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Encyclopedia > Despotate of Epirus

The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. It claimed to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Empire, along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Empire of Trebizond. The succession of states theory asserts that all possessions and territory held by a state are automatically transferred to the successor state, the state which succeeds it. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem by taking Egypt first, instead, in 1204, conquered and sacked the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... // Foundation The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond was a successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 immediately before the fall of Constantinople. ...

The Despotate of Epirus and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911
The Despotate of Epirus and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911

Contents

Download high resolution version (1144x900, 272 KB)Map, The Byzantine Empire, 1265. ... Download high resolution version (1144x900, 272 KB)Map, The Byzantine Empire, 1265. ...

Foundation

The Despotate was founded in by Michael I Ducas, cousin of the Byzantine emperors Isaac II Angelus and Alexius III. At first Michael allied with Boniface of Montferrat, but then went to Epirus, where he considered himself the Byzantine governor of the old province of Nicopolis and revolted against Boniface. Epirus soon became the new home of many Greek refugees from Constantinople, Thessaly, and the Peloponnese, and Michael was described as a second Noah, rescuing men from the Latin flood. John Camaterus, the Patriarch of Constantinople, did not consider him a legitimate successor and instead accompanied Theodore I Lascaris to Nicaea; Michael instead recognized the authority of Pope Innocent III over Epirus, cutting ties to the Orthodox Church. Michael I Angelus Comnenus Ducas was the founder and first ruler of the Despotate of Epirus from 1205 until his death in 1215. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Isaac II Angelus (or Isaakios Angelos) (September 1156-1204), was the Byzantine emperor from 1185-1195, and again 1203-1204. ... Alexius III Angelus, Byzantine emperor, was the second son of Andronicus Angelus, nephew of Alexius I. In 1195, while his brother Isaac II was away hunting in Thrace, he was proclaimed emperor by the troops; he captured Isaac at Stagira in Macedonia, put out his eyes, and kept him henceforth... Boniface of Montferrat (c. ... Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípeiros; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is a province or periphery in northwestern Greece, bounded by West Macedonia and Thessaly to the east, by the province of Sterea Ellada (Central Greece) to the south, the Ionian Sea and the Ionian Islands to the west and... Nicopolis (meaning in Greek: city of victory; see also List of traditional Greek place names) or Actia Nicopolis was an ancient city of Epirus, founded 31 BC by Octavian in memory of his victory over Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Though Peloponnese is used to refer to the entire peninsula, the periphery with that name includes only part of that landmass. ... Noah or Nóach (circa 2104 BCE according to the chronology of the Hebrew Bible/Tanakh) (Rest, Standard Hebrew נוֹחַ (Nóaḥ), Tiberian Hebrew (); Arabic نوح ()), is a Biblical figure who, according to Genesis, built an ark to save his family and each species of the worlds animals from the Deluge... John X Camaterus was the Patriarch of Constantinople from 1198 to 1206. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Iznik (formerly Nicaea) is a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey) which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Innocent III, né Lotario de Conti (Gavignano, near Anagni, ca. ... ...

Henry of Flanders demanded that Michael submit to the Latin Empire, which he did, at least nominally, by allowing his daughter to marry Henry's brother Eustace in 1209. Michael did not honour this alliance, assuming that mountainous Epirus would be mostly impenetrable by any Latins with whom he made and broke alliances. Meanwhile Boniface's relatives from Montferrat made claims to Epirus as well, and in 1210 Michael allied with the Venetians and attacked Boniface's Kingdom of Thessalonica. Michael was excessively cruel to his prisoners, in some cases crucifying Latin priests. Innocent excommunicated him in response. Henry relieved the city later that year and forced Michael into a renewed nominal alliance. Henry (c. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ... Montferrat was a marquisate in Lombardy during the Middle Ages. ... Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípeiros; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is a province or periphery in northwestern Greece, bounded by West Macedonia and Thessaly to the east, by the province of Sterea Ellada (Central Greece) to the south, the Ionian Sea and the Ionian Islands to the west and... Events End of the reign of Emperor Tsuchimikado, emperor of Japan Emperor Juntoku ascends to the throne of Japan Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor excommunicated by Pope Innocent III for invading southern Italy in 1210 Gottfried von Strassburg writes his epic poem Tristan about 1210 Beginning of Delhi Sultanate Births... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venessia in the local dialect), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′N 12°19′E, population 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... The Kingdom of Thessalonica was a short-lived Crusader State founded after the Fourth Crusade. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross (Latin: crux) and left to hang there until dead. ...

