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Encyclopedia > Devanagari
Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century)
Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century)

Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced /ˌdeɪvəˈnɑ:gəri:/) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. Download high resolution version (1161x1125, 419 KB)Rigveda MS in Sanskrit on paper, India, early 19th c. ... Download high resolution version (1161x1125, 419 KB)Rigveda MS in Sanskrit on paper, India, early 19th c. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... ISCII (Indian Script Code for Information Interchange) is a coding scheme for representing various Indic scripts. ... An alphasyllabary or abugida (a term coined by Peter T. Daniels) is a writing system whose basic signs denote consonants with an inherent vowel and where consistent modifications of the basic sign indicate other following vowels than the inherent one (or, in some cases, the lack of a vowel, for... An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters—basic written symbols—each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past. ... Writing is a process which may refer to two activities: the inscribing characters on a medium, with the intention of forming words and other lingual constructs that represent language and record information, or the creation of information to be conveyed through written language. ... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken in most states in northern and central India. ... Marathi (मराठी) is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Kashmiri is a Dardic Indo-Aryan language primarily in Kashmir, a formerly independent state now occupied in part by India and Pakistan. ... Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Bihari is a name given to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken in the Bihar region of India. ... Bhili is a Central Indo_Aryan language spoken in west_central India, in the region east of Ahmadabad. ... Konkani is a term used to refer both to a language and to an Indian ethnic group. ... Bhojpuri is the main language spoken in the Indian states of Bihar and Jharkhand, and it is also spoken in the Purvanchal region of Uttar Pradesh. ... Nepali is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Burma. ...


The transliteration used in this article follows the popular National Library at Calcutta romanization. The ITRANS [2] is a lossless transliteration scheme of Devanagari into ASCII that is widely used on Usenet. In ITRANS, the word Devanagari is written as "devanaagarii". The National Library at Calcutta romanization is the most widely used in dictionaries and grammars of Indic languages. ... ITRANS (Indian languages TRANSliteration) is an ASCII transliteration scheme for Indic scripts, particularly, but not exclusively, for Devanagari (used for the Sanskrit, Hindi, Nepali, Marathi and other languages). ... There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... Usenet is a distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP network of the same name. ...

Contents


Origins

edit
History of the Alphabet

Wadi el-Hol 19th c. BC Proto-Canaanite 14th c. BC An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters—basic written symbols—each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past. ... Two similar but undeciphered scripts believed to be ancestral to all modern alphabets are attested from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BCE): the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to 1500 BCE, and the Wadi el-Ħôl (or Wadi... Drawing of the 16 and 12 characters Wadi el-Hol inscriptions The Proto-Canaanite (also Proto-Sinaitic) alphabet is identified as the prototype of the Semitic alphabets that, mostly via the successful Phoenician alphabet became the ancestor of most scripts in use today. ...

Meroitic 3rd c. BC
Armenian 405
Georgian 5th c.
Orkhon 6th c.
Ogham 6th c.
Hangul 1446
Cree 1840

Devanagari emerged around 1200 AD out of the Siddham script, gradually replacing the earlier, closely related Sharada script (which remained in parallel use in Kashmir). Both are immediate descendants of the Gupta script, ultimately deriving from the Brāhmī script attested from the 3rd century BC. The descendants of Brahmi form the Brahmic family, including the national alphabets of many other Indian languages. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1000 BC and is derived from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1000 BC and is derived from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... The Samaritan alphabet is a direct descendant of the paleo-Hebrew variety of the Phoenician alphabet, the more commonly known Hebrew alphabet having been adapted from the Aramaic alphabet under the Persian Empire. ... Aramaic was for a long time (between the later Assyrian empire and the Abbasid Caliphate) a lingua franca in the Middle East; its alphabet, though itself derived from the Phoenician alphabet, therefore superseded the Old Hebrew alphabet that had been independently descended from the Phoenician alphabet. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... The Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd century AD for writing the hymns of Zarathustra (a. ... Brahmi refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 5th century BC. The best known inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka, c. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Old Italic refers to a number of related historical alphabets used on the Italian peninsula which were used for some non-Indo-European languages (Etruscan and probably North Picene), various Indo-European languages belonging to the Italic branch (Faliscan and members of the Sabellian group, including Oscan, Umbrian, and South... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. ... The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes, formerly used to write Germanic languages, mainly in Scandinavia, and the British Isles. ... The South Arabian alphabet branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... The Geez language (or Giiz language) is an ancient language that developed in the Ethiopian Highlands of the Horn of Africa as the language of the peasantry. ... The Meroitic script is an alphabet of Egyptian (Hieroglyphic) origin used in Kingdom of Meroë. Some scholars, e. ... Turkic people living in Central Asia developed various alphabets in early ages. ... Ogham (Old Irish Ogam) was an alphabet used primarily to represent Gaelic languages that was probably often written in wood in early times. ... Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language, as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China. ... Canadian aboriginal syllabic writing (often syllabics for short) is a family of writing schemes which are used to write a number of aboriginal Canadian languages from the Algonquian, Athabaskan and Inuit language families. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France Births Matthew Paris, English Benedictine monk and chronicler (approximate date). ... Siddham (Sanskrit, accomplished or perfected) is the name of a North Indian script used for writing Sanskrit. ... Kashmiri Shaivaite manuscript (17th or 18th century) The Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts, developed from ca. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The Gupta script was used for writing Sanskrit and is associated with the Gupta Empire of India which was a period of material prosperity and great religious and scientific developments. ... Brahmi refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 5th century BC. The best known inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka, c. ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ...


