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Encyclopedia > Deuterium
Hydrogen-2

General
Name, symbol deuterium, 2H or D
Neutrons 1
Protons 1
Nuclide Data
Natural abundance 0.015%
Half-life stable
Isotope mass 2.01355321270 u
Spin 1+
Excess energy 13135.720 ± 0.001 keV
Binding energy {{{binding_energy}}} ± {{{error2}}} keV

Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). Deuterium thus accounts for approximately 0.015% (on a weight basis, 0.030%) of all naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans on Earth (see VSMOW; the abundance changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another). Deuterium abundance on Jupiter is about 6 atoms in 10,000 (0.06% atom basis)[1]; these ratios presumably reflect the early solar nebula ratios, and those after the Big Bang. There is little deuterium in the interior of the Sun, since thermonuclear reactions destroy it. However, it continues to persist in the outer solar atmosphere at roughly the same concentration as in Jupiter. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x685, 11 KB)Hydrogen-2 isotope. ... This isotope table shows all of the known isotopes of the chemical elements, arranged with increasing atomic numbers (proton numbers) from left to right and increasing neutron numbers from top to bottom. ... An isotope is a form of an element with a different number of neutrons. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... The atomic mass unit (amu), unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... Binding energy is the energy required to disassemble a whole into separate parts. ... Kev can refer to either: A regional term for the chav social group in the United Kingdom An abbreviation - keV - of the unit Kiloelectronvolt An abbreviation for the given name Kevin. ... Binding energy is the energy required to disassemble a whole into separate parts. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... The parts-per notations are used to denote low concentrations of chemical elements. ... VSMOW, or Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water, is an isotopic water standard defined in 1968 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. ... Sol redirects here. ...


The nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common hydrogen nucleus contains no neutrons. The isotope name is formed from the Greek deuteros meaning "second", to denote the two particles comprising the nucleus. The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Differences between deuterium and common hydrogen (protium)

Chemical symbol

As an isotope of hydrogen, the accepted chemical symbol for deuterium is 2H. Despite this, the unofficial chemical element-like symbol D has been adopted by many, which is also the symbol for the charm meson. The significant difference in relative atomic weight compared with pure protium (1H) may well be the reason for this; deuterium's atomic weight is 2.014 u, compared to the mean hydrogen weight of 1.007947 u, and protium's of 1.007825 u. The isotope weight ratios within other chemical elements are largely insignificant in this regard, explaining the lack of unique isotope symbols elsewhere. General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... A chemical symbol is an abbreviation or short representation of the name of a chemical element. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... The charm quark is a second-generation quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. ... A list of mesons. ... ... Depiction of a hydrogen atom showing the diameter as about twice the Bohr model radius. ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or Dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ... In statistics, mean has two related meanings: the arithmetic mean (and is distinguished from the geometric mean or harmonic mean). ...


Natural abundance

Deuterium occurs in trace amounts naturally as deuterium gas, written 2H2 or D2, but most natural occurrence in the universe is bonded with a typical 1H atom, a gas called hydrogen deuteride (HD or 1H2H).[2] For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ...


The existence of deuterium on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system (as confirmed by planetary probes), and in the spectra of stars, is an important datum in cosmology. Stellar fusion destroys deuterium, and there are no known natural processes (for example, see the rare cluster decay), other than the Big Bang nucleosynthesis, which might have produced deuterium at anything close to the observed natural abundance of deuterium. This abundance seems to be a very similar fraction of hydrogen, wherever hydrogen is found. Thus, the existence of deuterium is one of the arguments in favor of the Big Bang theory over the steady state theory of the universe. This article is about the Solar System. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... This article is about the physics subject. ... Cluster decay is the nuclear process in which a radioactive atom emits a cluster of neutrons and protons. ... In cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (or primordial nucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than H-1, the normal, light hydrogen, during the early phases of the universe, shortly after the Big Bang. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... In cosmology, the steady state theory (also known as the Infinite Universe Theory or continuous creation) is a model developed in 1948 by Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, Hermann Bondi and others as an alternative to the Big Bang theory (known, usually, as the standard cosmological model). ...


The world's leading "producer" of deuterium (technically, merely enricher or concentrator of deuterium) is Canada, in the form of heavy water. Canada uses heavy water as a neutron moderator for the operation of the CANDU reactor design. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Qinshan Phase III Units 1 & 2, located in Zhejiang China: Two CANDU 6 reactors, designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), owned and operated by the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Company Limited. ...


