FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Destroyer" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Destroyer
USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean.

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range but powerful attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). The Spanish engineer Fernando Villaamil is remembered for being the designer of the first destroyer warship in history. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Categories: Stub ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... The carrier battle group (CVBG or CARBATGRU) or carrier strike group (CVSG) is a fleet of ships in support of an aircraft carrier. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... c. ...


Before World War II destroyers were light vessels without the endurance for unattended ocean operations; typically a number of destroyers and a single destroyer tender operated together. During and after the war, larger and more powerful destroyers capable of independent operation were built, particularly as cruisers ceased to be used in the 1950s and 60s. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Destroyer tender is a ship designed to provide maintenance support to a flotilla of destroyers or other small warships. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ...


At the beginning of the 21st century, destroyers are the heaviest surface combatant ships in general use, with only four nations (the United States, Russia, France and Peru) operating cruisers and none operating battleships.[1] Modern destroyers, also known as guided missile destroyers, are equivalent in tonnage but drastically superior in firepower to cruisers of the World War II era, capable of carrying nuclear missiles that are able to destroy cities. Surface Combatant - a term referring to naval fighting ships, encompassing five major classes grouped by size and/or weapon systems and mission. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa A battleship is a large, heavily-armored warship with a main battery consisting of the largest caliber of guns. ... A guided missile destroyer is, as the name suggests, a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A nuclear missile is a type of: missile nuclear weapon It could also refer to a missile with some form of nuclear propulsion, such as the Project Pluto cruise missile. ...

Contents

Early history

The emergence of the destroyer, and development up until WWII, was related to the torpedo. The invention of the self-propelled torpedo in the 1860's gave the potential for a nation to destroy a superior enemy battle fleet using only steam launches from which torpedoes could be dropped. Fast boats to carry torpedoes were built and called torpedo boats, and these had developed by the 1880's into little ships of 50-100 tons, fast enough to evade enemy picket boats. The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ...


One response to the torpedo boat threat was the building of faster and more heavily gunned picket boats called catchers. At first the threat to a battle fleet was considered only to exist when at anchor, but as faster and longer range torpedoes were developed the threat was extended to cruising at sea. As catchers were then needed to escort the battle fleet at sea they needed the same seaworthiness and endurance, and as they necessarily became larger they were now officially termed torpedo boat destroyers, soon contracted to destroyer (in French (contre-torpilleur), Italian (cacciatorpediniere), Spanish (Contratorpedero) and Polish (kontrtorpedowiec).


Once destroyers became more than just catchers guarding an anchorage it was realised that they were also ideal to perform the role of torpedo boats themselves, so they were fitted with torpedo tubes as well as guns. At that time, and even into WWI, the only function of destroyers was to protect their own battle fleet from enemy torpedo attacks, and to make such attacks on the battleships of the enemy. The task of escorting merchant convoys was still in the future.


An important development came in 1884 [2] with Swift, a large torpedo boat with six 47 mm quick-firing guns and three torpedo tubes. While still not fast enough to engage torpedo boats reliably, she at least had the armament to deal with them.

The Imperial Japanese Navy's Kotaka (1887)
The Imperial Japanese Navy's Kotaka (1887)

The Japanese Kotaka ("Falcon") of 1885, was "the forerunner of torpedo boat destroyers that appeared a decade later" (Kaigun, David C. Evans). Designed upon Japanese specifications and ordered from the British Yarrow shipyards in 1885, she was transported in parts to Japan, where she was assembled and launched in 1887. She was armed with four 1-pounder (37 mm) quick-firing guns and six torpedo tubes, reached 19 knots (35 km/h), and at 203 tons, was the largest torpedo boat yet designed. In her trials in 1889, Kotaka demonstrated that she could go beyond a role of coastal defense, and was capable of following larger ships on the high seas. The Yarrow shipyards, builder of the parts for the Kotaka, "considered Japan to have effectively invented the destroyer" (Howe). Image File history File links Kotaka. ... Image File history File links Kotaka. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... The Kotaka (Jp:小鷹, Falcon) was a torpedo boat in the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Yarrow Shipyard produced a variety of ships in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ...

The Spanish Navy's Destructor (1886)
The Spanish Navy's Destructor (1886)

Almost immediately after the order of Kotaka was placed, Fernando Villaamil, second officer of the Ministry of the Navy of Spain where he was put in charge of developing the concept of a new ship designed to combat torpedo boats,[3] placed an order for a large torpedo gunboat in November 1885, with the British builder James and George Thompson, of Clydebank, not far from the Yarrow shipyards. The ship, named Destructor (literally Destroyer), was laid down at the end of the year, launched in 1886, and commissioned in 1887. Her displacement was 380 tons, and she was armed with one 90 mm Hontoria cannon, four 57 mm Nordenfeldt cannon, two 37 mm Hotchkiss guns and 3 Schwartzkopff torpedo tubes. Her complement was 60 men. In terms of gunnery, speed (22.5 knots in trials) and dimensions, the specific design to chase torpedo boats and her high seas capabilities, Destructor is widely considered the first destroyer ever built.[4] Image File history File links ContratorpederoDestructor. ... Image File history File links ContratorpederoDestructor. ... The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ... c. ... The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ... Clydebank (Bruach Chluaidh in Gaelic) is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, lying on the north bank of the river Clyde. ... The Destructor was a 19th-century Spanish naval vessel. ... Hotchkiss may refer to: Benjamin B. Hotchkiss - a 19th century American engineer Hotchkiss et Cie - Hotchkiss Company, a French arms and car manufacturer set up by Benjamin Hotchkiss; full name: Société Anonyme des Anciens Etablissements Hotchkiss et Cie Hotchkiss gun - a product of the Hotchkiss company Hotchkiss machine gun...


