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Encyclopedia > Deuteronomy
Tanakh
Torah | Nevi'im | Ketuvim
Books of the Torah
1. Genesis
2. Exodus
3. Leviticus
4. Numbers
5. Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, "second", from to deuteronomium touto, "this second law", pronounced /ˌdjuːtəˈrɒnəmi/) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. Its Hebrew name is Devarim, דְּבָרִים, "things", from the opening phrase Eleh ha-devarim, "These are the things...": the term can also stretch to mean "discourses" or "talks". The Greek title comes from the erroneous Septuagint rendering of the Hebrew mishneh ha-torah ha-zot, "a copy of this law" (Deuteronomy 17:18). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... 1. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Megillah redirects here. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew מגילת איכה) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox and Anglican biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics... Judith with the Head of Holophernes, by Christophano Allori, 1613 (Pitti Palace, Florence) The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded by Jews and Protestants. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... The Wisdom of Ben Sira (or The Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach or merely Sirach), also called Ecclesiasticus (not to be confused with Ecclesiastes) by some Christians, is a book written circa 180–175 BC. The author, Yeshua ben Sira, was a Jew who had been living in Jerusalem... It has been suggested that Epistle of Jeremy be merged into this article or section. ... Letter of Jeremiah is an Apocryphal book consisting of a letter ascribed to Jeremiah to the Jews in exile in Babylon warning them against idolatry by demonstrating its unreasonableness. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The additions to Daniel comprise of three additional chapters appended to the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel from the Greek Septuagint. ... Megillah redirects here. ... By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ... 1. ... The Biblical book 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the deuterocanonical books. ... The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion. ... This short work of only 15 verses purports to be the penitential prayer of the Judean king Manasseh, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous (2 Kings 21:1-18). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A series of three books in the Ethiopian Biblical canon. ... 4 Baruch, also known as the Paraleipomena of Jeremiah when combined with the Epistle of Jeremy, is a text regarded as apocryphal by all Christian denominations except for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Psalms 152 to 155 are additional Psalms found in the Syriac Peshitta, in Greek Septuagint manuscripts, and in the Qumran scrolls: 11QPs(a)154,155. ... 2 Baruch or the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch is a Jewish pseudepigraphical text written in the late 1st century CE or early 2nd century CE, after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE. It is not part of the canon of either the Jewish or most Christian... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Hebrew redirects here. ...

Contents

Summary

Deuteronomy consists of three sermons delivered by Moses to the Israelites in the plains of Moab, in the penultimate month of the final year of their wanderings through the wilderness. The book ends with the death of Moses. Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... Penultimate can mean next to last in a general context, but is used most often in linguistics as an adjective or noun to denote or refer to the penult of a word/ penultimate stress. ...


First sermon

Deuteronomy 1-4 recapitulates Israel's disobedient refusal to enter the Promised Land and the resulting forty years of wandering in the wilderness. The disobedience of Israel is contrasted with the justice of God, who is judge to Israel, punishing them in the wilderness and destroying utterly the generation who disobeyed God's commandment. God's wrath is also shown to the surrounding nations, such as King Sihon of Heshbon, whose people were utterly destroyed. In light of God's justice, Moses urges obedience to divine ordinances and warns the Israelites against the danger of forsaking the God of their ancestors. Main article: Land of Israel The Kingdom of David and Solomon. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Second sermon

Deuteronomy 5-26 is composed of two distinct addresses. The first, in chapters 5-11, forms a second introduction, expanding on the Ethical Decalogue given at Mount Sinai. The second, in chapters 12-26, is the Deuteronomic Code, a series of mitzvot (commands), forming extensive laws, admonitions, and injunctions to the Israelites regarding how they ought to conduct themselves in Canaan, the land promised by the God of Israel. The laws include: The Ethical Decalogue, is one of two Decalogues included in the Bible, and is better known as the Ten Commandments. ... For other places named Mount Sinai, see Mount Sinai (disambiguation) Sunrise on the Mount Sinai Sinai Peninsula, showing location of Jabal Musa Mount Sinai (2,285 meters) is a mountain in the southern Sinai Peninsula of Egypt. ... The Deuteronomic Code is the name given, by academics, to the law code within Deuteronomy, except for the portion discussing the Ethical Decalogue, which is usually treated seperately. ... Mitzvah מצוה is Hebrew for commandment (plural mitzvot; from צוה, tzavah - command). ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ...

Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). ... Terumah is a Hebrew word signifying gift, offering or donation. Historically, the Israelites would submit this tithe to the Kohanim during the times of the Temple in Jerusalem . ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... The Jubilee year (every 50th year) and the Sabbatical year (every seventh year) are Biblical commandments concerning ethical ownership of land. ... Slave redirects here. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Sukkot (Hebrew:  ; booths. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Cohen (disambiguation) Position of the kohens hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן, priest, pl. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... Molech Moloch, Molech or Molekh, representing Hebrew מלך mlk, (translated directly into king) is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in north Africa and the Levant. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... “Witch” redirects here. ... Necromancy (Greek νεκρομαντία, nekromantía) is a form of divination in which the practitioner seeks to summon operative spirits or spirits of divination, for multiple reasons, from spiritual protection to wisdom. ... Korban (Hebrew: sacrifice קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) refers to any one of a variety of sacrificial offerings described and commanded in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that were offered in a variety of settings by the ancient Israelites, and then by the Kohanim (the Jewish priests only) in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... The Cities of Refuge were six Biblical towns in Israel that offered asylum to someone who had unintentionally slain another. ... According to the Book of Genesis and 1 Chronicles, Amalek (עֲמָלֵק; Standard Hebrew ʿAmaleq, Tiberian Hebrew ʿĂmālēq) was the son of Eliphaz and the grandson of Esau (Gen. ... A working animal is a semi-domesticated animal that is kept by humans and often trained to perform various tasks, regardless whether they are also used for consumption of meat and milk or for other products (such as leather). ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... Yibbum (pronounced yee-boom) or Levirate marriage, in Judaism, is commonly translated as levirate marriage, one of the most complex types of marital unions mandated by Torah law, and which is not presently practiced in its full application. ... A get (גט, plural gittim or gittin) is the Hebrew word for a divorce document. ... Shatnez is the Jewish Prohibiton for wearing a garment that contains both wool and linen. ... For other uses, see Yoke (disambiguation). ... This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... Tzitzit or tzitzis (Ashkenazi) (Hebrew: Biblical ×¦×™×¦×ª Modern ×¦×™×¦×™×ª) are fringes or tassels worn by observant Jews on the corners of four-cornered garments, including the tallit (prayer shawl). ... Ammon or Ammonites (עַמּוֹן People, Standard Hebrew Ê»Ammon, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Ammôn), also referred to in the Bible as the children of Ammon, were a people living east of the Jordan river who along with the Moabites traced their origin to Lot, the nephew of the patriarch Abraham, and who were... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... Illegitimacy was a term in common usage for the condition of being born of parents who are not validly married to one another; the legal term is bastardy. ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... Ritual purification is a feature of many religions. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Tzaraath (tzaraas, tzaraat, tsaraas, tsaraat; Hebrew צרעת) is an affliction mentioned in the Tanach and other Jewish sources, starting in Leviticus 13–Leviticus 14. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Slave redirects here. ... Servitude may refer to: Service conscription employment Slavery indentured servitude ... A vow (Lat. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... Look up usury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For security (collateral), the legal right given to a creditor by a borrower, see security interest A security is a fungible, negotiable instrument representing financial value. ... For other uses, see Loan (disambiguation). ... A groin attack is an attempt to cause pain to the groin area of ones opponent, either through punching, kicking, grappling, squeezing or biting. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...

Third sermon

The concluding discourse sets out sanctions against breaking the law, blessings to the obedient, and curses on the rebellious. The Israelites are solemnly adjured to adhere faithfully to the covenant, and so secure for themselves, and for their posterity, the promised blessings.


Death of Moses

Moses conditionally renews the covenant between God and the Israelites, the condition being the loyalty of the people, and appoints Joshua as his heir to lead the people into Canaan. There follow three short appendices, namely: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ...

The Song of Moses is a poem that appears in Deuteronomy at 32:1-43. ... The Blessing of Moses is a poem that appears in Deuteronomy at 33:2-27. ... This is a list of the Tribes of Israel. ...

Composition

During the nineteenth century, secular biblical scholarship abandoned the traditional view that the Torah, and therefore Deuteronomy, was composed by Moses in the second millennium BC. Deuteronomy instead came to be seen as the document whose discovery is described in 2 Kings 22:8-20:[4] the High Priest Hilkiah finds an ancient lost scroll in the Temple and takes it to king Josiah; what Josiah reads there causes him to embark on a program of religious reform, suppressing the worship of all other gods but Yahweh and centralising the worship of Yahweh in the Temple.[5]. Mosaic authorship is the traditional ascription to Moses of the authorship of the five books of the Torah or Pentateuch - Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus and Deuteronomy. ... Hilkiah was a Hebrew Priest at the time of King Josiah. ... Josiah listening to the reading of the law by Julius Schnoor von Carolsfeld Josiah or Yoshiyahu (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; supported of the Lord) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ...