Physical properties

The physical properties of deuterium compounds can be different from the hydrogen analogs; for example, D2O is more viscous than H2O. Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... H2O is the chemical formula for Water (molecule). ...


Deuterium behaves chemically similarly to ordinary hydrogen, but there are differences in bond energy and length for compounds of heavy hydrogen isotopes which are larger than the isotopic differences in any other element. Bonds involving deuterium and tritium are somewhat stronger than the corresponding bonds in light hydrogen, and these differences are enough to make significant changes in biological reactions (see heavy water). Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ...


Deuterium can replace the normal hydrogen in water molecules to form heavy water (D2O), which is about 10.6% more dense than normal water (enough that ice made from it sinks in ordinary water). Heavy water is slightly toxic in eukaryotic animals, with 25% substitution of the body water causing cell division problems and sterility, and 50% substitution causing death by cytotoxic syndrome (bone marrow failure and gastrointestinal lining failure). Prokaryotic organisms, however, can survive and grow in pure heavy water (though they grow more slowly). Consumption of heavy water would not pose a health threat to humans unless very large quantities (in excess of 10 liters) were consumed over many days. Small doses of heavy water (a few grams in humans, containing an amount of deuterium comparable to that normally present in the body) are routinely used as harmless metabolic tracers in humans and animals. Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Prokaryotes are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular) organisms without a nucleus. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ...


Quantum properties

The deuteron has spin +1 and is thus a boson. The NMR frequency of deuterium is significantly different from common light hydrogen. Infrared spectroscopy also easily differentiates many deuterated compounds, due to the large difference in IR absorption frequency seen in the vibration of a chemical bond containing deuterium, versus light hydrogen. The two stable isotopes of hydrogen can also be distinguished by using mass spectrometry. In particle physics, bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles having integer spin. ... Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys high magnetic field (800 MHz, 18. ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR Spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the IR region of the EM spectrum. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ...


Nuclear properties

Deuterium is one of only eight naturally occurring odd-odd isotopes. Ordinarily, odd-odd nuclei are unstable with respect to beta decay, because the decay products are even-even, and are therefore more strongly bound, due to nuclear pairing effects. Deuterium, however, benefits from having its proton and neutron coupled to a spin-1 state, which gives a stronger nuclear attraction; the corresponding state does not exist in the two-neutron or two-proton system, due to the Pauli exclusion principle, unless they have a higher relative orbital angular momentum. But that would mean that they are moving around each other, so that they have a higher total energy (both due to their kinetic energy and because their distance would be larger and their binding energy lower), and the nucleus would be unstable. In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. ... The Azimuthal quantum number (or orbital angular momentum quantum number) l is a quantum number for an atomic orbital which determines its orbital angular momentum. ... The kinetic energy of an object is the extra energy which it possesses due to its motion. ... Binding energy is the energy required to disassemble a whole into separate parts. ... Instability in systems is generally characterized by some of the outputs or internal states growing without bounds. ...


Deuterium as an isospin singlet

Due to the similarity in mass and nuclear properties between the proton and neutron, they are sometimes considered as two symmetric types of the same object, a nucleon. While only the proton has an electric charge, this is often negligible due of the weakness of the electromagnetic interaction relative to the strong nuclear interaction. The symmetry relating the proton and neutron is known as isospin and denoted τ. In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... Electromagnetic interaction is a fundamental force of nature and is felt by charged leptons and quarks. ... A Feynman diagram of a strong proton-neutron interaction mediated by a neutral pion. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ...


Isospin is an SU(2) symmetry, like ordinary spin, so is completely analogous to it. The proton and neutron form an isospin doublet, with a "down" state being a neutron, and an "up" state being a proton. Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree n is the group of n by n unitary matrices with determinant 1 and entries from the field C of complex numbers, with the group operation that of matrix multiplication. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... Categories: Stub ... In quantum mechanics, spin is an intrinsic property of all elementary particles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In quantum mechanics, spin is an intrinsic property of all elementary particles. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ...


A pair of nucleons can either be in an antisymmetric state of isospin called singlet, or in a symmetric state called triplet. In terms of the "down" state and "up" state, the singlet is In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... In theoretical physics, a singlet usually refers to a one-dimensional representation (e. ... Look up triplet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In quantum mechanics, spin is an intrinsic property of all elementary particles. ... In quantum mechanics, spin is an intrinsic property of all elementary particles. ... In theoretical physics, a singlet usually refers to a one-dimensional representation (e. ...