The Spanish Destructor is thought to have influenced the designation and concept of later destroyers developed by the British Navy.[5][6]


Shortly afterwards Britain began experiments with the Rattlesnake class 'torpedo boat catcher', a class of 17 large torpedo boats - the first precursors of destroyers to be built as a class, rather than as single ships. On tests, Rattlesnake proved to be marginally faster than torpedo boats, but not fast enough to be decisive.

HMS Havock (1893)
HMS Havock (1893)

The first ships to bear the formal designation "Torpedo boat destroyer" (TBD) were the Havock class of two ships of the Royal Navy, developed in 1892 under the newly appointed Third Sea Lord Rear Admiral "Jackie" Fisher, and launched in 1893. Havock had a 240 tons displacement, a speed of 27 knots (50 km/h), and was armed with a single 12-pounder (76 mm) gun, three 6-pounders (57 mm), and three 46-cm torpedo tubes. She also had the range and speed to effectively travel with a battle fleet. Download high resolution version (1094x629, 63 KB)HMS Havock (1893) This image is copyrighted by the maintainer of the Web site http://www. ... Download high resolution version (1094x629, 63 KB)HMS Havock (1893) This image is copyrighted by the maintainer of the Web site http://www. ... HMS Havock Havock and Hornet, the two Havock-class destroyers built for the Royal Navy in 1893, were the first torpedo boat destroyers. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy was the officer responsible for procurement and matériel in the British Royal Navy. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... John Arbuthnot Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher John Arbuthnot Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher (January 25, 1841 – July 10, 1920), commonly known as Jackie Fisher, was a British admiral known for his efforts at naval reform. ...


The French navy, an extensive user of torpedo boats, built its first destroyer in 1899, with the Durandal-class 'torpilleur d'escadre'.


The United States commissioned its first destroyer, USS Bainbridge, Destroyer No. 1, in 1902 and by 1906 there were 16 destroyers in service with the Navy. The second USS Bainbridge (Destroyer No. ...


Pre World War I

Destroyer design evolved around the turn of the 20th century in several key ways. The first was the introduction of the steam turbine. The spectacular unauthorised demonstration of the turbine powered Turbinia at the 1897 Spithead Navy Review, which, significantly, was of torpedo boat size, prompted the Royal Navy to order a prototype turbine powered destroyer, HMS Viper of 1899. This was the first turbine warship of any kind and achieved a remarkable 36 knots on sea trials. By 1910 the turbine had been widely adopted by all navies for their faster ships. A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work. ... Turbinia was the first steam turbine powered steamship, built as an experimental vessel in 1894 and demonstrated dramatically at the Spithead Navy Review in 1897, setting the standard for the next generation of steamships. ... The Viper class was a group of two Torpedo Boat Destroyers (TBD) built for the British Royal Navy in 1899. ...


The second development was the replacement of the boat-style turtleback foredeck by a raised forecastle, which provided better sea-keeping as well as more space below deck. forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Focsle of the Prince William, a modern square rigged ship, in the North Sea. ...

Paulding class 1909 destroyer USS Perkins.
Paulding class 1909 destroyer USS Perkins.

The British experimented with oil propulsion for the Tribal class of 1905 but switched temporarily back to coal for the later Beagle class in 1909. Other navies also adopted oil, for instance the USN with the Paulding class of 1909. In spite of all this variety, destroyers adopted a largely similar pattern. The hull was long and thin, with a relatively shallow draft. The bow was either raised in a forecastle or covered under a turtleback; underneath this were the crew spaces, extending 1/4 to 1/3 the way along the hull. Aft of the crew spaces was as much engine space as the technology of the time would allow: several boilers and engines or turbines. Above deck, one or more quick-firing guns was mounted in the bows, in front of the bridge; several more were mounted amidships and astern. Two torpedo tube mountings (later on, multiple mountings) were generally found amidships. Image File history File links USS_Perkins_(DD-26). ... Image File history File links USS_Perkins_(DD-26). ... Between 1905 and 1908, the Royal Navy built 12 Tribal-class destroyers. ... The Beagle class was a class of sixteen destroyers of the Royal Navy launched in 1909 or 1910. ... The Paulding-class destroyers were a modification of the Smith-class. ...


Between 1890 and 1914 destroyers became markedly larger: initially 300 tons was a good size, but by the start of the First World War 1000 tons was not unusual. However, construction remained focussed on putting the biggest possible engines into a small hull, resulting in a somewhat flimsy construction. Often hulls were built of steel only 1/8in thick.


By 1910 the of steam-driven displacement (ie not hydroplaning) torpedo boat had become redundant as a separate type. Germany nevertheless continued to build such torpedo boats until the end of WW1, although these were effectively small coastal destroyers. In fact Germany never distinguished between the two types, giving them pennant numbers in the same series and never giving names to destroyers. Ultimately the term torpedo boat came to be attached to a quite different vessel - the very fast hydroplaning motor driven MTB. Motor Torpedo Boats (MTB) was the name given to fast torpedo boats by the US and Royal Navies. ...


Life on early destroyers

Early destroyers were extremely cramped places to live. In the Havock-class no crew member could ever get undisturbed rest, with officers sleeping on cushioned chairs around the wardroom instead of beds. Spray and condensation made life miserable. The first British class to have separate cabins for officers, or a heating stove for the captain, was the River class of 1902. These were torpedo ships built for the Royal Australian Navy. ...


