sucking reflex, suckling reflex: can be initiated by scratching the infant's cheek; the reaction is pursing of the lips for sucking.
  • Stepping reflex, step-up reflex: can be initiated if you support the infant upright from its armpits below a given surface so the baby lifts its foot and steps up on the surface (like climbing a stair).
  • Grasp reflex: can be initiated by scratching the infant's palm.
  • Parachute reflex: the infant is suspended by the trunk and suddenly lowered as if falling for an instant. The child spontaneously throws out the arms as a protective mechanism. The parachute reflex appears before the onset of walking.
  • Plantar reflex or Babinski reflex: a finger is stroked firmly down the outer edge of the baby's sole; the toes spread and extend out.

Infants have particularly poor vision, and are legally blind. They are capable of sight, however blurry. This improves over time, based on experience. Infants less than 2 months old are also thought to be color blind. The Moro reflex, also known as the startle reflex, is one of the infantile reflexes. ... The startle reaction, also called startle response or alarm reaction, is the response of mind and body to a sudden unexpected stimulus, such as a flash of light, a loud noise, or a quick movement near the face. ... Look up ARM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Human Anatomical Terms be merged into this article or section. ... In anatomy and physiology, adduction is the moving of limbs towards the midline of the body. ... Cry may refer to: The mammalian behavior that brings about tears Usually an expression of a sad emotion A song, from an album of the same name, released in 2002 by the band Simple Minds A single released in 2002 by American pop artist Mandy Moore This is a disambiguation... The asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) is a primitive reflex found in newborn humans, but normally vanishes by the childs first birthday. ... A reflex action is essentially an automatic and specific response to a particular stimulus. ... A reflex action is essentially an automatic and specific response to a particular stimulus. ... A reflex action is essentially an automatic and specific response to a particular stimulus. ... A reflex action is essentially an automatic and specific response to a particular stimulus. ... In medicine (neurology), the Babinski reflex or Babinski sign is a reflex that can identify disease of the spinal cord and brain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Blindness can be defined physiologically as the condition of lacking sight. ... Color blindness in humans is the inability to perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can distinguish. ...


Hearing is well-developed prior to birth, however, and a preference for the mother's heartbeat is well established. Infants are fairly good at detecting the direction from which a sound comes, and by 18 months their hearing ability is approximately equal to that of adults. Hearing is the following: Hearing is the sense by which sound is perceived. ...


Smell and taste are present, with infants having been shown to prefer the smell and taste of a banana, while rejecting the taste of shrimp. There is good evidence for infants preferring the smell of their mother to that of others. Young boy smelling a flower Olfaction, which is also known as Olfactics is the sense of smell, and the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ... Taste is one of the traditional five senses and refers to the ability to detect of flavor of foodstuffs and other substances (e. ...


Infants have a fully developed sense of touch at birth, and the myth believed by some doctors even today that infants feel no pain is inaccurate. Doctors are slowly becoming aware of the need for pain prevention for newborns.


Piaget felt that there were several sensorimotor stages within his broader Theory of cognitive development. Piaget has several meanings: Jean Piaget - Professor of psychology Piaget SA - A Swiss watch making and jewellery company This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Although there is no general theory of cognitive development, one of the most historically influential theory was developed by Jean Piaget, a Swiss Psychologist (1896-1980). ...