This is a nucleus with one proton and one neutron, i.e. a deuterium nucleus.


The triplet is And thus consists of three types of nuclei, which are supposed to be symmetric - a deuterium nucleus (actually a highly excited state of it), a nucleus with two protons, and a nucleus with two neutrons. The latter two nuclei are not stable or nearly stable, and therefore so is this type of deuterium (meaning that it is indeed a highly excited state of deuterium). After absorbing energy, an electron may jump from the ground state to a higher energy excited state. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... After absorbing energy, an electron may jump from the ground state to a higher energy excited state. ...


Approximated wavefunction of the deuteron

The total wavefunction of both the proton and neutron must be antisymmetric, because they are both fermions. Apart form their isospin, the two nucleons has also spin and spatial distribution of their wavefunction. The latter is symmetric if the deuteron is symmetric under parity (i.e. have an "even" or "positive" parity) , and antisymmetric if the deuteron is antisymmetric under parity (i.e. have an "odd" or "negative" parity). The parity is fully determined by the total orbital angular momentum of the two nucleons: if it is even then the parity is even (positive), and if it is odd then the parity is odd (negative). This article discusses the concept of a wavefunction as it relates to quantum mechanics. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... This article discusses the concept of a wavefunction as it relates to quantum mechanics. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... The Azimuthal quantum number (or orbital angular momentum quantum number) l is a quantum number for an atomic orbital which determines its orbital angular momentum. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ...


The deuteron, being an isospin singlet, is antisymmetric under nucleons exchange due to isospin, and therefore must be symmetric under the double exchnage of their spin and location. Therefore it can be in either of the following two different states: Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... In theoretical physics, a singlet usually refers to a one-dimensional representation (e. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ...

  • Symmetric spin and symmetric under parity. In this case, the exchange of the two nucleons will multiply the deuterium wavefunction by (-1) from isospin exchange, (+1) from spin exchange and (+1) from parity (location exchange), for a total of (-1) as needed for antisymmetry.
  • Antisymmetric spin and antisymmetric under parity. In this case, the exchange of the two nucleons will multiply the deuterium wavefunction by (-1) from isospin exchange, (-1) from spin exchange and (-1) from parity (location exchange), again for a total of (-1) as needed for antisymmetry.

In the first case the deuteron has is a spin triplet, so that its total spin s is 1. It also has an even parity and therefore even orbital angular momentum l ; The lower its orbital angular momentum, the lower its energy. Therefore the lowest possible energy state has s =1, l =0. In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... This article discusses the concept of a wavefunction as it relates to quantum mechanics. ... Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... This article discusses the concept of a wavefunction as it relates to quantum mechanics. ... Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... Look up triplet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... The Azimuthal quantum number (or orbital angular momentum quantum number) l is a quantum number for an atomic orbital which determines its orbital angular momentum. ... The Azimuthal quantum number (or orbital angular momentum quantum number) l is a quantum number for an atomic orbital which determines its orbital angular momentum. ...


In the second case the deuteron has is a spin singlet, so that its total spin s is 0. It also has an odd parity and therefore odd orbital angular momentum l . Therefore the lowest possible energy state has s =0, l =1. In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In theoretical physics, a singlet usually refers to a one-dimensional representation (e. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... The Azimuthal quantum number (or orbital angular momentum quantum number) l is a quantum number for an atomic orbital which determines its orbital angular momentum. ...


Since s =1 gives a stronger nuclear attraction, the deuterium ground state is in the s =1, l =0 state. In physics, the ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state. ...


The same considerations lead to the possible states of an isospin triplet having s =0, l =even or s =1, l =odd. Thus the state of lowest energy has s =1, l =1, higher than that of the isospin singlet. Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... Look up triplet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... In theoretical physics, a singlet usually refers to a one-dimensional representation (e. ...