Early Destroyer tactics and engagements

The destroyer's initial purpose was to protect against torpedo boats, but navies soon appreciated the flexibility of the fast, multi-purpose vessel that resulted. Vice-Admiral Sir Baldwin Walker laid down for the Royal Navy: [7]

  • Screening the advance of a fleet when hostile torpedo craft are about
  • Searching a hostile coast along which a fleet might pass
  • Watching an enemy's port for the purpose of harassing his torpedo craft and preventing their return
  • Attacking an enemy fleet

The destroyer's first major use came in the devastating Japanese attack on the Russian fleet in Port Arthur at the opening of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904. Three destroyer divisions attacked the Russian fleet in port, firing a total of 18 torpedoes, and severely damaging two Russian battleships. Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Admiral Heihachiro Togo Vice Admiral Shigeto Dewa Oskar Victorovich Stark Strength 15 battleships and cruisers with escorts 12 battleships and cruisers with escorts Casualties 90 men and slight damage 150 men and seven ships damaged The Battle of Port Arthur (Japanese: 旅順港閉塞作戦, Ryojunkō Heisoku... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over...


World War I

USS Wickes DD-75 a Wickes class destroyer.
USS Wickes DD-75 a Wickes class destroyer.

While capital ship engagements were scarce in World War I, destroyer units were almost continually engaged in raiding and patrol actions. The first shot of the war at sea was fired on 5th August 1914 by a destroyer of the 3rd Flotilla, Lance, in an engagement with an German auxiliary minelayer. The first British naval casualty was Amphion, the light cruiser leading the 3rd Flotilla, which ran into a mine laid by the same vessel. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x605, 63 KB) http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x605, 63 KB) http://www. ... The Wickes-class destroyers were built as a result of 1916 Congressional funding to build a fleet second to none. The basic requirement for the class was a possible speed of 35 knots. ... HMS Lance, a Royal Navy destroyer, in tandem with HMS Landrail, fired the first British shot of the First World War, on August 5, 1914 in an action that resulted in the sinking of the German minelayer Konigin Luise in the North Sea. ... A minelayer is a naval ship used for deploying sea mines. ...


Destroyers were involved in the skirmishes that prompted the Battle of Heligoland Bight, and filled a range of roles in the Battle of Gallipoli, acting as troops transports and fire support vessels, as well as their fleet-screening role. Over 80 British destroyers and 60 German torpedo-boats took part in the Battle of Jutland, which involved pitched small-boat actions between the main fleets, and several foolhardy attacks by unsupported destroyers on capital ships. Jutland also concluded with a messy night action between the German High Seas Fleet and part of the British destroyer screen. Combatants Britain German Empire Commanders David Beatty Reginald Tyrwhitt Leberecht Maass Strength 5 battlecruisers 8 light cruisers 33 destroyers 3 submarines 6 light cruisers 19 torpedo boats 12 minesweepers Casualties 35 killed 55 wounded 712 killed 149 wounded 336 captured 3 light cruisers 1 torpedo boat The First Battle of... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 252,000 260,309 The Battle of Gallipoli was a very bad and costly war, yet... Combatants Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy High Seas Fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine Commanders Sir John Jellicoe Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships 9 battlecruisers 8 heavy cruisers 26 light cruisers 78 destroyers 1 minelayer 1 seaplane carrier 16 battleships 5 battlecruisers 6 pre...


The threat evolved by World War I with the development of the submarine, or U-boat. The submarine had the potential to hide from gunfire and close underwater to fire torpedoes. Early-war destroyers had the speed and armament to intercept submarines before they submerged, either by gunfire or by ramming. Destroyers also had a shallow enough draft that torpedoes would find it difficult to hit them. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


The desire to attack submarines underwater led to rapid destroyer evolution during the war, which were quickly equipped with strengthened bows for ramming, depth charges and hydrophones for identifying submarine targets. The first submarine casualty to a destroyer was the German U.19, rammed by Badger on 29 October 1914. While U.19 was only damaged, the next month Garry successfully sank U.18. The first depth-charge sinking was on 4 December 1916, when UC.19 was sunk by Llewellyn. Depth Charge used by U.S. Navy later in World War II The depth charge is the oldest anti-submarine weapon. ... A hydrophone is a sound-to-electricity transducer for use in water or other liquids, analogous to a microphone for air. ... HMS Badger was an Acheron class torpedo boat destroyer of the Royal Navy that served during World War I. She was with the 1st Destroyer Flotilla from 1911–12, before joining the British Grand Fleet in 1914 until 1916. ...


The submarine threat meant that many destroyers spent their time on anti-submarine patrol; once Germany adopted unrestricted submarine warfare in summer 1917, destroyers were called on to escort merchant convoys. US Navy destroyers were among the first American units to be dispatched upon American entry to the war, and even a squadron of Japanese destroyers joined Allied patrols in the Mediterranean. Patrol duty was far from safe: of the 67 British destroyers lost in the War, collisions accounted for 18 and 12 were wrecked. Unrestricted submarine warfare is a kind of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. ... A convoy is a group of vehicles traveling together for mutual support. ...


At the end of the war the state of the art was represented by the British W class. HMS Wolverine from astern The V and W class was an amalgam of very similar oil-fueled destroyer classes built around the end of the First World War for the Royal Navy. ...


Inter-war

Japan's Fubuki (1928)
Japan's Fubuki (1928)

The trend during World War I had been towards larger destroyers with heavier armaments. A number of opportunities to fire at capital ships had been missed during the War, because destroyers had expended all their torpedoes in an initial salvo. The British 'V' & 'W' classes of the late war had sought to address this by mounting six torpedo tubes in two triple mounts, instead of the four or two on earlier models. The 'V'and 'W's set the standard of destroyer building well the 1920s. Image File history File links Fubuki. ... Image File history File links Fubuki. ... HMS Wolverine from astern The V and W class was an amalgam of very similar oil-fueled destroyer classes built around the end of the First World War for the Royal Navy. ...