  • The first sub-stage occurs from birth to six weeks and is associated primarily with the development of reflexes. Three primary reflexes are described by Piaget: sucking of objects in the mouth, following moving or interesting objects with the eyes, and closing of the hand when an object makes contact with the palm (palmar grasp). Over these first six weeks of life, these reflexes begin to become voluntary actions; for example, the palmar reflex becomes intentional grasping. (Gruber and Vaneche, 1977[1]).
  • The second sub-stage occurs from six weeks to four months and is associated primarily with the development of habits. Primary circular reactions or repeating of an action involving only ones own body begin. An example of this type of reaction would involve something like an infant repeating the motion of passing their hand before their face. Also at this phase, passive reactions, caused by classical or operant conditioning, can begin (Gruber et al., 1977).
  • The third sub-stage occurs from four to nine months and is associated primarily with the development of coordination between vision and prehension. Three new abilities occur at this stage: intentional grasping for a desired object, secondary circular reactions, and differentiations between ends and means. At this stage, infants will intentionally grasp the air in the direction of a desired object, often to the amusement of friends and family. Secondary circular reactions, or the repetition of an action involving an external object occur begin; for example, moving a switch to turn on a light repeatedly. The differentiation between means also occurs. This is perhaps one of the most important stages of a child's growth as it signifies the dawn of logic (Gruber et al., 1977). Towards the late part of this sub-stage infants begin to have a sense of object permanence, passing the A-not-B error test.
  • The fourth sub-stage occurs from nine to twelve months and is associated primarily with the development of logic and the coordination between means and ends. This is an extremely important stage of development, holding what Piaget calls the "first proper intelligence." Also, this stage marks the beginning of goal orientation, the deliberate planning of steps to meet an objective (Gruber et al. 1977).
  • The fifth sub-stage occurs from twelve to eighteen months and is associated primarily with the discovery of new means to meet goals. Piaget describes the child at this juncture as the "young scientist," conducting pseudo-experiments to discover new methods of meeting challenges (Gruber et al. 1977).
  • The sixth sub-stage is associated primarily with the beginnings of insight, or true creativity. This marks the passage into the preoperational stage.
Special methods are required to study infant behavior.
Special methods are required to study infant behavior.

When studying infants, the habituation methodology is an example of a method often used to assess their performance. This method allows researchers to obtain information about what types of stimuli an infant is able to discriminate. In this paradigm, infants are habituated to a particular stimulus and are then tested using different stimuli to evaluate discrimination. The critical measure in habituation is the infants' level of interest. Typically, infants prefer stimuli that are novel relative to those they have encountered previously. Several methods are used to measure infants' preference. These include the high-amplitude sucking procedure, in which infants suck on a pacifier more or less depending on their level of interest, the conditioned foot-kick procedure, in which infants move their legs to indicate preference, and the head-turn preference procedure, in which the infant's level of interest is measured by the amount of time spent looking in a particular direction. A key feature of all these methods is that, in each situation, the infant controls the stimuli being presented. This gives researchers a means of measuring discrimination. If an infant is able to discriminate between the habituated stimulus and a novel stimulus, they will show a preference for the novel stimulus. If, however, the infant cannot discriminate between the two stimuli, they will not show a preference for one over the other. A reflex action or reflex is a biological control system linking stimulus to response and mediated by a reflex arc. ... Suction is the creation of a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. ... Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian conditioning, respondent conditioning or alpha-conditioning) is a type of associative learning. ... Operant conditioning is the modification of behavior brought about over time by the consequences of said behavior. ... Motor coordination is a major element of motor skills. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Prehensility is the quality of an organ that has adapted for grasping or holding. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος logos (the word), is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Object permanence is the term used to describe the awareness that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible. ... A-not-B error was a term coined by Jean Piaget, referring to a particular error made by young children during substage 4 of their sensorimotor stage. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... Insight: Insight is a piece of information. ... Look up Creativity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A stimulus is the following: In physiology, a stimulus (physiology) is something external that elicits or influences a physiological or psychological activity or response. ... Since the late 1960s, the word paradigm (IPA: ) has referred to a thought pattern in any scientific discipline or other epistemological context. ...


Object permanence is an important stage of cognitive development for infants. Numerous tests regarding it have been done, usually involving a toy, and a crude barrier which is placed in front of the toy, and then removed, repeatedly. In sensorimotor stages 1 and 2, the infant is completely unable to comprehend object permanence. Jean Piaget conducted experiments with infants which led him to conclude that this awareness was typically achieved at eight to nine months of age. Infants before this age are too young to understand object permanence, which explains why infants at this age do not cry when their mothers are gone. "Out of sight, out of mind." A lack of Object Permanence can lead to A-not-B errors, where children reach for a thing at a place where it should not be. (see also: Infant metaphysics) Object permanence is the term used to describe the awareness that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible. ... Jean Piaget [] (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children and his theory of cognitive development. ... A-not-B error was a term coined by Jean Piaget, referring to a particular error made by young children during substage 4 of their sensorimotor stage. ... Common-sense metaphysics is a metaphysical system which makes an appeal to common sense understanding of reality. ...


