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Encyclopedia > Detective

A detective is an investigator, either a member of a police agency or a private person. They may be known as private investigators (P.I.s or "Private I's", hence the play-on-words, "Private Eyes"). Informally, and primarily in fiction, a detective is any licensed or unlicensed person who solves crimes, including historical crimes, or looks into records. Gumshoe is a NES video game made by Nintendo in 1986 that uses the Nintendo Zapper. ... Gumshoe is a 1972 film, and was the directorial debut of British director Stephen Frears. ... A private investigator, private detective, PI, or private eye, is a person who undertakes investigations, usually for a private citizen or some other entity not involved with a government or police organization. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ...


Detective work typically requires a great deal of walking or "footwork", hence the slang terms "flatfoot" and "gumshoe". The term "gumshoe" refers to an inexpensive shoe with "gum rubber", soles that were believed to be quieter due to their softness, thus helping detectives operate in stealth.

Contents

Detectives and their work

Selection and training

In most American police departments, a candidate for detective must first have served as a uniformed officer for a period of one to five years. Detective is often an appointed position, rather than a position achieved by passing a written test. Prospective U.K. police detectives must have completed at least two years as a uniformed officer before applying to join the Criminal Investigation Department. A car of the Devon and Cornwall Constabulary, England Police forces are government organisations charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ... Charles Vincent, founder of the Metropolitan Police CID The Criminal Investigation Department (CID) is the branch of all British Police and many other Commonwealth police forces to which plain clothes detectives belong. ...


In many other European police systems, most detectives are university graduates who join directly from civilian life without first serving as uniformed officers. Some people argue that detectives do a completely different job and therefore require completely different training, qualifications, qualities and abilities than uniformed officers. The opposing argument is that without previous service as a uniformed patrol officer, a detective cannot have a great enough command of standard police procedures and problems and will find it difficult to work with uniformed colleagues. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ...


Additionally, in some U.S. police departments, policies exist that limit the term that an officer may serve continuously as a detective, and mandate that detectives must regularly return to patrol duties for a minimum period of time. This is based upon a perception that the most important and essential police work is accomplished on patrol, and that the skills, experience and familiarity with their beats that patrol officers maintain are essential for detectives to maintain as well. Investigations, by contrast, often take weeks or months to complete, during which time detectives may spend much of their time away from the streets. In this thinking, rotating officers also promotes cross-training in a wider variety of skills, producing both better detectives and uniformed officers. Such policies also serve to prevent "cliques" within detective bureaus that can contribute to corruption or other unethical behavior.


Detectives obtain their position by competitive examination covering such subjects as principles, practices and procedures of investigation; interviewing and interrogation; criminal law and procedures; applicable law governing arrests, search and seizures, warrants and evidence; police department records and reports; principles, practices and objectives of courtroom testimony; and police department methods and procedures. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... For other uses, see Arrest (disambiguation). ... Search and seizure is a legal procedure used in many common law whereby police or other authorities and their agents, who suspect that a crime has been committed, do a search of a persons property and confiscate any relevant evidence to the crime. ... In law, a warrant can mean any authorization. ... In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. ...


Private detectives in the U.S. are licensed by the state in which they live after passing a competitive examination and a criminal background check. Some states, such as Maryland, require a period of classroom training and must have experience with a weapon as well [Citation Needed]. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... A background check is the process of looking up official and commercial records about a person. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N...


Organization

The detective branch in most larger police agencies is organized into several squads or departments, each of which specializes in investigation into a particular type of crime or a particular type of undercover operation, which may include: homicide; robbery; motor vehicle theft; organized crime; fraud; burglary; narcotics; vice; forgery; criminal intelligence; sex crimes; street crime; computer crime; crimes against children; surveillance; and arson, among others. Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ... Motor vehicle theft is a crime of theft. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word for stupor, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis). ... A Vice Unit is a department in many police forces that investigates morality crimes. ... Forgery is the process of making or adapting objects or documents (see false document), with the intention to deceive. ... Criminal intelligence is information gathered, collated and disseminated by law enforcement agencies concerning types of crime and particular criminals and criminal groups. ... Sex crimes are forms of human sexual behavior that are crimes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Computer crime, cybercrime, e-crime, hi-tech crime or electronic crime generally refers to criminal activity where a computer or network is the source, tool, target, or place of a crime. ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ...