The next major innovation came with the Japanese Fubuki class or 'special type', designed in 1923 and delivered in 1928. The design was initially noted for its powerful armament of six five-inch guns, together with three triple torpedo mounts. The second batch of the class gave the guns high-angle turrets for anti-aircraft warfare, and the 24-inch (60 cm) oxygen fueled 'Long Lance' Type 93 torpedo. The later Ariake class of 1931 further improved the torpedo armament by storing its reload torpedoes close at hand in the superstructure, meaning reloading could be accomplished in 15 minutes. The Fubuki The Fubuki Class destroyers, originally only known as numbered destroyers 35 to 54 of the Imperial Japanese Navy Special Type, were completed between 1928 and 1931. ... The Type 93 was a 610 mm (24 inch) diameter torpedo of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


Most other nations replied with similar larger ships. The US Porter class adopted twin five-inch guns, and the subsequent Mahan class and Gridley class (the latter of 1934) increased the number of torpedo tubes to 12 and 16 respectively. The Porter-class destroyers were a class of eight 1850-ton destroyers in the United States Navy. ... The Mahan class of destroyers were built by various shipyards between 1935 and 1937. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

France's Le Fantasque, the fastest destroyer class ever built.
France's Le Fantasque, the fastest destroyer class ever built.

In the Mediterranean, the Italian navy's building of very fast light cruisers of the Condottieri class prompted the French to produce exceptional destroyer designs. The French had long been keen on large destroyers, with their Chacal class of 1922 displacing over 2000 tons and carrying 130 mm guns; a further three similar classes were produced around 1930. The Le Fantasque class of 1935 took performance to an exceptional level. The class carried five 5.5-inch guns and nine torpedo tubes, but their speed was truly exceptional - reaching 45 knots, which remains the record speed for a steamship and for any destroyer. The Italians' own destroyers were almost as rapid, most Italian designs of the 1930s being rated for 38 knots, and carrying four or six 120 mm guns as well as torpedoes. Image File history File links Fantasque. ... Image File history File links Fantasque. ... Le Fantasque (Capricious) was a large destroyer (contre-torpilleur, counter-torpedo boat) of the French Navy which served during the Second World War. ... Profile of Italian light cruiser Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, Condottieri class Condottieri was a light cruiser class of the Italian Regia Marina, built before World War II to gain predominance in the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Chacal-class, sometimes known as the Jaguar class, were a group of six French navy large destroyers (contre-torpilleur) built commencing 1923. ... Le Fantasque (Capricious) was a large destroyer (contre-torpilleur, counter-torpedo boat) of the French Navy which served during the Second World War. ...


Germany started to build destroyers again during the 1930s as part of Hitler's rearmament programme. The Germans were also fond of large destroyers, but while the initial Type 1934 displaced over 3,000 tons their armament was no better than many smaller classes. The later Type 1936 did, however, adopt heavy 150 mm guns. German destroyers also used innovative high-pressure steam machinery: while this should have helped their efficiency, it more often resulted in mechanical problems. At the outbreak of World War II, the German Navy, the Kriegsmarine had 21 destroyers (German: Zerstörer) available. ...


Once German and Japanese armament became clear, the British and American navies consciously focused on smaller, more numerous units. The British built a series of destroyers the A Class to I Class which were about 1400 tons standard displacement, had four 4.7 inch guns and eight torpedo tubes; the American Benson class of 1938 similar in size, but carried five 5-inch guns and ten torpedo tubes. The British realising the need for heavier gun armament built the Tribal class of 1936 (sometimes called "Afridi" after one of two lead ships). These ships displaced 1850 tons and were armed with eight 4.7-inch guns in four twin turrets and four torpedo tubes. These were followed by the J Class and L class destroyers with 6 guns in twin turrets and 8 torpedo tubes The A class was a class of eleven destroyers of the Royal Navy, which included the flotilla-leader Codrington. ... HMS Inglefield The I class was a class of eleven destroyers of the Royal Navy launched in 1936–1937. ... This class was intended to be an improved version of the Sims class with two stacks, and a alternating machinery space layout. ... The Tribal class, or Afridi class, were a class of destroyers built for the Royal Navy, Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Australian Navy that saw service in World War II. // From 1926 all Royal Navy destroyers had descended from a common lineage based upon the prototypes Amazon and Ambuscade. ... The J, K and N class was a class of 24 destroyers of the Royal Navy launched in 1938. ...


Anti-submarine sensors included sonar (or ASDIC), although training in their use was indifferent. Anti-sub weapons changed little, and ahead-throwing weapons, a need recognized in WWI, had made no progress. The F70 type frigates (here, La Motte-Picquet) are fitted with VDS (Variable Depth Sonar) type DUBV43 or DUBV43C towed sonars SONAR (SOund Navigation And Ranging) â€” or sonar â€” is a technique that uses sound propagation under water (primarily) to navigate, communicate or to detect other vessels. ...


Operations in the inter-war period

During the 1920s and 1930s destroyers were often deployed to areas of diplomatic tension or humanitarian disaster. British and American destroyers were common on the Chinese coast, even supplying landing parties to protect colonial interests.