Toddler

Intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed. Thinking is done in a nonlogical, nonreversible manner. Egocentric thinking predominates. Egocentrism is the practice of regarding oneself and ones own opinions or interests as most important. ...


Socially, toddlers are little people attempting to become independent. They walk, talk, use the toilet, and get food for themselves. Self-control begins to develop. If taking the initiative to explore, experiment, risk mistakes in trying new things, and test their limits is encouraged by the caretaker(s) the child will become autonomous, self-reliant, and confident. If the caretaker is overprotective or disapproving of independent actions, the toddler may begin to doubt their abilities and feel ashamed for the desire for independence. The child's autonomic development will be inhibited, be less prepared to successfully deal with the world in the future. Self control is the exertion of ones own will on their personal self - their behaviors, actions, thought processes. ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ...


Early Childhood

When children go to preschool, they broaden their social horizons and become more engaged with those around them. Impulses are channeled into fantasies, which leaves the task of the caretaker to balance eagerness for pursuing adventure, creativity and self expression with the development of responsibility. If caretakers are properly encouraging while being consistently disciplinary, children are more likely to develop positive self-esteem while becoming more responsible, and will follow through on assigned activities. If not allowed to decide which activities to perform, children may begin to feel guilt upon contemplating taking initiative. This negative association with independence will lead them to let others make decisions in place of them.


Childhood

In this stage intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Operational thinking develops, which means actions are reversible, and egocentric thought diminishes.


Children go through the transition from the world at home to that of school and peers. Children learn to make things, use tools, and acquire the skills to be a worker and a potential provider. Children can now receive feedback from outsiders about their accomplishments. If children can discover pleasure in intellectual stimulation, being productive, seeking success, they will develop a sense of competence. If they are not successful or cannot discover pleasure in the process, they may develop a sense of inferiority and feelings of inadequacy that may haunt them throughout life. This is when children think of them selves as industrious or as inferior.


Adolescence

Adolescence is the period of life between the onset of puberty and the full commitment to an adult social role, such as worker, parent, and/or citizen. It is the period known for the formation of personal and social identity (see Erik Erikson) and the discovery of moral purpose (see William Damon). Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts and formal reasoning. A return to egocentric thought often occurs early in the period. Only 35% develop the capacity to reason formally during adolescence or adulthood. (Huitt, W. and Hummel, J. January 1998) [4] Erik Erikson June 15, 1902 - May 12, 1994 Erik Homburger Erikson (June 15, 1902 – May 12, 1994) was a German developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis. ... William Damon, born in 1944 in Brockton, Mass, is a Professor of Education at Stanford University, Director of the Stanford Center on Adolescence, and Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace. ... Egocentrism is the practice of regarding oneself and ones own opinions or interests as most important. ...


The adolescent asks "Who am I? Who do I want to be?" Like toddlers, adolescents must explore, test limits, become autonomous, and commit to an identity, or sense of self. Different roles, behaviours and ideologies must be tried out to select an identity. Role confusion, inability to choose vocation, sexual orientation and one's role in life can result from a failure to achieve a sense of identity. Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... // Computer programming In object-oriented programming, object identity is a mechanism for distinguishing different objects from each other. ... The self is a key construct in several schools of psychology. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ...


Early Adulthood

The person must learn how to form intimate relationships, both in friendship and love. The development of this skill relies on the resolution of other stages. It may be hard to establish intimacy if you haven't developed trust or a sense of identity. If this skill is not learned the alternative is alienation, isolation, a fear of commitment, and the inability to depend on others.