According to the hypothesis the original element of Deuteronomy, the scroll found in the temple, is the Deuteronomic Code at Deuteronomy 12-26.[6] Two alternative editions were created, possibly by the same author, and published simultaneously; one version contained the Code, the historical introduction (Deuteronomy 1-4),[7] a simple hortatory conclusion, and a list of curses (Deuteronomy 27),[8] the other contained the core, the theological introduction (Deuteronomy 5-11);[9] and a more extensive hortatory conclusion (Deuteronomy 28-30).[10] The first version presented the law as Moses's account of the events at Sinai, the second took the form of a suzerain-vassal treaty, of a form similar to the much older Covenant Code. At some point shortly afterwards the two were combined in a single document known as "Dtr1". The Deuteronomic Code is the name given, by academics, to the law code within Deuteronomy, except for the portion discussing the Ethical Decalogue, which is usually treated seperately. ... The Covenant Code is a text appearing in the Torah at Exodus 21:2 - 23:33. ...


The Deuteronomist author or authors also produced a history of Israel from Joshua to Josiah, consisting of the books of Joshua, Judges, the Books of Samuel, and the Books of Kings. In this history Josiah figured as the greatest of all the kings, the only one who never wavered from the law given by Moses, and the one who would restore the ancient kingdom of David and Solomon. But in 609 BC Josiah was killed at Megiddo by the Egyptians, and in 586 BC the Babylonians conquered Jerusalem and took its people into captivity. Consequently, at some point after 586, a second edition known as "Dtr2" was produced, containing additional warnings about faithlessness and exile, as well as promises of restoration in the event of repentance. This second edition inserted two originally independent documents, and framings for them, which now comprise the two poems at Deuteronomy 31-33,[11] and the account of Moses' death was moved to where it lies now, Deuteronomy 34. In the final redaction of the Torah, c.450 BC, Deuteronomy 34 gained additional verses describing the death of Moses from two other originally independent documents, the Jahwist and the Priestly source.[12] The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Megiddo is the English designation for an important ancient settlement and city site in the Jezreel Valley of northern Israel, known alternatively as Tel Megiddo (Hebrew) and Tell es-Mutesellim (Arabic). ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Jahwist, also referred to as the Jehovist, Yahwist, or simply as J, is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The Priestly Source (P) is the most recent of the four sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ...


More recently Meredith G. Kline has proposed that Deuteronomy should be viewed as a suzerein/vassal treaty between God and the people of Israel. According to Kline, a conservative scholar who wished to restore the case for the book's Mosaic provenance, these treaties were based on Hittite treaties of the second millennium BC. Moshe Weinfeld subsequently demonstrated that Deuteronomy’s extensive list of curses (28:23-35) fits better the style of seventh century BC Assyrian treaties. "Deuteronomy adapts the literary form and the vocabulary of a treaty but places the deity Yahweh, the God of Judah, in the place of the Assyrian king. ... The writer(s) are therefore deliberately taking an instrument of Assyrian subjugation, the client treaty, and using it as a mechanism to bolster Judean commitment to their national deity and to reinforce national identity".[13] Meredith G. Kline is an American theologian and Old Testament scholar. ... Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ... Moshe Weinfeld (born 1925, Poland) is Professor Emeritus of Bible at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and recipient of the 1994 Israel Prize for Bible. ...


Themes

Yahweh and Israel

Israelite polytheism was a feature of Israelite religion down through the end of the Iron Age.[14] Deuteronomy 32:8-9 describes the division of the peoples of the earth between the sons of the supreme god El: "When the Most High ("El Elyon") apportioned the nations, when he divided humankind, he fixed the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the gods, the Lord's ("Yahweh's") own portion was his people, Jacob his allotted share."[15] The theological position is monolatry rather than monotheism: Yahweh is the patron god of Israel, as Chemosh was the patron of Moab and Marduk of Babylon. Israel is Yahweh's vassal, and Israel's tenancy of the land is conditional on keeping the covenant, which in turn necessitates tempered rule by state and village leaders who keep the covenant. "These beliefs, dubbed biblical Yahwism, are widely recognized in biblical scholarship as enshrined in Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomistic History (Joshua through Kings), with pronounced affinities to the Pentateuchal E source and to the prophets Hosea, Jeremiah, and Malachi."[16] EL or El may mean: Electroluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon where a material such as a natural blue diamond emits light when an electric current is passed through it. ... Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyōn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Elyōn when it means God or is applied to... In religion and philosophy, henotheism is a term coined by Max Müller, meaning belief in, and possible worship of, multiple gods, one of which is supreme. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... For other uses, see Chemosh (disambiguation). ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see E (disambiguation). ... See also Hoshea, who has the same name in Biblical Hebrew. ... For other uses, see Jeremiah (disambiguation). ... For the Northern Irish singer songwriter, see Malachi Cush. ...