The analysis just given is in fact only approximate, both because isospin is not an exact symmetry, and more importantly because the strong nuclear interaction between the two nucleons is related to angular momentum in a way that mixes different s and l states. That is, s and l are not constant in time (they do not commute with the Hamiltonian), and over time a state such as s =1, l =0 may become a state of s =1, l =2. Parity is still constant in time so these do not mix with odd l states (such as s =0, l =1). Therefore the quantum state of the deuterium is a superposition (a linear combination) of the s =1, l =0 state and the s =1, l =2 state, even though the first component is much bigger. Since the total angular momentum j is also a good quantum number (it is a constant in time), both components must have the same j, and therefore j =1. This is the total spin of the deuterium nucleus. Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... A Feynman diagram of a strong proton-neutron interaction mediated by a neutral pion. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... This gyroscope remains upright while spinning due to its angular momentum. ... Spin-orbit interaction, in quantum mechanics, is a shift in energy levels due to the potential energy of the spin magnetic moment of the electron in the magnetic field it feels as it moves through the electric field of the nucleus. ... A map or binary operation from a set to a set is said to be commutative if, (A common example in school-math is the + function: , thus the + function is commutative) Otherwise, the operation is noncommutative. ... In physics, Hamiltonian has distinct but closely related meanings. ... In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the simultaneous flip in the sign of all spatial coordinates: A 3×3 matrix representation of P would have determinant equal to –1, and hence cannot reduce to a rotation. ... A quantum state is any possible state in which a quantum mechanical system can be. ... The term superposition can have several meanings: Quantum superposition Law of superposition in geology and archaeology Superposition principle for vector fields Superposition Calculus is used for equational first-order reasoning This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In atomic physics, the total angular quantum momentum numbers parameterize the total angular momentum of a given electron, by combining its orbital angular momentum and its intrinsic angular momentum (i. ... Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantity in the dynamics of the quantum system. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ...


To summarize, the deuterium nucleus is antisymmetric in terms of isospin, and has spin 1 and even (+1) parity. The relative angular momentum of its nucleons l is not well defined, and the deuterium is a superposition of mostly l =0 with some l =2. Isospin (isotopic spin, isobaric spin) is a physical quantity which is mathematically analogous to spin. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... The term superposition can have several meanings: Quantum superposition Law of superposition in geology and archaeology Superposition principle for vector fields Superposition Calculus is used for equational first-order reasoning This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Magnetic and electric multipoles

In order to find theoretically the deuterium magnetic dipole moment μ, one uses the formula for a nuclear magnetic moment In physics, the magnetic moment of an object is a vector relating the aligning torque in a magnetic field experienced by the object to the field vector itself. ... The nuclear magnetic moment is the magnetic moment of an atomic nucleus and arises from the spin of the protons and neutrons. ...

with

g(l) and g(s) are g-factors of the nucleons. The general intelligence factor (abbreviated g) is a controversial construct used in the field of psychology (see also psychometrics) to quantify what is common to the scores of all intelligence tests. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ...


Since the proton and neutron have different values for g(l) and g(s), one must separate their contributions. Each gets half of the deuterium orbital angular momentum and spin . One arrives at In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Azimuthal quantum number (or orbital angular momentum quantum number) l is a quantum number for an atomic orbital which determines its orbital angular momentum. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ...

where subscripts p and n stand for the proton and neutron, and g(l)n = 0.


By using the same identities as here and using the value g(l)p = 1 in nuclear magneton units, we arrive at the following result, in nuclear magneton units The nuclear magnetic moment is the magnetic moment of an atomic nucleus and arises from the spin of the protons and neutrons. ... The nuclear magneton (symbol ), is a physical constant of magnetic moment, defined by: where: is the elementary charge, is the reduced Plancks constant, is the proton rest mass In the SI system of units its value is approximately: = 5. ... The nuclear magneton (symbol ), is a physical constant of magnetic moment, defined by: where: is the elementary charge, is the reduced Plancks constant, is the proton rest mass In the SI system of units its value is approximately: = 5. ...

For the s =1, l =0 state j =1 and we get, in nuclear magneton units The nuclear magneton (symbol ), is a physical constant of magnetic moment, defined by: where: is the elementary charge, is the reduced Plancks constant, is the proton rest mass In the SI system of units its value is approximately: = 5. ...

For the s =1, l =2 state with j =1 we get, in nuclear magneton units The nuclear magneton (symbol ), is a physical constant of magnetic moment, defined by: where: is the elementary charge, is the reduced Plancks constant, is the proton rest mass In the SI system of units its value is approximately: = 5. ...

The measured value of the deuterium magnetic dipole moment, in nuclear magneton units, is 0.857. This suggests that the state of the deuterium is indeed only approximately s =1, l =0 state, and is actually a linear combination of (mostly) this state with s =1, l =2 state. In physics, the magnetic moment of an object is a vector relating the aligning torque in a magnetic field experienced by the object to the field vector itself. ... The nuclear magneton (symbol ), is a physical constant of magnetic moment, defined by: where: is the elementary charge, is the reduced Plancks constant, is the proton rest mass In the SI system of units its value is approximately: = 5. ...