Middle age

Middle adulthood generally refers to the period between ages 35 to 60. During this period, the middle-aged experience a conflict between generativity and stagnation. They may either feel a sense of contributing to the next generation and their community or a sense of purposelessness.


Physically, the middle-aged experience a decline in muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output. Also, women experience menopause and a sharp drop in the hormone estrogen. Men do not have an equivalent to menopause, but they do experience a decline in sperm count and speed of ejaculation and erection. Menopause is the physiological cessation of menstrual cycles associated with advancing age in women. ... Estriol. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... Ejaculation is the ejecting of semen from the penis, and is usually accompanied by orgasm. ... The erection of the penis, clitoris or a nipple is its enlarged and firm state. ...


Most men and women remain capable of sexual satisfaction after middle age.


Old age

This stage generally refers to those over 60 years. During old age, people experience a conflict between integrity vs. despair. When reflecting on their life, they either feel a sense of accomplishment or failure.


Physically, older people experience a decline in muscular strength, reaction time, stamina, hearing, distance perception, and the sense of smell. They also are more susceptible to severe diseases such as cancer and pneumonia due to a weakened immune system. Mental disintegration may also occur, leading to Dementia or Alzheimer's Disease. However, partially due to a lifetime's accumulation of antibodies, the elderly are less likely to suffer from common diseases such as the cold or flu. For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ...


Whether or not intellectual powers increase or decrease with age remains controversial. Longitudinal studies have suggested that intellect declines, while cross-sectional studies suggest that intellect is stable. It is generally believed that crystallized intelligence increases up to old age, while fluid intelligence decreases with age. A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves observations of the same items over long periods of time, often many decades. ... Cross-sectional studies form a class of research methods that involve observation of some subset of a population of items all at the same time. ... In psychometric psychology, fluid and crystallized intelligence (abbreviated gF and gC, respectively) are factors of general intelligence identified by Raymond Cattell (1971). ... In psychometrics, fluid and crystallized intelligence (abbreviated gf and gc respectively) are factors of intelligence test scores originally described by Raymond Cattell. ...


Death

see Erikson's stages of psychosocial development Eriksons stages of psychosocial development describe eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. ...


Schools of psychology

Cognitive development

Main article: Cognitive psychology
Main article: Cognitive development

Cognitive development is primarily concerned with the ways in which infants and children acquire and develop internal mental capabilities such as problem solving, memory, and language.. Major topics in cognitive development are the study of language acquisition and the development of perceptual and motor skills. Piaget was one of the influential early psychologists to study the development of cognitive abilities. His theory suggests that development proceeds through a set of stages from infancy to adulthood and that there is an end point or goal. Other accounts, such as that of Lev Vygotsky, have suggested that development does not progress through stages rather that the development process that begins at birth and continues until death is too complex for such structure and finality. Rather, from this viewpoint, developmental processes proceed more continuously, thus it should be analyzed, instead of a product to be obtained. Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Cognitive development procesess and theories Cognitive development refers to ...how a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors (Straughan, 1999) Jean Piaget was a psychologist who believed there are stages of cognitive development that each...


In addition, modern cognitive development has largely moved away from Piagetian stage theories, and is influenced by accounts of domain specificity, which argue that development is guided by innate evolutionarily specificed and content-specific information processing mechanisms. Domain-specificity is a theoretical position in cognitive science (especially modern cognitive development) that argues that many aspects of cognition are supported by specialized, presumably evolutionarily specified, learning devices. ...


Social development

Social psychology is the study of the nature and causes of human social behavior, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. As the mind is the axis around which social behavior pivots, social psychologists tend to study the relationship between mind(s) and social behaviors. In early-modern social science theory, John Stuart Mill, Comte, and others, laid the foundation for social psychology by asserting that human social cognition and behavior could and should be studied scientifically like any other natural science. Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. ... John Stuart Mill (20th May 1806 – 8th May 1873), a British philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Social cognition is the name for both a branch of psychology that studies the cognitive processes involved in social interaction, and an umbrella term for the processes themselves. ... The lunar farside as seen from Apollo 11 Natural science is the rational study of the universe via rules or laws of natural order. ...