Michael however turned his attention to capturing other strategically important Latin-held towns, Larissa, Dyrrhachium and Ohrid in particular, and ensuring he had control of the Via Egnatia, the main route to Constantinople. He also took control of the ports on the Gulf of Corinth. In 1214 he captured Corcyra from Venice, but was assassinated later that year and was succeeded by his half-brother Theodore. Larissa (Greek: Λάρισα, Lárisa, (Turkish: Yenişehr-i Fenar) is the capital city of the Thessaly periphery of Greece, and capital of the Larissa Prefecture. ... Durrës (Italian: Durazzo; see also different names) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important important cities of Albania. ... Ohrid (see also different names) is a city on the eastern shore of Lake Ohrid in western Republic of Macedonia. ... Ancient Via Egnatia route Via Egnatia (Greek: Εγνατία Οδός) was a road constructed by the Romans around 146 BC. It was named after Gnaeus Egnatius, proconsul of Macedonia, who ordered its construction. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf is a deep inlet of the Ionian Sea separating the Peloponnese from western mainland Greece. ... Events Simon Apulia becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... (This article is about the Greek island known in English as Corfu. ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ...

Conflict with Nicaea and Bulgaria

Theodore immediately set out to attack Thessalonica, and fought with the Bulgarians along the way. Henry of Flanders died on the way to counterattack, and in 1217 Theodore captured his successor Peter of Courtenay, most likely executing him. The Latin Empire, however, became distracted by the growing power of Nicaea and could not stop Theodore from capturing Thessalonica in 1224. In 1225, after John III Ducas Vatatzes of Nicaea had taken Adrianople, Theodore arrived and in turn took it from him. Theodore also allied with the Bulgarians and drove the Latins out of the Thrace. In 1227 Theodore crowned himself Byzantine emperor, although this was not recognized by most Greeks, especially not the Patriarch in Nicaea. In 1230 Theodore broke the truce with Bulgaria, hoping to remove Ivan Asen II, who had held him back from attacking Constantinople. In the battle of Klokotnitsa (near Haskovo in Bulgaria) the Bulgarian tzar (emperor) defeated, captured, and blinded Theodore and his nephew Michael II took power in Epirus. Theodore was eventually released and ruled Thessalonica as a vassal with his brother Manuel. The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Events April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ... Peter of Courtenay (d. ... Events Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Holy See... Events Births Thomas Aquinas, Christian philosopher and theologian (d. ... John III Ducas Vatatzes (1193 - November 3, 1254) was Byzantine Emperor, in exile in the Empire of Nicaea, from 1222 to 1254. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη ThrákÄ“, Bulgarian Тракия Trakija, Turkish Trakya) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece, and European Turkey. ... Events Henry III of England declares himself of age and assumes power Births September 30 - Pope Nicholas IV Deaths March 18 - Pope Honorius III (b. ... Events Kingdom of Leon unites with the Kingdom of Castile. ... Ivan Asen II (Ioan Asen II) (1218–1241), tsar of Bulgaria, was the son of Asen, founder of the Second Bulgarian Empire. ... Klokotnica (Bulgarian: Клокотница) is a village in southern Bulgaria near Haskovo. ... Haskovo is the name of a town (and administrative center of the region of the same name) in Southern Bulgaria. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ...

Nicaean and Byzantine suzerainty

Epirus never regained its power after this defeat. Michael II lost Thessalonica to Nicaea in 1246 and then allied with the Latins against them. In 1248 John Vatatzes forced Michael to recognize him as emperor, and officially recognized him in turn as despot of Epirus. Vatatzes' granddaughter Maria married Michael's son Nicephorus. Also in 1248 Michael's daughter Anna married William II, Prince of Achaea, and Michael decided to honour this alliance over his obligations to Vatatzes. He was defeated in the ensuing conflict, and the old despot Theodore was again captured, this time dying in custody. Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... Events Louis IX of France departs on the Seventh Crusade for Egypt Kingdom of Castile captures city of Seville from Muslims Cologne cathedral: old cathedral burns down April 30; foundation stone to current cathedral laid August 15 Births Deaths January 4 - King Sancho II of Portugal, in exile in Toledo... William II Villehardouin (died May 1, 1278) was the last Villehardouin prince of Achaea (=Morea) and ruled the principality at the height of its power and influence. ... The Principality of Achaea was one of the three vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. ...