The electric dipole is zero as usual. The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole A dipole (Greek: dyo = two and polos = pivot) is a pair of electric charges or magnetic poles of equal magnitude but opposite polarity (opposite electronic charges), separated by some (usually small) distance. ... In nuclear physics, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus. ...


The measured electric quadropole of the deuterium is 0.2859 e fm2, where e is the proton electric charge and fm is fermi. While the order of magnitude is reasonable, since the deuterium radius is of order of 1 fermi (see below) and its electric charge is e, the above model does not suffice for its computation. More specifically, the electric quadropole does not get a contribution from the l =0 state (which is the dominant one) and does get a contribution from a term mixing the l =0 and the l =2 states, because the electric quadrupole operator does not commute with angular momentum. The latter contribution is dominant in the absence of a pure l =0 contribution, but cannot be calculated without knowing the exact spatial form of the nucleons wavefunction inside the deuterium. Schematic quadrupole magnet(four-pole) used to focus particle beams in a particle accelerator. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... Fermi has multiple definitions: Enrico Fermi, the physicist Fermi problem, an estimation problem designed to teach dimensional analysis, approximation, and the importance of clearly identifying ones assumptions. ... Fermi has multiple definitions: Enrico Fermi, the physicist Fermi problem, an estimation problem designed to teach dimensional analysis, approximation, and the importance of clearly identifying ones assumptions. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... Schematic quadrupole magnet(four-pole) used to focus particle beams in a particle accelerator. ... Schematic quadrupole magnet(four-pole) used to focus particle beams in a particle accelerator. ... In mathematics, an operator is a function that performs some sort of operation on a number, variable, or function. ... A map or binary operation from a set to a set is said to be commutative if, (A common example in school-math is the + function: , thus the + function is commutative) Otherwise, the operation is noncommutative. ... This gyroscope remains upright while spinning due to its angular momentum. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... This article discusses the concept of a wavefunction as it relates to quantum mechanics. ...


Higher magnetic and electric multipole moments cannot be calculated by the above model, for similar reasons. Multipole moments in mathematics and mathematical physics are an orthogonal basis for the decomposition of a function, based on the response of a field to point sources that are brought infinitely close to each other. ...


Deuterium radius

Further information: Nuclear size

The square root of the average squared radius of the deuterium, measured experimentally, is fermi. The size of an atomic nucleus is of the order of metres. ... Fermi has multiple definitions: Enrico Fermi, the physicist Fermi problem, an estimation problem designed to teach dimensional analysis, approximation, and the importance of clearly identifying ones assumptions. ...


Applications

Emission spectrum of an ultraviolet deuterium arc lamp.

Deuterium is useful in nuclear fusion reactions, especially in combination with tritium, because of the large reaction rate (or nuclear cross section) and high energy yield of the D-T reaction. There is an even higher-yield D-He3 fusion reaction, though the breakeven point of D-He3 is higher than that of most other fusion reactions; together with the scarcity of He3, this makes it implausible as a practical power source until at least D-T and D-D fusion reactions have been performed on a commercial scale. Unlike protium, deuterium undergoes fusion purely via the strong interaction, making its use for commercial power plausible. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3900x2592, 417 KB)Spectrum of a deuterium lamp taken by pointing the light input port (no fiber optic used) of an Ocean Optics HR2000 spectrometer [1] toward the light produced by an ocean optics deuterium lamp. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3900x2592, 417 KB)Spectrum of a deuterium lamp taken by pointing the light input port (no fiber optic used) of an Ocean Optics HR2000 spectrometer [1] toward the light produced by an ocean optics deuterium lamp. ... Emission spectrum of an ultraviolet deuterium arc lamp clearly showing characteristic hydrogen emission lines (sharp peaks at 656 nm and 486 nm) and continuum emission in the ~160-400 nm region. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... The nuclear cross section of a nucleus is used to characterize the probability that a nuclear reaction will occur. ... The breakeven point in economics is the point at which cost or expenses and income are equal - there is no net loss or gain, one has broken even. The point at which a firm or other economic entity breaks even is equal to its fixed costs divided by its contribution... A hydrogen atom is an atom of the element hydrogen. ...