World War II

USS McGowan, a Fletcher-class destroyer during World War II
Main articles: British World War II destroyers, German World War II destroyers

By World War II the threat had evolved once again. Submarines were more effective, and aircraft had become important weapons of naval warfare; once again the fleet destroyers were ill-equipped for combatting these new targets. They were fitted with new anti-aircraft guns, radar, and forward-launched ASW weapons, in addition to their existing light guns, depth charges, and torpedoes. By this time the destroyers had become large, multi-purpose vessels, expensive targets in their own right rather than expendable vessels for the protection of others; moreover, they were one of the most sunk kinds of ships even though they were mass produced. This led to the introduction of smaller and cheaper specialized anti-submarine warships called corvettes and frigates by the Royal Navy and destroyer escorts by the USN;ships the size and displacement of the original torpedo boat destroyers. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixelsFull resolution (1137 × 842 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) USS McGowan (DD-678) photographed during World War II This image is a work of a sailor or employee of the U.S. Navy, taken or... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixelsFull resolution (1137 × 842 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) USS McGowan (DD-678) photographed during World War II This image is a work of a sailor or employee of the U.S. Navy, taken or... USS McGowan (DD-678) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Rear Admiral Samuel McGowan (1870–1934). ... USS Fletcher (DD-445) Underway at sea, circa the 1960s. ... At the start of World War II, the Royal Navy operated a range of destroyer classes. ... At the outbreak of World War II, the German Navy, the Kriegsmarine had 21 destroyers (German: Zerstörer) available. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ... Hedgehog anti-submarine weapon An anti-submarine weapon developed by the Royal Navy during World War II, the Hedgehog was deployed on convoy escort warships such as destroyers to supplement the depth charge. ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate but larger than a coastal patrol craft. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... A Destroyer Escort (DE) is classification for a small, comparatively slower warship designed to be used to escort convoys of merchant marine ships, primarily of the United States Navy in World War II. It is usually employed primarily for anti-submarine warfare, but also some protection against aircraft and smaller... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...


Post-war

Polish ORP Błyskawica destroyer currently preserved as a museum ship in Gdynia.

Some conventional destroyers were completed in the late 1940's and 1950's which built on wartime experience. These vessels were significantly larger than wartime ships and had fully automatic main guns, unit Machinery, radar, sonar, and antisubmarine weapons such as the Squid mortar. Examples include the British Daring class, US Forrest Sherman-class, and the Soviet Kotlin-class destroyers. Download high resolution version (801x476, 91 KB)Polish destroyer ORP Blyskawica http://pl. ... Download high resolution version (801x476, 91 KB)Polish destroyer ORP Blyskawica http://pl. ... ORP Błyskawica was a Grom-class destroyer serving in the Polish Navy during World War II, currently preserved as a museum ship in Gdynia. ... USS Wisconsin, one of three Iowa class battleships opened to the public as a museum, and was one of two Iowas maintained in the US Mothball fleet. ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... Squid was a World War II ship-mounted anti-submarine weapon. ... The Daring class were an eight-ship class of destroyers of the Royal Navy (RN) that were laid down during and after World War II, though like many other classes, their construction was halted for quite a while, indeed, the Darings were not commissioned until the 1950s. ... The 18 Forrest Sherman-class destroyers were the first US post-war destroyers (DD-927 to DD-930 were completed as frigates) and the first major US combatants with more firepower aft than forward. ... These ships were cold-war era destroyers built for the Soviet Navy, The Russian name for this class was type 56 Spokoinyy. ...


Some World War II-vintage ships were modernised for anti-submarine warfare, and to extend their service lives, to avoid having to build (expensive) brand-new ships. Examples include the US FRAM I programme and the British Type 15 frigates converted from fleet destroyers. The Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization (FRAM) program of the United States Navy might be considered the beginning of the final phase in the shift of mission for destroyers from a surface attack role to that of a submarine hunter. ... The Type 15 frigates were a class of British anti-submarine frigates of the Royal Navy. ...


The missile age

The advent of surface-to-air (SAM) missiles and surface-to-surface (SSM) missiles, such as the Exocet, in the early 1960's changed naval warfare. Guided missile destroyers (DDG in the US Navy) were developed to carry these weapons and protect the fleet from air, submarine and surface threats. Examples include the Soviet Kashin-class, the British County class, and the American Charles F. Adams-class. Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... A surface-to-surface missile (SSM) is a guided projectile launched from a hand-held, vehicle mounted, trailer mounted or fixed installation or from a ship. ... The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, and airplanes. ... A guided missile destroyer is, as the name suggests, a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. ... A Kashin class destroyer in October 1985. ... HMS Devonshire The County class destroyers were large vessels built by the Royal Navy around the Sea Slug anti-aircraft missile system. ... The class of guided missile destroyers was a group of twenty-nine built between 1958 and 1967. ...


Modern destroyers

Modern Destroyers
USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer
USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer

In the US Navy, destroyers operate in support of carrier battle groups, surface action groups, amphibious groups and replenishment groups. The destroyers currently in use by the US Navy are the Arleigh Burke-class. Destroyers (with a DD hull classification symbol) primarily perform anti-submarine warfare duty while guided missile destroyers (DDGs) are multi-mission (anti-submarine, anti-aircraft, and anti-surface warfare) surface combatants. The relatively-recent addition of cruise missile launchers has greatly expanded the role of the destroyer in strike and land-attack warfare. As the expense of heavier surface combatants has generally removed them from the fleet, destroyer tonnage has grown (a modern Arleigh Burke-class destroyer has the same tonnage as a World War II light cruiser). Arleigh Burke is billed by her builders as ton-for-ton the most powerful warship in history. Image File history File links Destroyer_Class_Ships. ... Image File history File links Destroyer_Class_Ships. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1369, 317 KB) Description Aerial view of the guided missile destroyer USS Lassen (DDG 82) part of USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70) Carrier Strike Group. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1369, 317 KB) Description Aerial view of the guided missile destroyer USS Lassen (DDG 82) part of USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70) Carrier Strike Group. ... Categories: Stub ... The Arleigh Burke class of guided missile destroyers, one of the destroyer classes of the United States Navy, is built around the Aegis combat system and the SPY-1D multi-function phased array radar. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Arleigh Burke class of guided missile destroyers, one of the destroyer classes of the United States Navy, is built around the Aegis combat system and the SPY-1D multi-function phased array radar. ... The United States Navy uses hull classification symbols (sometimes called hull codes) to identify the types of its ships. ... A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. ... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... The Arleigh Burke class of guided missile destroyers, one of the destroyer classes of the United States Navy, is built around the Aegis combat system and the SPY-1D multi-function phased array radar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ...