Techniques

Street work

Detectives have a wide variety of techniques available in conducting investigations. However, the majority of cases are solved by the interrogation of suspects and the interviewing of witnesses, which takes time. Besides interrogations, detectives may rely on a network of informants they have cultivated over the years. Informants often have connections with persons a detective would not be able to approach formally. Evidence collection and preservation can also help in identifying a potential suspect(s).


In criminal investigations, once a detective has suspects in mind, the next step is to produce evidence that will stand up in a court of law. The best way is to obtain a confession from the suspect; usually, this is done by developing rapport and at times by seeking information in exchange for potential perks available through the District Attorney's Office, such as entering plea bargain for a lesser sentence in exchange for usable information. Detectives may lie, mislead and psychologically pressure a suspect into an admission or confession as long as they do this within procedural boundaries and without the threat of violence or promises outside their control. In the United States suspects may invoke their Fifth Amendment rights and refuse to answer any investigative questions until they consult with an attorney. A plea bargain (also plea agreement, plea deal or copping a plea) is an agreement in a criminal case in which a prosecutor and a defendant arrange to settle the case against the defendant. ...


Forensic evidence

Physical forensic evidence in an investigation may provide leads to closing a case. Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or to a civil action. Forensic identification is the application of forensic science and technology to identify specific objects from the traces they leave, often at a crime scene. ... Forensics redirects here. ...


The use of the term "forensics" in place of "forensic science" is (in a literal sense) incorrect; the term "forensic" is effectively a synonym for "legal" or "related to courts" (from Latin, it means "before the forum") and applies equally well to studies such as "forensics clubs" that practice formal debate. However, the single word is now so closely associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning given here. Many major police departments in a city, county, or state, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, maintain their own forensic laboratories. F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...


Records investigation

Detectives may use public and private records to provide background information on a subject. Police detectives can search through files of fingerprint records. In the United States, the FBI maintains records of people who have committed felonies and some misdemeanors, all persons who have applied for a Federal security clearance, and all persons who have served in the U.S. armed forces. As well, detectives may search through records of criminal arrests and convictions, photographs or mug shots, of persons arrested, and motor vehicle records. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems, is a lesser criminal act. ...


With a warrant, police detectives can also search through Credit card records and bank statements, hotel registration information, credit reports, Answer machine messages, and phone conversations. Search warrants are not needed if the detective can obtain a National Security Letter (NSL) from the FBI or other federal agency. These are generally issued without significant oversight or probable cause.[citation needed] This article is about the payment system. ... Example of a checking account statement for a fictional bank. ... An answering machine, also known as an answer machine (especially in UK and British commonwealth countries), ansafone(tradename [1]), ansaphone(tradename [2]), answerphone or telephone answering device (TAD), is a device for automatically answering telephone calls and recording messages left by callers. ...


Court testimony

Unless a plea bargain forestalls the need for a trial, detectives must testify in court about their investigation. They must seem reliable and credible to a jury, and must not give the impression of personal vindictiveness or cruelty. A detective's background often comes into question in courtroom testimony. A famous example came in the murder trial of O.J. Simpson, when Detective Mark Fuhrman of the Los Angeles Police Department testified for the prosecution. Attorney F. Lee Bailey first asked Fuhrman if he had ever used the "n-word". Fuhrman denied this. In court, Bailey produced taped interviews with Fuhrman using this offensive word. Orenthal James Simpson (born July 9, 1947), commonly known as O. J. Simpson and also just by his initials O.J. and his nickname The Juice, is a retired American football player who achieved stardom at the collegiate and professional levels. ... Mark Fuhrman in Jacksonville, NC (2008) Mark Fuhrman (born February 5, 1952) is a book author, conservative talk radio host, and former detective in the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) who found the bloody glove at the scene of the murder of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman. ... LAPD and L.A.P.D. redirect here. ... Bailey made the cover of Time in the late 70s for defending Patty Hearst Francis Lee Bailey, often referred to as F. Lee Bailey (born 1933), is a U.S. lawyer. ... The word nigger is a highly controversial term used in many English-speaking countries, including the United States, Canada, Britain, and Australia to refer to individuals with dark skin, especially those of African descent who previously were racially classified by the now outdated term Negro. ...