In chemistry and biochemistry, deuterium is used as a non-radioactive isotopic tracer in molecules to study chemical reactions and metabolic pathways, because chemically it behaves similarly to ordinary hydrogen, but it can be distinguished from ordinary hydrogen by its mass, using mass spectrometry or infrared spectrometry. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... IR spectrum of a thin film of liquid ethanol. ...


Neutron scattering techniques particularly profit from availability of deuterated samples: The H and D cross sections are very distinct and different in sign, which allows contrast variation in such experiments. Further, a nuisance problem of ordinary hydrogen is its large incoherent neutron cross section, which is nil for D and delivers much clearer signals in deuterated samples. Hydrogen occurs in all materials of organic chemistry and life science, but cannot be seen by X-ray diffraction methods. Hydrogen can be seen by neutron diffraction and scattering, which makes neutron scattering, together with a modern deuteration facility, indispensable for many studies of macromolecules in biology and many other areas. The term Neutron Scattering encompasses all scientific techniques whereby neutrons are used as a scientific probe. ...


Deuterium is useful in hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (proton NMR). NMR ordinarily requires compounds of interest to be analyzed as dissolved in solution. Because of deuterium's nuclear spin properties which differ from the light hydrogen usually present in organic molecules, NMR spectra of hydrogen/protium are highly differentiable from that of deuterium, and in practice deuterium is not "seen" by an NMR instrument tuned to light-hydrogen. Deuterated solvents (including heavy water, but also compounds like deuterated chloroform CDCl3) are therefore routinely used in NMR spectroscopy, in order to allow only the light-hydrogen spectra of the compound of interest to be measured, without solvent-signal interference. Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys high magnetic field (800 MHz, 18. ... Spectra are conditions or values that vary over a continuum. ...


Deuterium can also be used for femtosecond infrared spectroscopy, since the mass difference drastically affects the frequency of molecular vibrations; deuterium-carbon bond vibrations are found in locations free of other signals. For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ...


Measurements of small variations in the natural abundances of deuterium, along with those of the stable heavy oxygen isotopes 17O and 18O, are of importance in hydrology, to trace the geographic origin of Earth's waters. The heavy isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in rainwater (so-called meteoric water) are enriched as a function of the environmental temperature of the region in which the precipitation falls (and thus enrichment is related to mean latitude). The relative enrichment of the heavy isotopes in rainwater (as referenced to mean ocean water), when plotted against temperature falls predictably along a line called the global meteoric water line (GMWL). This plot allows samples of precipitation-originated water to be identified along with general information about the climate in which it originated. Evaporative and other processes in bodies of water, and also ground water processes, also differentially alter the ratios of heavy hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in fresh and salt waters, in characteristic and often regionally-distinctive ways.[3] Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Meteoric water is a hydrologic term of long standing for water in the ground which originates from precipitation. ...


The proton and neutron making up deuterium can be dissociated through neutral current interactions with neutrinos. The cross section for this interaction is comparatively large, and deuterium was successfully used as a neutrino target in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which complexes, molecules, or salts separate or split into smaller molecules, ions, or radicals, usually in a reversible manner. ... A neutral current is one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak nuclear force. ... The neutrino is an elementary particle. ... In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between particles. ... Artists concept of SNOs detector. ...


History

Lighter element isotopes suspected

The existence of nonradioactive isotopes of lighter elements had been suspected in studies of neon as early as 1913, and proven by mass spectroscopy of light elements in 1920. The prevailing theory at the time, however, was that the isotopes were due to the existence of differing numbers of "nuclear electrons" in different atoms of an element. It was expected that hydrogen, with a measured average atomic mass very close to 1 u, and a nucleus thought to be composed of a single proton (a known particle), could not contain nuclear electrons, and thus could have no heavy isotopes. Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Deuterium predicted and finally detected

Deuterium was predicted in 1926 by Walter Russell, using his "spiral" periodic table, and first detected in late 1931 by Harold Urey, a chemist at Columbia University. Urey distilled five liters of cryogenically-produced liquid hydrogen to 1 mL of liquid and showed spectroscopically that it contained a very small amount of an isotope of hydrogen with an atomic mass of 2; Urey called the isotope "deuterium" from the Greek and Latin words for "two." The amount inferred for normal abundance of this heavy isotope was so small (only about 1 atom in 6400 hydrogen atoms in ocean water) that it had not noticeably affected previous measurements of (average) hydrogen atomic mass. Urey was also able to concentrate water to show partial enrichment of deuterium. Gilbert Newton Lewis prepared the first samples of pure heavy water in 1933. The discovery of deuterium, coming before the discovery of the neutron in 1932, was an experimental shock to theory, and after the neutron was reported, deuterium won Urey the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1934. Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Walter Russell (1871–1963), is an American artist, sculptor, architect, and a controversial figure in physics and cosmogony, credited as the originator of the term New Age. He posited that the universe was founded on the unifying principle of rhythmic balanced interchange. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harold Urey, circa 1963. ... Alma Mater Columbia University in the City of New York is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... יחכיטכיגיגיוגקאטגקעיגקDistillation is a method of separating chemical substances based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Lewis in the Berkeley Lab Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 23, 1875-March 23, 1946) was a famous physical chemist. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awarded for Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, and Physiology or Medicine. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