Attachment Theory

Main article: Attachment Theory

Attachment Theory focuses on close, intimate, emotionally meaningful relationships. Its methods of study involve such approaches as the Strange Situation Protocol developed by Mary Ainsworth and the Adult Attachment Interview developed by Mary Main. Attachment Theory was developed by Sir John Bowlby. The attachment is described as a biological system that evolved to ensure the survival of the infant. Attachment behavior is evoked whenever the person is threatened or stressed and involves actions to move toward the person(s) who create a sense of physical, emotional and psychological safety for the individual. Attachment theory is a psychological theory about the evolved adaptive tendency to maintain proximity to an attachment figure. ... Mary Ainsworth (December 1913 - 1999) was an American developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with The Strange Situation as well as her work in the development of Attachment Theory. ... John Bowlby (1907 - 1990) was a British developmental psychologist in the psychoanalytic tradition, notable for his pioneering work in attachment theory. ...


Research methods

Developmental psychology employs many of the research methods used in other areas of psychology. However, infants and children cannot always be tested in the same ways as adults, so different methods are often used to study development. A very wide range of research methods are used in psychology. ...


Child research methods

When studying older children, especially adolescents, adult measurements of behavior can often be used, but they may need to be simplified to allow children to perform certain tasks.


Lifespan development

Developmental psychologists have a number of methods to study changes in individuals over time.


In a longitudinal study, a researcher observes many individuals born at or around the same time (a cohort) and carries out new observations as members of the cohort age. This method can be used to draw conclusions about which types of development are universal (or normative) and occur in most members of a cohort. Researchers may also observe ways in which development varies between individuals and hypothesize about the causes of variation observed in their data. Longitudinal studies often require large amounts of time and funding, making them unfeasible in some situations. Also, because members of a cohort all experience historical events unique to their generation, apparently normative developmental trends may in fact be universal only to their cohort. Longitudinal studies form a class of research methods that involve observations of the same items over a longer time. ... For other meanings see cohort In statistics and demography, a cohort is a group of subjects — most often humans from a given population — defined by a condition on their date of birth. ... In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ...


In a cross-sectional study, a researcher observes differences between individuals of different ages at the same time. This generally requires less resources than the longitudinal method, and because the individuals come from different cohorts, shared historical events are not so much of a confounding factor. By the same token, however, cross-sectional research may not be the most effective way to study differences between participants, as these differences may result not from their different ages but from their exposure to different historical events. Cross-sectional studies form a class of research methods that involve observation of some subset of a population of items all at the same time. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


An accelerated longitudinal design or cross-sequential study combines both methodologies. Here, a researcher observes members of different birth cohorts at the same time, and then tracks all participants over time, charting changes in the groups. By comparing differences and similarities in development, one can more easily determine what changes can be attributed to individual or historical environment, and which are truly universal. Clearly such a study can be even more resource-consuming than a longitudinal study.


Additionally, these are all correlational, not experimental, designs, and so one cannot readily infer causation from the data they yield. Nonetheless, correlational research methods are common in the study of development, in part due to ethical concerns. In a study of the effects of poverty on development, for instance, one cannot easily randomly assign certain families to a poverty condition and others to an affluent one, and so observation alone has to suffice. Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions of going to the bathroom. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Research ethics involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving scientific research. ... In experimental design, the random placement of participants in experimental versus control groups in order to insure that all groups are matched at the outset of the experiment. ...