Famous fictional detectives

Main article: Detective fiction

The detective story has been a popular genre in literature and the performing arts since Edgar Allan Poe gave birth to it with his stories of master French detective C. Auguste Dupin in the mid-19th century. Arthur Conan Doyle's 19th-century character Sherlock Holmes and Agatha Christie's 20th-century creations Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple are perhaps the most famous detectives in fiction. In many police drama series, detectives are depicted as being something of an elite class, with most uniformed police officers deferring to them. Most famous fictional government detectives work for local or regional agencies. Basil Rathbone as Sherlock Holmes Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction that centers upon the investigation of a crime, usually murder, by a detective, either professional or amateur. ... Detective Story is a 1951 film which tells the story of one day in the lives of the various people who populate a police detectives squad. ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... This article is about (usually written) works. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... C. Auguste Dupin is a fictional detective created by Edgar Allan Poe. ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... This article is about Arthur Conan Doyles fictional detective. ... Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan, DBE (15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976), commonly known as Agatha Christie, was an English crime writer of novels, short stories and plays. ... Poirot redirects here. ... Margaret Rutherford as Miss Marple Jane Marple, usually known as Miss Marple, is a fictional character appearing in twelve of Agatha Christies crime novels. ...


In the 20th century, "hard-boiled" private detective characters such as Sam Spade, Philip Marlowe and Mike Hammer became enormously popular. Elements of detective work were also featured in famous "federal" characters, such as Ian Fleming's James Bond (the first two Bond film adaptations featured more investigative work than their successors) and Tom Clancy's Jack Ryan. Meanwhile, in comics, Dick Tracy served as the archetypal police detective. In the Die Hard series of films, Bruce Willis' character John McClane is a NYPD Detective. Famed DC Comics character Batman was also created around this time, who emphasized less on great physical strength and abilities (like Superman) and more on the human condition, including solving crimes as a detective. One of Batman's nicknames is "The World's Greatest Detective." Poster of the 1941 Warner Brothers film version of The Maltese Falcon, directed by John Huston Sam Spade was the leading character in the novel and movie The Maltese Falcon (1931). ... Ed Bishop had the title role in BBC Radios The Adventures of Philip Marlowe. ... Mike Hammer is a fictional American detective created by the American author Mickey Spillane in the 1947 book I, the Jury (made into a movie in 1953 and 1982). ... This article is about the author. ... This article is about the spy series. ... For the member of the Irish folk band The Clancy Brothers, see Tom Clancy (singer) and for the American Celticist, see Thomas Owen Clancy. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... Dick Tracy is a long-running comic strip featuring a popular and familiar character in American pop culture. ... This article is about the 1988 action film. ... Walter Bruce Willis (born March 19, 1955) is a Golden Globe- and double Emmy-winning German-born American actor and singer. ... John McClane is a fictional character in the Die Hard series of films. ... The New York City Police Department (NYPD) , the largest police department in the United States, has primary responsibility for law enforcement and investigation within the five boroughs of New York City. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ...


In the video game Max Payne 2: The Fall of Max Payne, the protagonist (Max Payne) is a police detective. Max Payne 2: The Fall of Max Payne is a third-person shooter developed by Remedy Entertainment for the PC, Xbox, and PlayStation 2 systems. ...


In manga and anime, Kindaichi Case Files, Death Note and Detective Conan feature well known detectives. This article is about the comics created in Japan. ... Animé redirects here. ... Serialized in Weekly Shonen Magazine Original run 1992 – Volumes 50 (Original Japanese run) TV anime Director Daisuke Nishio Studio Toei Animation Network Nippon Television Original run 7 April 1997 – 11 September 2000 Episodes 148 Movie Released December 14, 1996 Movie: Satsuriku no Deep Blue Released August 21, 1999 Kindaichi... Death note redirects here. ... Poster for Countdown to Heaven, the fifth Detective Conan movie Case Closed, known in Japan as Detective Conan (名探偵コナン, Meitantei Konan), is a detective manga and anime series by Gosho Aoyama (青山 剛昌), published in Weekly Shonen Sunday magazine. ...