The Royal Navy currently operates 8 ships of the Type 42 class. The destroyers (as well as frigates) are, as always, the workhorses of the fleet, the former optimised for air defence and the latter for surface and subsurface warfare. They are equally at home in large task groups or on independent operations which may include sanctions enforcement, humanitarian relief or anti-drug patrols. British destroyers (of recent times) have an average displacement of around 5000 tonnes, and are armed with a mixture of guns and missiles including 114 mm (4.5 inch) Mk 8 guns, Sea Dart Missiles, 20 mm Close range guns, Vulcan Phalanx close in weapons system (CIWS), anti submarine torpedo tubes. These ships are due to be replaced by the new Type 45 or Daring Class destroyers which will displace roughly 7,200 tonnes and are predicted to be the most advanced surface warships in the world when they enter service at the end of the decade. Type 42 destroyer HMS Manchester Type 42, also known as the Sheffield class, is a class of destroyers of the Royal Navy. ... Sea Dart launcher Sea Dart is a surface to air missile system mounted on air defence destroyers of the Royal Navy. ... The United Kingdoms Type 45 destroyer is the state-of-the art air defence destroyer programme of the Royal Navy. ...


The Canadian Navy currently operates the Iroquois-class destroyers, a class of four helicopter-carrying, anti-aircraft, guided missile destroyers. Launched in the 1970s, the Iroquois's were the first Canadian all gas turbine powered military ships, using two turbines for cruise power, and another two fast-starting "boost" turbines for speeds of up to 29 knots (54 km/h) (such an arrangement is known as COGOG). Previously the Soviet Navy had used all-gas turbine propulsion on their Kashin class destroyers of the 1960's but the Iroquois were the first to be built to this scheme either on Canada or in the US. The design of the Iroquois was a major inspiration for the US's later Spruance class ships. They were originally fitted out for anti-submarine warfare, but the entire class underwent major retrofits as a part of the Tribal Class Update and Modernization Program, or TRUMP, in the 1990s. These refits had the effect of re-purposing the ships for air-defence, and the ships are now referred to as area air-defence destroyers. HMCS Bastion, flagship of the Canadian Navy. ... Iroquois-class destroyers are a class of three helicopter-carrying, guided missile destroyers of the Canadian Navy. ... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors consisting of two or more rotor blades. ... A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Principle of a COGOG propulsion system Combined gas or gas (COGOG) is a propulsion system for ships using gas turbine engines. ... The Spruance-class destroyer was developed to replace a large number of World War II-built - and Gearing-class destroyers, and was the primary destroyer built for the U.S. Navy during the 1970s. ... Anti-submarine warfare (ASW or in older forms A/S) is a branch of naval warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft or other submarines to find, track and then damage or destroy enemy submarines. ...


The Russian Navy and the People's Liberation Army Navy of the People's Republic of China operate the Sovremenny class, a class of large multi-purpose missile destroyers. They are powered by pressure-fired boilers, making them capable of speeds in excess of 30 knots. Their armament consists of 8 SS-N-22 Sunburn anti-ship missiles, launchers for SA-N-7 Gadfly anti-air missiles and two AK-130 twin-barreled 130 mm automatic naval guns which can fire laser-guided shells. While they also carry 533 mm torpedo tubes and RBU-6000 rocket launchers for use against submarines, their primary mission is to attack surface ships. Their anti-aircraft missiles have a surface attack mode, and both the 130 mm guns and the torpedoes are useful against ships at close range. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... SS-N-22 Sunburn is the NATO reporting name for two unrelated Soviet anti-ship missiles. ... A 9K37M TELAR 9A310M1. ... A RBU-6000 rocket launcher aboard a Udaloy class destroyer. ...

INS Mysore D60, of the Indian Navy during a exercise with the US Navy.

The Indian Navy operates the Delhi class destroyers. These ships are armed with Kh-35 missiles, which have a range of 130 km, in the anti-ship role. These missiles will be replaced by the Brahmos cruise missiles. Shtil (AKA SA-N-7 Gadfly) system is installed to counter airborne threats. The Barak point-defense missile system has been installed in INS Delhi and will soon be installed in the other two ships of its class. These destroyers also carry the RBU-6000 rockets in the anti-submarine role and are provided with five 533 mm torpedo launch tubes that can launch the SET-65E, Type 53-65 torpedoes. Another strength of these destroyers lies is the capability to carry two Sea King helicopters. The Delhi class will be augmented by the new Kolkata class destroyers, the first of which was launched in March 2006. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (2302 × 1500 pixel, file size: 703 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Source:[1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (2302 × 1500 pixel, file size: 703 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Source:[1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Two ships of the Indian Navy have been named INS Mysore originally after the state city of Mysore (Karnataka): Mysore, launched 1939 as HMS Nigeria, was a Crown Colony class light cruiser. ... The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ... The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ... The three Indian Navy destroyers of the Delhi class are the most modern and largest to be fully built in India. ... Kh-35 is Russian subsonic anti-ship missile. ... The BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. ... A 9K37M TELAR 9A310M1. ... The Barak SAM was developed in a joint venture between Israel Aircraft Industries and RAFAEL and is based on RAFAELs vertically launched missile. ... Two ships of the Indian Navy have been named Delhi: The Leander class cruiser INS Delhi, in service in the Indian Navy between 1948 and 1978. ... A RBU-6000 rocket launcher aboard a Udaloy class destroyer. ... The three Indian Navy destroyers of the Delhi class are the most modern and largest to be fully built in India. ... The Type 15A Kolkata class destroyers are the latest stealth destroyers being built for the Indian Navy. ...


The Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy has recently commissioned a number of new modern destroyers in addition to the four Sovremenny-class. Three new classes were launched since 2003, known as the Luyang, Luyang II and Luzhou class. The latter two are armed with long range air defense missiles, the indigenous HQ-9 and the Russian S-300 respectively. It has been speculated that once the PLAN has been satisfied with one of the two designs (either the 052C or 051C), it would be selected for series production as the next generation of advanced air defense destroyers for China. The Type 052B destroyer (NATO code name Luyang class; sometimes referred to as Guangzhou class after the lead ship name) is a class of multirole missile destroyer built by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Type 052C destroyer (NATO code name Luyang II class, often referred to as Lanzhou class after the lead ship name) is a class of destroyer built by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Type 051C destroyer (NATO code name Luzhou class) is the latest air-defense guided missile destroyer built by China in response to creating a true blue water navy. ...


Future destroyers

Concept drawing for USS Zumwalt, the lead ship of the DD(X) class.
Concept drawing for USS Zumwalt, the lead ship of the DD(X) class.

The last US Navy Spruance-class destroyer in service, USS Cushing, was decommissioned on September 21, 2005. The Zumwalt class are planned to replace them; on November 1, 2001, the US Navy announced the issuance of a revised Request for Proposal (RFP) for the Future Surface Combatant Program. Formerly known as DD 21, the program will now be called DD(X) to more accurately reflect the program purpose, which is to produce a family of advanced technology surface combatants, not a single ship class. DD(X), also called Zumwalt class, is much larger than traditional destroyers, being nearly three thousand tons heavier than a Ticonderoga-class cruiser. It will potentially employ advanced weaponry and an all-electric Integrated Power System. With the retirement of the Spruance class, the Navy began commissioning an advanced variant of the Arleigh Burke class with expanded ASW capabilities, the Arleigh Burke Flight IIA, beginning with USS Oscar Austin. As of 2006, 22 of these vessels are in service, with at least seven more under construction. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 551 pixel Image in higher resolution (1382 × 951 pixel, file size: 512 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Concept view of the USS Zumwalt class destroyer (DDG-1000), formerly DD(X) Source: http://peoships. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 551 pixel Image in higher resolution (1382 × 951 pixel, file size: 512 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Concept view of the USS Zumwalt class destroyer (DDG-1000), formerly DD(X) Source: http://peoships. ... USS Zumwalt (DDG-1000) is scheduled to be the lead ship of the U.S. Navys DD(X) guided missile destroyer program and the first ship to be named for Admiral Elmo Zumwalt. ... The Spruance-class destroyer was developed to replace a large number of World War II-built - and Gearing-class destroyers, and was the primary destroyer built for the U.S. Navy during the 1970s. ... USS Cushing (DD-985), named for Commander William B. Cushing USN (1842–1874), is a Spruance-class destroyer built by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Division of Litton Industries at Pascagoula, Mississippi. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The DD(X) is a future class of United States Navy destroyer. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The DD(X) with planned features. ... Ticonderoga class cruiser is a class of warships in the US Navy, first ordered and authorized in FY 1978. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... USS Oscar Austin (DDG-79) is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer in the United States Navy. ...

Computer generated impression of the proposed Australian air warfare destroyer
Computer generated impression of the proposed Australian air warfare destroyer

The current Royal Navy Type 42 destroyers are to be replaced by the new Type 45 Daring-class from 2007 onwards. A class of 8 ships is envisaged, with an entire programme budget of £6 billion although at present only 6 have been ordered. Displacing around 7,200 tons, they will be equipped with the UK variant of the Principal Anti-Air Missile System (PAAMS) and BAE SAMPSON radar. Design and construction of the first ships is split between BAE Systems and Vosper Thornycroft under the overall project management of BAE systems. The ships are assembled at Scotstoun, by BAE Systems Naval Ships. HMS Daring, the first of her class, was christened by Sophie, Countess of Wessex, and launched on the Clyde on 1 February 2006. Image File history File links Australian_AWD.jpg CG image of proposed Australian Air Warfare Destroyer From [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Australian_AWD.jpg CG image of proposed Australian Air Warfare Destroyer From [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Sea 4000 project instituted by the Australian Department of Defence intends to acquire three Air Warfare Destroyers for introduction into service starting in 2013. ... The United Kingdoms Type 45 destroyer is the state-of-the art air defence destroyer programme of the Royal Navy. ... The Principle Anti Air Missile System (PAAMS) is a joint French/Italian/British program for a naval anti-aircraft weapon. ... Sampson may refer to: Sampson (crater), a small impact crater on the near the central part of the Mare Imbrium on the Moon Sampson (shire), a shire horse that is the tallest horse on record Sampson County, North Carolina, a county in southeastern North Carolina, United States Sampson Medal, a... BAE Systems plc is the worlds fourth largest defence contractor,[3] the largest in Europe and a commercial aerospace manufacturer. ... Vosper Thornycroft is a limited business traditionally associated with the shipbuilding industry in the UK. They hold a shipbuilding yard in Southampton, Hampshire. ... Scotstoun is a district of Glasgow, Scotland, west of Glasgow City Centre. ... Launch of HMS Daring from BAEs Scotstoun Shipyard. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