Theorists & theories

Jean Piaget [] (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children and his theory of cognitive development. ... Although there is no general theory of cognitive development, one of the most historically influential theory was developed by Jean Piaget, a Swiss Psychologist (1896-1980). ... Lawrence Kohlberg (October 25, 1927 – January 19, 1987) was born in Bronxville, New York. ... Kohlbergs stages of moral development are planes of moral adequacy conceived by Lawrence Kohlberg to explain the development of moral reasoning. ... Jerome S. Bruner (b. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Constructivism is a set of assumptions about the nature of human learning that guide constructivist learning theories and teaching methods of education. ... In education and psychology, learning theories help us understand the process of learning. ... Jerome S. Bruner (b. ... Lev Vygotsky Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (Лев Семенович Выготский) (November 17 (November 5 Old Style), 1896 – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet developmental psychologist and the founder of the Cultural-historical psychology. ... Lev Vygotsky Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (Лев Семенович Выготский) (November 17 (November 5 Old Style), 1896 – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet developmental psychologist and the founder of the Cultural-historical psychology. ... Lev Vygotskys notion of zone of proximal development (зона ближайшего развития), often abbreviated ZPD, is the gap between a learners current or actual development level determined by independent problem-solving and the learners emerging or potential level of development. ... Urie Bronfenbrenner (April 29, 1917-September 25, 2005) was a renowned psychologist and a co-founder of the U.S. national Head Start program. ... Ecological Systems Theory, also called Development in Context or Human Ecology theory, specifies four types of nested environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems. ... Jerome Kagan (born 1929) was one of the key pioneers of developmental psychology. ... John Bowlby (1907 - 1990) was a British developmental psychologist in the psychoanalytic tradition, notable for his pioneering work in attachment theory. ... Harry F. Harlow (October 31, 1905–1981) was an American psychologist best known for his studies on affection and development using rhesus monkeys and surrogate wire or terrycloth mothers. ... Mary Ainsworth (December 1913 - 1999) was an American developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with The Strange Situation as well as her work in the development of Attachment Theory. ... Attachment theory is a psychological theory about the evolved adaptive tendency to maintain proximity to an attachment figure. ... Erik Erikson June 15, 1902 - May 12, 1994 Erik Homburger Erikson (June 15, 1902 – May 12, 1994) was a German developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis. ... Eriksons stages of psychosocial development describe eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. ... Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA: ) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Emmy E. Werner is an American developmental psychologist. ... For the band see Resilience (band) Resilience generally means the ability to recover from (or to resist being affected by) some shock, insult, or disturbance. ...

See also

This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... Cognitive development procesess and theories Cognitive development refers to ...how a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors (Straughan, 1999) Jean Piaget was a psychologist who believed there are stages of cognitive development that each... In Developmental psychology, a stage is a distinct phase in an individuals development. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Evolutionary developmental psychopathology is an approach to the understanding of psychiatric disorders based on the following: that human adaptations were forged to function in past environments rather than the current environment; that investigations of brain-damaged patients should be included in the modeling of disorders to facilitate the mapping of... Evolutionary educational psychology is the study of the relation between inherent folk knowledge and abilities and accompanying inferential and attributional biases as these influence academic learning in evolutionarily novel cultural contexts, such as schools and the industrial workplace. ... Life history theory is a method of analysis in animal and human biology, psychology, and especially evolutionary sociobiology which postulates that many of the physiological traits and behaviors of individuals may be best understood in relation to the key maturational and reproductive characteristics that define the life course. ... Pre- and perinatal psychology is the study of the psychological implications of the earliest experiences of the individual, before (prenatal) and during (perinatal) childbirth. ...

Notes

  1. ^ *Piaget, J. (1977). "The essential Piaget" ed by Howard E. Gruber and J. Jacques Voneche Gruber, New York: Basic Books

External links

  • Developmental Psychology: lessons for teaching and learning developmental psychology
  • GMU’s On-Line Resources for Developmental Psychology: a web directory of Developmental Psychology organizations
  • Psychology Resources
  • Evolutionary Developmental Psychology (in the journal Child Development)
  • Child Development and Evolutionary Psychology (in the journal Child Development)
  • Gerhard Medicus. The Inapplicability of the Biogenetic Rule to Child Development (pdf).
  • Developmental psychology at The Psychology Wiki
  • Developmental psychology forum
  • Psychology Wikia IRC channel
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