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Encyclopedia > Detergent
Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents

Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. The term is often used to differentiate between soap and other chemical surfactants used for cleaning purposes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 748 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 748 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Cleanliness is the absence of dirt, including dust, stains and a bad smell. ... This article is about the computer protocol. ... Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ...

Contents

Composition

Detergents, especially those made for use with water, often include different components such as:

Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... Look up grease in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish (see metal polishing and wood finishing) a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away. ... The correct title of this article is . ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... A descaling agent, also known as descaling, anti-limestone, anti-limescale, anti-lime, or anti-scale, is a solution to remove limescale, e. ... The word caustics has several meanings depending upon the context in which it is used: In Greek language, from which this word originates, caustics means to burn or burning. In chemistry a caustic substance is one that eats away or chemically burns other materials by process of attacking it basically... A water softener reduces calcium or magnesium concentration in hard water. ... European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ... This article is about the chemical substance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mixture. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Sea foam on the beach Foam on a cappuccino Fire-retardant, foamed plastic being used as a temporary dam for firestop mortar in a cable penetration in a pulp and paper mill on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. ... A foaming agent is a material that will decompose to release a gas under certain conditions (typically high temperature), which can be used to turn a liquid into a foam. ... An antifoaming agent is a food ingredient intended to curb effusion or effervescence in preparation or serving. ... Optical brighteners, optical brightening agents, fluorescent brightening agents or fluorescent whitening agents are dyes that absorb light in the ultraviolet and violet region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and re-emit light in the blue region. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ...

Detergent Choice

There are several factors which dictate what compositions of detergent should be used—namely the material to be cleaned, the apparatus to be used and tolerance for dirt. For instance, all of the following are used to clean glass. The sheer range of different detergents which can be used demonstrates the importance of context in the selection of an appropriate glass-cleaning agent.

  • A chromic acid solution is used to get glass very clean for certain precision-demanding purposes, namely in analytical chemistry,
  • A high foaming mixture of surfactants with low skin irritation—for hand washing of drink glasses in a sink or dishpan,
  • Any of various non-foaming compositions—for glasses in a dishwashing machine,
  • An ammonia-containing solution—for cleaning windows with no rinsing,
  • Ethanol or methanol in Windshield washer fluid is used for a vehicle in motion

In chemistry, chromic acid is a chromium (Cr) compound, yet to be isolated, with the formula H2CrO4. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Dishwasher A two drawer DishDrawer dishwasher. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Panoramic (wrap-around) windshield on a 1959 Edsel Corsair. ...

Terminology

Sometimes the word "detergent" is used in distinction to "soap". For a while during the infancy of other surfactants as commercial detergent products, the term "syndet", short for "synthetic detergent" was promoted to indicate this, but never caught on very well, and is incorrect in any event because soap is itself synthesized via saponification of glycerides. The term "soapless soap" also saw a brief vogue. Unfortunately, there is no accurate term for detergents not made of soap other than "soapless detergent" or "non-soap detergent". This article is about the computer protocol. ... Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide. ... Glycerides are esters of glycerol and fatty acids. ...


Also, the term "detergent" is sometimes used for surfactants in general, even when they are not used for cleaning. As can be seen above, this too is terminology that should be avoided as long as the term "surfactant" itself is available. Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ...


Technically, plain water, if used for cleaning, is a detergent. Probably the most widely used detergents other than water are soaps or mixtures composed chiefly of soaps. However, not all soaps have significant detergency. Often the word "soap" is used to indicate any detergent, especially those that have characteristics similar to those of soap.


Ecological impact of use

While effort has been made to reduce their negative effect upon the environment, the results have been mixed.


See also

http://chemistry.about.com/od/howthingswork/f/detergentfaq.htm This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the computer protocol. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well...


Sources

External link

  • Detergent compositions or components

  Results from FactBites:
 
detergent: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1617 words)
Nonionic detergents are polyethers made by combining ethylene oxide with a 12-carbon lauryl alcohol.
Detergents are classified as anionic, or negatively charged, e.g., soaps; cationic, or positively charged, e.g., tetraalkyl ammonium chloride, used as fabric softeners; nonionic, e.g., certain esters made from oil, used as degreasing agents in industry; and zwitterionic, containing both positive and negative ions on the same molecule.
Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning.
Detergent Chemistry: History (2507 words)
Although the start of the synthetic detergent industry is not shrouded in the veils of history as were the beginnings of the soap industry, it is nevertheless not easy to pinpoint exactly when the detergent industry, as such, came into being.
These detergents were of the short-chain alkyl naphthalene sulphonate type, made by coupling propyl or butyl alcohols with naphthalene and subsequent sulphonation, and appeared under the general name of Nekal.
It was found that the detergency in a heavy-duty formulation using linear alkyl benzene sulphonate was approximately 10 per cent better than when using PT benzene sulphonate, solutions of the neutralized sulphonic acid had a lower cloud point, and pastes and slurries had a lower viscosity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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