It is in the seventh and sixth centuries when the clearest monotheistic statements can be seen in the Bible, for example, in the apparently seventh-century works of Deuteronomy 4:35 and 39, as well as 1 Samuel 2:2, 2 Samuel 7:22, 2 Kings 19:15, 19 (= Isaiah 37:16, 20), and Jeremiah 16:19, 20, and the sixth-century portion of Isaiah 43:10-11, 44:6, 8, 45:5-7, 14, 18, 21, and 46:9. Because many of the passages involved appear in biblical works associated with either Deuteronomy, the Deuteronomic History (Joshua through Kings) or in Jeremiah (with its similar language and ideas as these other works), most scholarly treatments until recently have suggested that a deuteronomistic movement of this period developed the idea of monotheism as a response to the religious issues of the time.[17]


Aniconism

Closely linked to the emergence of monotheism in Deuteronomy is the prohibition of divine images (aniconism). Aniconism is the absence of representations, in a restricted sense that of God and living beings, and more generally of any type of artificial production of substitutes. ...


Kingship

Deuteronomy 17:14-20 contains the "kingship law", delimiting the role and duties of a king. The king is to be humble: "One from among your brethren you shall set as king over you", but "his heart shall not be lifted above his brethren."


Deuteronomy in later tradition

Judaism: the shema (שמע)

Deuteronomy 6:4-5: "Hear (shema), O Israel, the Lord (YHWH) is our God, the Lord (YHWH) alone!" has become the basic credo of Judaism, and its twice-daily recitation is a mitzvah (religious commandment). The shema goes on: "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and all thy soul and all thy might;" it has therefore also become identified with the central Jewish concept of the love of God, and the rewards that come with this. Shema Yisrael (שמע ישראל) are the first two words of a section of the Hebrew Bible that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Christianity

The authors of the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles reinterpreted Deuteronomy's Israel as the Church, the people both Jewish and Gentile to whom Jesus had come (Luke 1-2, Acts 2-5). Jesus himself was the "one (i.e., prophet) like me" sent by Yahweh and predicted by Moses in Deuteronomy 18:15 (Acts 3:22-23). St. Paul, drawing on Deuteronomy 30:11-14, explains that faith in Christ and the keeping of Torah ("righteousness") are one and the same: For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, "that the man which doeth those things shall live by them, but the righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise, Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from above:) Or, Who shall descend into the deep? (that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead,) but what saith it? The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the word of faith, which we preach; that if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved" (Romans 10:6-9).[18] For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... The name Saint Paul may refer to one of several possible meanings or references, though it is most commonly used to refer to the Biblical Paul of Tarsus. ...