Theodore II Lascaris allied with Michael and their children, betrothed by John years before, finally married in 1256, with Theodore receiving Dyrrhachium in return. Michael did not accept this transfer of land and in 1257 revolted, defeating a Nicaean army led by Georgius Acropolita. As Michael marched on Thessalonica, he was attacked by Manfred of Sicily, who captured Albania and Corcyra. However, Michael immediately allied with him by marrying his daughter Helena to him. After Theodore II died, Michael, Manuel, and William II fought the new Nicaean emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus. The alliance was very unstable and in 1259 William was captured at the disastrous Battle of Pelagonia. Michael VIII went on to capture Michael II's capital of Arta, leaving Epirus with only the ports of Ioannina and Vonitsa. Arta was recovered by 1260 while Michael VIII was occupied against Constantinople. Theodore II Lascaris (died August 1258) was Byzantine emperor, in exile in the Empire of Nicaea, from 1254 to 1258. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... George Acropolita (Akropolites) (1217-1282), Byzantine historian and statesman, was born at Constantinople. ... Manfred (c. ... (This article is about the Greek island known in English as Corfu. ... The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII (1225 – December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... The Battle of Pelagonia took place in September of 1259, between the Empire of Nicaea and the Principality of Achaea. ... Arta may refer to: Djibouti Arta District Arta, Djibouti Greece Arta Prefecture Arta, Greece Italy Piano dArta Ancient People Arta Kamuia or Arta Kamuio This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Ioannina (Greek: Ιωάννινα, often Γιάννενα /janena/ or Γιάννινα /janina/); is a city in Epirus, north-western Greece, with a population of approximately 100,000. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fukakusa of Japan Emperor Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan September 3 - Mongols defeated by Mameluks at Battle of Ain Jalut Samogatians and Curonians defeats Teutonic knights in Battle of Durbe Births Maximus Planudes, Byzantine grammarian and theologian Deaths Monarchs/Presidents...

Italian invasions

After Michael VIII restored the empire in Constantinople in 1261 he frequently harassed Epirus, and forced Michael's son Nicephorus to marry his niece Anna Cantacuzena in 1265. Michael considered Epirus a vassal state, although Michael II and Nicephorus continued to ally with the Princes of Achaea and the Dukes of Athens. In 1267 Corcyra and much of Epirus were captured by Charles of Anjou, and in 1271 Michael II died, although Michael VIII did not attempt to annex Epirus directly. He allowed Nicephorus to succeed him and deal with Charles, who took Dyrrhachium the same year. In 1279 Nicephorus allied with Charles against Michael VIII, agreeing to become Charles' vassal. With Charles' defeat soon after Nicephorus lost Albania to the Byzantines. Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... A vassal or liege, in the terminology that both preceded and accompanied the feudalism of medieval Europe, is one who enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually of military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain guarantees, which came to include the terrain held as a fief. ... // Duchy of Athens A small crusader state which was established after the Sack of Constantinople (1204) by the Crusaders. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Charles I (March 1227 - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous son of King Louis VIII of France, created Count of Anjou by his elder brother King Louis IX in 1246, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ...