Etymology

The name Devanagari derives from Sanskrit deva "divine, excellent", and nāgarī "urban", a female vrddhi adjective derived from nagara "city"; they form a tatpurusha compound, meaning the "divine urban" script. The Nagari script is an earlier form of Devanagari, appearing in ca. the 8th century as an eastern variant of the Gupta script, contemporary to Sharada, its western variant. The name Devanagari should therefore be understood as "excellent or perfected form of the Nagari script". Deva a Hindu deity Deva is also a type of supernatural being in traditional Buddhist cosmology. ... Vrddhi is a Sanskrit word meaning growth (cognate to English weird, Old English wyrd). ... A Tatpurusha is a type of compound in Sanskrit grammar. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Gupta script was used for writing Sanskrit and is associated with the Gupta Empire of India which was a period of material prosperity and great religious and scientific developments. ... Sharada can refer to: another name for the Hindu goddess Saraswati the Sharada script This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Interpreted by popular etymology to refer to a "City of the Gods", the name in certain Yogic traditions was taken to refer to the body of the individual. The philosophy behind this is that when one meditates on the specific sounds of the Devanagari alphabet, the written forms appear spontaneously in the mind. A fake etymology is an invented explanation (etymology) for the origin of a word. ... Hatha Yoga posture Yoga is a form of mysticism that developed on the Indian subcontinent in the Hindu cultural context. ... Meditation usually refers to a state in which the body is consciously relaxed and the mind is allowed to become calm and focused. ... A schematic representation of auditory signaling Sound is vibration, as perceived by the sense of hearing. ...


Principles

Devanagari is a form of alphabet called an abugida, as each consonant has an inherent vowel (a), that can be changed with the different vowel signs. Most consonants can be joined to one or two other consonants so that the inherent vowel is suppressed. The resulting form is called a ligature. Many ligatures appear simply as two individual consonants joined together, and so are a form of ligature. Some ligatures are more elaborately formed and not as easily recognized as containing the individual consonants. An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters—basic written symbols—each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past. ... An alphasyllabary or abugida (a term coined by Peter T. Daniels) is a writing system whose basic signs denote consonants with an inherent vowel and where consistent modifications of the basic sign indicate other following vowels than the inherent one (or, in some cases, the lack of a vowel, for... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ...


Devanagari is written from left to right. In Sanskrit, words were written together without spaces, so that the top bar is unbroken, although there were some exceptions to this rule. The break of the top line primarily marks breath groups. In modern languages, word breaks are used. Devanagari has no case distinction, i.e. no majuscule and minuscule letters. Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ...


Sanskrit spelling was phonetic, but with historical changes, the spelling of modern languages written in Devanagari may only be partly phonetic in the sense that a word written in it can only be pronounced in one way, but not all possible pronunciations can be written perfectly. Devanagari has 34 consonants (vyanjana), and 12 vowels (svara). A syllable (akshara) is formed by the combination of zero or one consonants and one vowel. Phonetics (from the Greek word phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... A consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture sufficient to cause audible turbulence, at one or more points along the vocal tract. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article discusses the unit of speech. ...


Symbols of Devanagari

All the vowels in Devanagari are attached to the top or bottom of the consonant or to an AA vowel sign attached to the right of the consonant, with the exception of the I vowel sign, which is attached on the left. In the Devanagari vowel table below, the "Letter" column contains the symbol used when a vowel occurs without a consonant, the "Vowel sign with [p]" column contains the symbol used when a vowel is attached to a consonant, shown with the "p" letter as an example, the "Unicode name" column contains the name given in the Unicode specification for the vowel, and the "IPA" column contains the International Phonetic Alphabet character(s) corresponding to the Hindi pronunciation of the Devanagari character. The International Phonetic Alphabet is a phonetic alphabet used by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) the human vocal apparatus can produce. ... Phonetic ™ (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a special voice mailbox for the purpose of converting all incoming voice messages into actual text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS, text... In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet is a phonetic alphabet used by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) the human vocal apparatus can produce. ...