See also

This article is about the academic treatment of the bible as a historical document. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... Mosaic authorship is the traditional ascription to Moses of the authorship of the five books of the Torah or Pentateuch - Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus and Deuteronomy. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... In Jewish services, the Torah is read over the course of a year, with one major portion read each week in the Sabbath morning service. ... Devarim, D’varim, or Debarim (דברים – Hebrew for “words,” the second word, and the first distinctive word, in the parshah) is the 44th weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the first in the book of Deuteronomy. ... Vaetchanan, Vaetchanan, Vetchanan, Va-etchanan, Va-Ethannan, VaEtchanan, Vaethchanan, Vaethhanan, Vaethanan, Vaeth-hanan, Vaeschanan, or Waethanan (ואתחנן — Hebrew for “and I pleaded,” the first word in the parshah) is the 45th weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the second... Eikev, Ekev, Ekeb, or Eqeb (עקב — Hebrew for “because,” the second word, and the first distinctive word, in the parshah) is the 46th weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the third in the book of Deuteronomy. ... Reeh, Reeh, Reih, or Ree (ראה — Hebrew for “see,” the first word in the parshah) is the 47th weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the fourth in the book of Deuteronomy. ... Shoftim, Shoftim, or Shofetim (שופטים — Hebrew for “judges,” the first word in the parshah) is the 48th weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the fifth in the book of Deuteronomy. ... Ki Teitzei, Ki Tetzei, Ki Tetse, Ki Thetze, Ki Tese, Ki Tetzey, or Ki Seitzei (כי תצא — Hebrew for “when you go,” the first words in the parshah) is the 49th weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the sixth in the book of Deuteronomy. ... Ki Tavo, Ki Thavo, Ki Tabo, Ki Thabo, or Ki Savo (כי תבוא — Hebrew for “when you enter,” the second and third words, and the first distinctive words, in the parshah) is the 50th weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the seventh in the book... Nitzavim, Nitsavim, Nitzabim, Netzavim, or Nesabim (ניצבים — Hebrew for “ones standing,” the second word, and the first distinctive word, in the parshah) is the 51st weekly Torah portion (parshah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the eighth in the book of Deuteronomy. ... Vayelech, Vayeilech, VaYelech, Va-yelech, Vayelekh, Va-yelekh, or Vayeleh (וילך — Hebrew for then he went out, the first word in the parshah) is the 52nd weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the ninth in the book of Deuteronomy. ... Haazinu, Haazinu, or HaAzinu (האזינו — Hebrew for listen, the first word in the parshah) is the 53nd weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the 10th in the book of Deuteronomy. ... VZot HaBerachah, VZot HaBracha, VZot Habracha, VeZot Ha’Brachah, Vezot HaBerachah, Vzot Habrachah, Ve-zot Ha-berakha, VZot Haberakhah, Vezot Haberakhah, Vezot Habberakhah, or Zos Habracha (וזאת הברכה — Hebrew for and this is the blessing, the first words in the parshah) is the 54th weekly...

References

  1. ^ http://bible.cc/deuteronomy/23-1.htm
  2. ^ Deuteronomy 32:1-47
  3. ^ (Deuteronomy 32:48-52)
  4. ^ 2 Kings 22
  5. ^ Richard Elliott Friedman, Who Wrote the Bible?
  6. ^ Deuteronomy 12-26.
  7. ^ Deuteronomy 14.
  8. ^ Deuteronomy 27.
  9. ^ Deuteronomy 5-11.
  10. ^ Deuteronomy 28-30.
  11. ^ Deuteronomy 31-33
  12. ^ Deuteronomistic History overview.
  13. ^ Peter Bedford, "Empires and Exploitation: The Neo-Assyrian Empire, p.23
  14. ^ Mark S. Smith, "The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts", (Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), at Bible and Interpretation
  15. ^ Deuteronomy 32
  16. ^ Norman K. Gottwald, review of Stephen L. Cook, The Social Roots of Biblical Yahwism, Society of Biblical Literature, 2004
  17. ^ Mark S. Smith, "The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts", (Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), at Bible and Interpretation
  18. ^ J. G. McConville, "Deuteronomy", in Dictionary of the Old Testament: The Pentateuch (IVP, 2002)

Richard Elliot Friedman is a writer and Professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature at UCSD. He is also Katzin Professor of Jewish Civilization: Hebrew Bible; Near Eastern Languages and Literatures. ...

External links

Versions and translations

  • Jewish translations:
    • Deuteronomy at Mechon-Mamre (modified Jewish Publication Society translation)
    • Deuteronomy (The Living Torah) Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's translation and commentary at Ort.org
    • Devarim - Deuteronomy (Judaica Press) translation with Rashi's commentary at Chabad.org
    • דְּבָרִים Devarim - Deuteronomy (Hebrew - English at Mechon-Mamre.org)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Deuteronomy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2181 words)
Deuteronomy consists chiefly of three discourses said to have been delivered by Moses a short time before his death, given to the Israelites, in the plains of Moab, in the penultimate month of the final year of their wanderings through the wilderness.
It is believed that the original element of Deuteronomy, the portion found in the temple, is the central core, the Deuteronomic Code, at Deuteronomy 12-26.
The narrative of Deuteronomy in isolation, at wikisource
Deuteronomy (1159 words)
Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible, also the fifth book of the Christian Old Testament.
Deuteronomy consists chiefly of three discourses delivered by Moses a short time before his death.
In his introduction to Deuteronomy, Don Isaac Abravanel (1437 - 1508) was clear that the book had a different author than the first four books of the Pentateuch.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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