"Heavy water" experiments in World War II

Shortly before the war, Hans von Halban and Lew Kowarski moved their research on neutron moderation from France to England, smuggling the entire global supply of heavy water (made in Norway) across in twenty-six steel drums.[4][5] Hans von Halban (Leipzig, 24 January 1908 - Paris, 28 November 1964) was a French physicist, of Austrian-Jewish descent. ... Lew Kowarski was a naturalized French physicist, of Russian descent. ...


During World War II, Nazi Germany was known to be conducting experiments using heavy water as moderator for a nuclear reactor design. (Heavy water is water in which the hydrogen is deuterium.) Such experiments were a source of concern because they might allow them to produce plutonium for an atomic bomb. Ultimately, it led to (what seemed to be important at that time) the Allied operation called the "Norwegian heavy water sabotage," the purpose of which was to destroy the Vemork deuterium production/enrichment facility in Norway. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States... The Vemork hydroelectric plant, site of ammonia production with a militarily important byproduct, heavy water. ... The Vemork hydroelectric plant, site of the heavy water production Vemork, a small community in Norway, close to the city Rjukan and within the Tinn municipality, in the county of Telemark. ...


After World War II ended, the Allies discovered that Germany was not putting as much serious effort into the program as has had been previously thought. The Germans had completed only a small, partly-built experimental reactor (which had been hidden away). By the end of the war, the Germans did not even have a fifth the amount of heavy water needed to run the reactor, partially due to the Norwegian heavy water sabotage operation. However, even had the Germans succeeded in getting a reactor operational (as the U.S. did with a graphite reactor in late 1942), they would still have been at least several years away from development of an atomic bomb with maximal effort. The engineering process, even with maximal effort and funding, required about two and a half years (from first critical reactor to bomb) in both the U.S. and U.S.S.R, for example (see the article heavy water for a more complete history of its production and use). The Vemork hydroelectric plant, site of ammonia production with a militarily important byproduct, heavy water. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́бли&#1082... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ...


Data

  • density: 0.180 kg/m3 at STP (0 °C, 101.325 kPa).
  • atomic weight: 2.01355321270.
  • mean abundance in ocean water (see VSMOW) about 0.0156 % of H atoms = 1/6400 H atoms.

Data at approximately 18 K for D2 (triple point): In chemistry and other sciences, STP or standard temperature and pressure is a standard set of conditions for experimental measurements, to enable comparisons to be made between sets of data. ... VSMOW, or Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water, is an isotopic water standard defined in 1968 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. ... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ...

  • density:
  • liquid: 162.4 kg/m3
  • gas: 0.452 kg/m3
  • viscosity: 1.3 µPa·s
  • specific heat capacity at constant pressure cp:
  • solid: 2950 J/(kg·K)
  • gas: 5200 J/(kg·K)

The pascal second (symbol Pa·s) is the SI unit of dynamic viscosity. ...

Anti-deuterium

An antideuteron is the antiparticle of the nucleus of deuterium, consisting of an antiproton and an antineutron. The antideuteron was first produced in 1965 at the Proton Synchrotron at CERN[6] and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory[7]. A complete atom, with a positron orbiting the nucleus, would be called antideuterium, but as of 2005 antideuterium has not yet been created. The symbol for antideuterium is the same as for deuterium, except with a bar over it. The antiproton (aka pbar) is the antiparticle of the proton. ... The antineutron is the antiparticle of the neutron. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The surface above the PS at CERN. With more than 45 years to be smoothed out and have buildings built around it, the ring-shaped hill containing the accelerator is not completely obvious--but it can be seen curving around on the left side of the image. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... ≠ Aerial view of Brookhaven National Laboratory. ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Appearances in pop culture