Devanagari vowels
Letter Vowel sign with [p] Unicode name IPA
(none) a ə
पा aa ɑ
पि i ɪ
पी ii i
पु u ʊ
पू uu u
पृ vocalic r rɪ ([r ̩]) in Sanskrit)
पॄ vocalic rr rɪ ([rː̩]) in Sanskrit)
पॢ vocalic l ([l ̩]) in Sanskrit)
पॣ vocalic ll (lː̩]) in Sanskrit)
पॅ candra e
पॆ short e e
पे e e(ː)
पै ai ɛ ([ai])} in Sanskrit)
पो o o(ː)
पौ au ɔ ([au]) in Sanskrit)
Other modifier symbols
Symbol with [p] Unicode name Function IPA
प् virama Called halant; suppresses the inherent vowel. [p]
पँ candrabindu Nasalizes vowel [pə̃]
पं anusvara Nasalizes vowel [pə̃]
पः visarga Adds voiceless breath after vowel [pəh] / [pəə̥]
प़ nukta Used to indicate sounds borrowed from Persian (e.g., ph + nukta = f)
पऽ avagraha Used to prolong the vowel sound. [pə:]

When no vowel is written, 'a' is assumed. To specifically denote the absence of a vowel, a halant (also called virama) is used. The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ...

Devanagari consonants
Letter Unicode name Transliteration IPA
ka k k
kha kh kh
ga g g
gha gh gɦ
nga ŋ
ca c
cha ch h
ja j
jha jh ɦ
nya ñ ɲ
tta ʈ
ttha ṭh ʈh
dda ɖ / ɽ
ddha ḍh ɖɦ / ɽɦ
nna ɳ
ta t
tha th h
da d
dha dh ɦ
na n
pa p p
pha ph ph
ba b b
bha bh bɦ
ma m m
ya y j
ra r ɾ
la l l
lla ɭ
va v v
sha ś ɕ
ssa ʂ
sa s s
ha h h

Among these, is not used in Hindi. The entire set is used in Marathi.


Devanagari digits are written as follows:

Devanagari numerals
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Ligatures

Consonant clusters of two or more phonemes are realized by combining the aksharas into ligatures. Typically, the preceding akshara loses its vertical stroke and is put in direct contact with the succeeding one. In cases of aksharas that do not have vertical strokes in their independent form, the following aksharas are usually placed underneath the preceding one. In some cases, the ligatures take forms not readily recognizable as composed of the individual aksharas (e.g. ). Consonant clusters involving r are treated as a special case: preceding r- is realized as a right-facing hook above the following akshara, and following -r appears as a slanted stroke attached to the vertical stroke of the preceding akshara. In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ...


Devanagari in Unicode

The Unicode range for Devanagari is U+0900 .. U+097F. Gray blocks indicate characters that are undefined. In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ...

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+090x  
U+091x
U+092x
U+093x     ि
U+094x    
U+095x      
U+096x
U+097x                              

Devanagari Keyboard Layouts

INSCRIPT

INSCRIPT Keyboard Layout (Windows, Solaris, Java)

Devanagari INSCRIPT keyboard layout This is a screenshot of copyrighted computer software. ...

Typewriter

Standard typewriter keyboard layout used in India
Standard typewriter keyboard layout used in India

Download high resolution version (911x318, 30 KB)My own photograph of the keyboard of a typical Hindi typewriter. ...

Software

The Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging (ATSUI) is the Mac OS set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text. ... SIL International is a non-profit, Christian, scientific organization with the main purpose to study, develop and document lesser-known languages for the purpose of expanding linguistic knowledge, promoting world literacy and aiding minority language development. ... In computing, Pango is an open source library for rendering internationalized texts integrated into GTK+ 2. ... Uniscribe is the Microsoft Windows set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text. ... WorldScript - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:
Devanāgarī

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a sister project to Wikipedia and is part of the Wikimedia foundation, begun on July 10, 2003. ...

Electronic resources


  Results from FactBites:
 
Devanāgarī - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1005 words)
Devanagari emerged around 1200 AD out of the Siddham script, gradually replacing the earlier, closely related Sharada script (which remained in parallel use in Kashmir).
The philosophy behind this is that when one meditates on the specific sounds of the Devanagari alphabet, the written forms appear spontaneously in the mind.
All the vowels in Devanagari are attached to the top or bottom of the consonant or to an vowel sign attached to the right of the consonant, with the exception of the vowel sign, which is attached on the left.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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