Under Andronicus II, Nicephorus renewed the alliance with Constantinople. Nicephorus, however, was convinced to ally with Charles II of Naples in 1292, although Charles was defeated by Andronicus' fleet. Nicephorus married his daughter to Charles' son Philip I of Taranto and sold much of his territory to him. After Nicephorus' death in 1296 Byzantine influence grew slightly under Anna, Andronicus II's cousin, who ruled as regent for her young son Thomas. In 1306 she revolted against Philip in favour of Andronicus; the Latin inhabitants were expelled but she was forced to return some territory to Philip. In 1312 Philip abandoned his claim to Epirus and claimed the defunct Latin Empire instead. Andronicus II Palaeologus (1260 – February 13, 1332), Byzantine emperor, was the elder son of Michael VIII Palaeologus, whom he succeeded in 1282. ... Charles II, known as the Lame (Fr. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Philip I of Taranto (1278-1332): of the Anjou family, Prince of Taranto, despot of Epirus, Prince of Achaea, Titular Emperor of Costantinople. ... Events March 30 - Edward I stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then Scottish border town with much bloodshed. ... Events March 25 - Robert the Bruce becomes King of Scotland June 19 - Forces of Earl of Pembroke defeat Bruces Scottish rebels at the Battle of Methven Philip IV of France exiles all the Jews from France and confiscates their property In London, a city ordinance degrees that heating with... Events June 15 : Battle near Rozgoni Battle near Thebes Siege of Rostock begins Births November 13 - King Edward III of England Deaths June 19 - Piers Gaveston, favourite of Edward II of England September 7 - King Ferdinand IV of Castile Categories: 1312 ...

Collapse of the despotate

Anna succeeded in marrying Thomas to a daughter of Andronicus II, but Thomas was assassinated in 1318 by Nicholas Orsini, who married his widow and took control of the despotate. He was recognized as legitimate by Andronicus, but was overthrown by his brother John in 1323. John was poisoned around 1335 by his wife Anna who became regent for Nicephorus II. In 1337 Andronicus III, arriving in the area to help the Albanians fight the Ottomans, recaptured all of Epirus. However, Nicephorus II escaped to Italy where Philip of Taranto's widow Catherine of Valois put him in charge of a revolt in Epirus. The revolt was defeated and Nicephorus was married off to Maria Cantacuzenus, daughter of John VI Cantacuzenus. Events 1 April: Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English Emperor Go-Daigo ascends to the throne of Japan End of the reign of Emperor Hanazono, emperor of Japan Pope John XXII declares the doctrines of the Franciscans advocating ecclesiastical poverty erroneous Qalaun Mosque, Cairo... Events Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: Vilnius becomes capital August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Pharos of Alexandira Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world) is destroyed by a series of earthquakes... Events Abu Said dies and the Ilkhan khanate ends Slavery abolished in Sweden Charles I of Hungary allies with Poland against the Hapsburgs and Bohemians Carinthia and Carniola come under Habsburg rule. ... Events March 17 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall, becoming the first English Duke Beginning of the Hundred Years War between France and England Bisham Priory founded Scaligeri family loses control of Padua; Alberto della Scala, music patron of the Italian trecento, moves to Verona Births Louis... Andronicus III Palaeologus (c. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... John VI Cantacuzenus (c. ...

The Empire soon fell into a civil war between John V Palaeologus and John VI, and Epirus fell to the Serbians. Nicephorus II was able to retake Epirus in 1356, to which he also added Thessaly. Nicephorus died putting down an Albanian revolt in 1359 and the despotate was reincorporated into the empire. It was lost again in the following decades to the Tocco family of Cephalonia, who later lost Epirus to the Ottomans. John V Palaeologus (1332 – February 16, 1391) was the son of Andronicus III, whom he succeeded as Byzantine emperor in 1341, at age nine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Events January 20 - Edward Balliol surrenders title as King of Scotland to Edward III of England April 16 — the King of the Serbian Kingdom of Raška Stefan Dušan is proclaimed Tsar (Emperor) of all Serbs, Arbanasses and Greeks in Skopje by the Serbian Orthodox Christian Patriarch of a... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Geography The capital of the Cephallonia prefecture is Argostoli. ...

Despots of Epirus

Ducas dynasty

Orsini dynasty

Nemanjić dynasty

External link

  • "The Despotate of Epirus under Michael I (13th c.)"

  Results from FactBites:
 
Despotate of Epirus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1262 words)
The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204.
The Despotate was founded in by Michael I Ducas, cousin of the Byzantine emperors Isaac II Angelus and Alexius III.
Epirus soon became the new home of many Greek refugees from Constantinople, Thessaly, and the Peloponnese, and Michael was described as a second Noah, rescuing men from the Latin flood.
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