  • In Earth: Final Conflict, deuterium is a critical component of cold fusion reactors.
  • In OGame, deuterium is used as fuel.
  • In Star Trek, Warp drives are commonly powered by deuterium-antideuterium reactions.
  • In Warhammer 40,000, the standard "Bolter" round has a depleted deuterium core.
  • In 2001 Nights, it is occasionally referenced.
  • In the original Medal of Honor, the player is charged with single-handedly destroying the Nazi plant in Norway.
  • In Stargate SG-1, it is referred to as a fuel source for nuclear reactors.
  • In the online strategy game ShadowOps, deuterium or "detty" is used for all constructions along with money.
  • In the book Halo: Ghosts of Onyx, there is a deuterium harvesting factory on Pegasi Delta that is owned by the Covenant and destroyed by Team Foxtrot on July 3 2545 (military calendar).
  • In the anime series Gundam Seed Destiny, a "deuterion beam" is used to remotely charge mobile suits.
  • In The Saint (1997) , Dr. Russell makes use of deuterium to make cold fusion.

Earth: Final Conflict is a science fiction television series posthumously created by Gene Roddenberry. ... This article is about the nuclear reaction. ... OGame is an HTML management-type, text-based, space-war themed online browser game with over two million[1] active accounts. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series and media franchise. ... For other uses, see Warp drive (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this term, see antimatter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the tabletop miniature wargame and the fictional universe in which it is set. ... The Imperium is a vast, galaxy-spanning empire in Games Workshops Warhammer 40,000 fictional universe. ... 2001 Nights is a manga series published in the early 1990s by Yukinobu Hoshino. ... Medal of Honor is the first title in the long-running Medal of Honor series of video games. ... Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a science fiction television series, part of the Stargate franchise. ... ShadowOps is a revolution-based MMORPG created by Warsome and now run by Yuckfou, owner of Urban-Rpg. ... “Animé” redirects here. ... Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Destiny is the second TV series set in the Cosmic Era universe of Gundam. ... For Nuclear Technologies like the Neutron Jammer and GENESIS please see Cosmic Era Superweapons for more information. ...

See also

Look up Deuterium in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Hydrogen (H) Standard atomic mass: 1. ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ...

References

  1. ^ "Hubble measures deuterium on Jupiter", Science News – Find Articles, 5 October 1996. Retrieved on 2007-09-10. 
  2. ^ IUPAC Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (2001). "Names for Muonium and Hydrogen Atoms and their Ions" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry 73: 377–380. 
  3. ^ Oxygen – Isotopes and Hydrology. SAHRA. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
  4. ^ Sherriff, Lucy (2007-06-01). Royal Society unearths top secret nuclear research. The Register. Situation Publishing Ltd.. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  5. ^ The Battle for Heavy Water Three physicists' heroic exploits. CERN Bulletin. European Organization for Nuclear Research (2002-04-01). Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  6. ^ Massam, T., et al. (1965). "Experimental observation of antideuteron production". Il Nuovo Cimento 39: 10–14. 
  7. ^ Dorfan, D. E., et al. (June 1965). "Observation of Antideuterons". Phys. Rev. Lett. 14 (24): 1003–1006. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.14.1003. 
  • Nuclear Data Evaluation Lab
  • Mullins, Justin (27 April 2005). "Desktop nuclear fusion demonstrated with deuterium gas". New Scientist. Retrieved on 2007-09-10. 
  • Annotated bibliography for Deuterium from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues
  • Missing Gas Found in Milky Way. Space.com

  Results from FactBites:
 
Deuterium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (517 words)
Deuterium behaves chemically identically to ordinary hydrogen, although, because of the greater atomic mass, reactions involving deuterium tend to occur at a somewhat slower reaction rate than the corresponding reactions involving ordinary hydrogen.
Deuterium is useful in nuclear fusion reactions, especially in combination with tritium, because of the large reaction rate (or cross section) and high energy yield of the D-T reaction.
An antideuteron is the antiparticle of the nucleus of deuterium, consisting of an antiproton and an antineutron.
Encyclopedia4U - Deuterium - Encyclopedia Article (412 words)
Deuterium was discovered in 1931 by Harold Clayton Urey, a chemist at Columbia University, for which he earned the Nobel prize in chemistry in 1934.
The existence of deuterium in stars is one of the arguments in favour of the big bang theory over the steady state theory.
Canada is the world's leading producer of deuterium as it is needed for the operation of the CANDU reactor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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