The $5.2 billion CADRE (Command & Control and Air-Defence Capability Replacement) project is meant to replace Canada’s Iroquois class destroyers whose primary role shifted to area air-defence after TRUMP refits in the 1990s. Although the area air-defence capability had not previously existed, the Canadian Navy now regards “wide area air defence” as part of Canada’s core naval capabilities. When the project began, Canadian Navy destroyers were expected to need replacing by 2005, they are now expected to serve until 2010. There was some work on a replacement design, known to Navy-watchers as the Province class destroyers, but this was confined largely to studies of a much-improved multi-function three dimensional phased array radar system being developed in conjunction with the Dutch and German navies, known as Active Phased Array Radar (APAR). Current speculation is that the ships themselves would be similar to a "stretched" Halifax-class frigate. Iroquois-class destroyers are a class of three helicopter-carrying, guided missile destroyers of the Canadian Navy. ... The Province-class destroyer is the name given by military observers and naval buffs to the expected replacement of the Canadian Forces Iroquois class destroyer fleet. ... A giant phased-array radar in Alaska In telecommunication, a phased array is a group of antennas in which the relative phases of the respective signals feeding the antennas are varied in such a way that the effective radiation pattern of the array is reinforced in a desired direction and... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ... APAR AESA An Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA), also known as active phased array radar is a revolutionary type of radar whose transmitter and receiver functions are composed of numerous small transmit/receive (T/R) modules that each scan a small fixed area, negating the need for a moving antenna. ... The Halifax-class Multi-Role Patrol Frigate (hull designation FFH) is a class of Canadian Navy frigates launched between 1992 and 1996 to replace the aging Restigouche-class fleet of Destroyer Escorts (DDEs). ...


See also

Look up destroyer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... This is a list of destroyer classes. ... The United States Navy reclassified many of its surface vessels in 1975, changing terminology and hull classification symbols for aircraft carriers, cruisers, frigates, and ocean escorts. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Although there are currently no active battleships in any navy the United States navy still maintains two Iowa-class battleships, and could reactivate one or both if necessary though unlikely.
  2. ^ http://www.battleships-cruisers.co.uk/torpedo_boats.htm
  3. ^ Biography of Villaamil
  4. ^ From an article about the American Greyhounds
    • Quote:
    Torpedo boats were considered a major threat and the navies of the world set out to defend against them. In 1884 Capitan de Navio Fernando Villaamil was appointed the second officer in the Ministry of the Spanish Navy and was tasked with the design of a new class of warship intended to fight the then new torpedo boats. Once he reached a conclusion, he chose the J & G Thomson shipyards in Clydebank, Scotland, to build the new vessel. On January 19, 1887, the DESTRUCTOR, the first torpedo boat destroyer, was turned over to the Spanish Navy, with great expectations from the European naval community. Twenty-four hours after leaving Falmouth England, the DESTRUCTOR reached the Spanish coast, making 18 knots through a stormy Bay of Biscay. The ships new design and functions were so different from any past man-of-war, many thought it couldn’t survive at sea. In one day the doubts about the vessel's seaworthiness were answered forever, and her designer and commander had every reason to feel proud.
  5. ^ Lion, page 18: J&G Thomson's 1892 design for a TBD is, not unsurprisingly, somewhat reminiscent of their "Destructor" built for the Spanish Navy.
  6. ^ Lion, page 66: It was already (J&G Thomson Clydebank shipyard), when asked to tender for TBDs for the Royal Navy, building trasatlantics liners and cruisers to the navy, and had built an interesting torpedo vessel under the prophetic name of "Destructor" ("Destroyer") for Spain. Its first design (for the British navy in 1892) was cleary a successor of the "Destructor".
  7. ^ Brett, Bernard: "History of World Sea Power", Deans International (London) 1985. ISBN 0-603-03723-2

The Iowa-class battleships were six battleships ordered by the United States Navy in 1939 and 1940 for use as escorts for the Fast Carrier Task Forces operating in the Pacific Theatre of World War II. Four were completed in the early to mid-1940s; two more were laid down... The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa A battleship is a large, heavily-armored warship with a main battery consisting of the largest caliber of guns. ...

References

  • Destroyers, Anthony Preston, Bison Books (London) 1977. ISBN 0-600-32955-0
  • The First Destroyers / David Lyon - Caxton Editions, 1997 - ISBN 1840673648
  • Kaigun: Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887-1941, David C. Evans, Mark R.Peattie, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland ISBN 0-87021-192-7
  • The Origins of Japanese Trade Supremacy: Development and Technology in Asia from 1540 to the Pacific War, Christopher Howe, The University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-35485-7
  • Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships (1860-1905): Gardiner, Robert (Ed.), Naval Institute Press, 1985.
  • The Atlantic Campaign, Dan van der Vat.
  • DD-963 Spruance-class
  • Navy Designates Next-Generation Zumwalt Destroyer

External links

Warship types of the 19th & 20th Centuries
Aircraft Carrier | Battleship | Battlecruiser | Cruiser | Destroyer | Frigate | Ironclad | Monitor | Submarine

  Results from FactBites:
 
Merge Records (1046 words)
Destroyer’s Rubies is a collection of shrewd pop music that takes no prisoners and asks no pardons.
However, in the fall of 2005 Destroyer did head out on the road for a support slot on the New Pornographers North American tour, and Bejar was persuaded to perform a few songs live with the Pornographers for the first time in years.
This Night, Destroyer album number five and Bejar’s debut on Merge Records, was released in the fall of 2002 and continued to raise the bar, confounding perceptions of what exactly Destroyer was, or could be.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m