Dick Wolf's Law & Order franchise of television series are a modern example of the detective genre, following detectives through the investigation of various crimes. Richard Anthony Wolf, (born December 20, 1946, New York City), is one of American televisions most respected drama series creators and is an Emmy Award-winning producer, specializing in crime dramas. ... The term Law & Order franchise is commonly used to describe a number of related American television programs created by Dick Wolf and originally broadcast on NBC, all of which deal with some aspect of the New York City criminal justice system. ...


Diagnosis Murder is also another example of recent fictional detectives in other roles, for example, Dr. Mark Sloan, Chief of Internal Medicine at Community General Hospital frequently is seen solving crimes with other members of his staff, namely Dr. Amanda Bentley (Pathologist) and formerly Dr. Jack Stewart along with Dr. Sloan's son, in the LAPD Homicide Dept; Lieutenant Steve Sloan. Dr. Sloan is a criminal medical consultant to the Los Angeles Police Department. Diagnosis: Murder was a mystery/medical/crime drama television series with 45 minute long episodes that was based on the popular 1980s police drama of the same name that was created by Joyce Burditt, the regular series debuted on CBS on October 29, 1993, and became a rapid success, airing... Dr. Amanda Bentley was a medical examiner/pathologist for Community General Hospital in the classic television show, Diagnosis: Murder. ... Dr. Jack Stewart was a character in the classic T.V. show, Diagnosis: Murder. ...


Perhaps the most well-known fictional detective to the younger generation of today is Nancy Drew, an amateur sleuth. There is a number of book series about this teen hero, all under the pen name of Carolyn Keene. For the film, see Nancy Drew (2007 film). ... Carolyn Keene is the pseudonym of the author of the Nancy Drew mystery series, and also The Dana Girls mystery series, both published by the Stratemeyer Syndicate. ...


In the popular Ace Attorney video game series for the Nintendo DS, the detective Dick Gumshoe makes an appearance in three of the four games. The logo for the first Ace Attorney games English release The logo for the fourth Ace Attorney games English release Phoenix Wright redirects here. ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... The Nintendo DS (sometimes abbreviated NDS or more commonly DS) is a handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. ...


John Shaft is a popular African-American private detective character, appearing in a book and various movies made based on the book character. John Shaft is a fictional character created by screenwriter/novelist Ernest Tidyman as a sort of African-American answer to Ian Flemings James Bond. ...


Veronica Mars is a popular female teenage private investigator in training solving crimes in her hometown of Neptune, CA. Kristen Bell appears in three seasons of Veronica Mars created by Rob Thomas. This article is about the Veronica Mars television series. ... Kristen Anne Bell (born July 18, 1980) is an American television and film actress as well as former stage actress. ... This article is about the Veronica Mars television series. ... Categories: Music stubs | 1972 births | Male singers ...


See also

For more information on the detectives in France, visit: Lists of the ranks of various police forces: // Queensland OPP (Ontario Provincial Police) Sûreté du Québec Royal Newfoundland Constabulary Royal Canadian Mounted Police Dansk Politi Distinktioner Commissioner Deputy Commissioner Senior Assistant Commissioner Assistant Commissioner Chief Superintendent of Police Senior Superintendent of Police Superintendent of Police Chief Inspector of... Charles Vincent, founder of the Metropolitan Police CID The Criminal Investigation Department (CID) is the branch of all British Police and many other Commonwealth police forces to which plain clothes detectives belong. ... Eugène François Vidocq (July 23, 1775 – May 11, 1857) was a French criminal who later became a first director of Sûreté Nationale and one of the founders of the modern criminal investigation. ... // Any federal criminal or non-criminal investigator or detective in the 1811, 1801, 2501 or similar job series as so titled according to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) handbook. ... Labor spies may be referred to as spies, operatives, agents, agents provocateurs, saboteurs, infiltrators, informants, spotters, special police, or detectives. ...

  • in English: http://ufedp.online.fr/index_english.htm
  • in French : http://ufedp.online.fr

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The Word Detective (609 words)
Sadly, I must report that our dear friend Sparky, who has appeared in many of my columns in the past eight years, has left us.
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Detective - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1395 words)
A detective is an investigator, either a member of a police agency or a private person.
In the British police, "Detective" is used as a prefix before all ranks in the Criminal Investigation Department and Special Branch from Constable to Chief Superintendent.
A detective may lie or otherwise mislead and may psychologically pressure a suspect into confessing, though in the United States suspects may invoke their Miranda rights.
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