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Encyclopedia > Desmond Tutu
The Most Revd
 Desmond Tutu 
Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town
Province Anglican Church of Southern Africa
See Cape Town (retired)
Enthroned 1986
Ended 1996
Predecessor Philip Welsford Richmond Russell
Successor Njongonkulu Ndungane
Ordination 1960 as Priest
Other Bishop of Lesotho
Bishop of Johannesburg
Archbishop of Cape Town
Born October 7, 1931 (1931-10-07) (age 76)
Klerksdorp, Transvaal, South Africa
Christianity Portal

Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. Tutu was elected and ordained the first black South African Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town, South Africa, and primate of the Church of the Province of Southern Africa (now the Anglican Church of Southern Africa). He is generally credited with coining the term Rainbow Nation as a metaphor for post-apartheid South Africa after 1994 under African National Congress rule. The expression has since entered mainstream consciousness to describe South Africa's ethnic diversity. The Reverend is an honorary prefix to the names of most Christian clergy and ministers. ... Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... Emeritus (IPA pronunciation: or ) is an adjective that is used in the title of a retired professor, bishop or other professional. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 96 KB)Desmond Tutu, provided by personal assistant Lavinia Browne; 1200 px X 1800 px, stated in public domain User:Alex756 received the following email in this regard: Return-path: <mpilo@iafrica. ... The Anglican Church of Southern Africa (formerly the Church of the Province of Southern Africa) is the Anglican province in the southern part of Africa, including dioceses in Angola, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Saint Helena, South Africa and Swaziland. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... The Most Reverend Njongonkulu Winston Hugh Ndungane is Archbishop of Capetown and Primate of the Church in the Province of Southern Africa. ... Motto: Khotso, Pula, Nala(Sesotho) Peace, Rain, Prosperity Anthem: Lesotho Fatse La Bontata Rona Capital (and largest city) Maseru Official languages Southern Sotho, English Demonym Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  King Letsie III  -  Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili Independence  -  from the United Kingdom October 4, 1966  Area  -  Total 30... The Archbishop of Cape Town is the Primate / Metropolitan of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Klerksdorp is a city and administrative district located in the North West Province (formerly Western Transvaal), South Africa. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A cleric is a member of the clergy of a religion, especially one that has trained or ordained priests, preachers, or other religious professionals. ... The World in Plate Carrée Projection In English, world is rooted in a compound of the obsolete words were, man, and eld, age; thus, its oldest meaning is Age of Man. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... The Anglican Church of Southern Africa (formerly the Church of the Province of Southern Africa) is the Anglican province in the southern part of Africa, including dioceses in Angola, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Saint Helena, South Africa and Swaziland. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ...


Tutu is widely regarded as "South Africa's moral conscience"[1] and has been described by former President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela, as "sometimes strident, often tender, never afraid and seldom without humour, Desmond Tutu's voice will always be the voice of the voiceless".[2] Tutu chaired the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and is currently the chairman of The Elders. Tutu is vocal in his defence of human rights and uses his high profile to campaign for the oppressed. He is committed to stopping global AIDS and has served as the honorary chairman for the Global AIDS Alliance. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, the Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism, and the Magubela prize for liberty in 1986. In February 2007 he was awarded the Gandhi Peace Prize by Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, President of India. Tutu has also compiled several books of his speeches and sayings. For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of Apartheid. ... The Global Elders or The Elders is a group of public figures noted as statemen, peace activists, and human rights advocates. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism was established in 1986 by Albert Toepfer, an international grain merchant from Hamburg, Germany, to advance the cause of humanitarianism by recognizing exemplary contributions to humanity and the environment. ... The International Gandhi Peace Prize, named after Mahatma Gandhi, is awarded anually by the government of India for outstanding work and contribution to social, economic and political transformation through non-violence and other Gandhian methods. ... Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (Tamil: ) (Hindi: ) born October 15, 1931, Tamil Nadu, India, usually referred as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam^ , was the eleventh President of India, serving from 2002 to 2007. ...

Contents

Early years

Desmond Mpilo Tutu was born in Klerksdorp, Transvaal on 7 October 1931, the second of the three children of Zacheriah Zililo Tutu and his wife, Aletta, although the only son.[3] Tutu's family moved to Johannesburg when he was 12 years old where his father was a teacher and his mother a cleaner and cook at a school for the blind.[4] Here he met Trevor Huddleston who was a parish priest in the black slum of Sophiatown and later Tutu's mentor. "One day", says Tutu, "I was standing in the street with my mother when a white man in a priest's clothing walked past. As he passed us he took off his hat to my mother. I couldn't believe my eyes - a white man who greeted a black working class woman!"[4] Klerksdorp is a city and administrative district located in the North West Province (formerly Western Transvaal), South Africa. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... Bronze bust in Bedford. ... Sophiatown was a lively, mostly-black suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ...


Although Tutu wanted to become a physician, his family could not afford the training, and he followed his father's footsteps into teaching. Tutu studied at the Pretoria Bantu Normal College from 1951 through 1953, and went on to teach at Johannesburg Bantu High School and at Munsienville High School in Mogale City. However, he resigned following the passage of the Bantu Education Act, in protest of the poor educational prospects for black South Africans. He continued his studies, this time in theology, at St Peter's Theology College in Rosettenville and in 1960 was ordained as an Anglican minister following in the footsteps of his mentor and fellow activist, Trevor Huddleston. For other uses, see Doctor. ... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. ... Bantu Education Act of 1953 was a South African law which codified several aspects of the apartheid system. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other types of... Bronze bust in Bedford. ...


Tutu then travelled to King's College London, (1962–1966), where he received his Bachelor's and Master's degrees in Theology. During this time he worked as a part-time curate, first at St Albans Cathedral and then at St. Mary's in Bletchingley, Surrey. He later returned to South Africa and from 1967 until 1972 used his lectures to highlight the circumstances of the African population. He wrote a letter to Prime Minister Vorster, in which he described the situation in South Africa as a "powder barrel that can explode at any time." The letter was never answered. He became chaplain at the University of Fort Hare in 1967, a hotbed of dissent and one of the few quality universities for African students in the southern part of Africa. From 1970 to 1972, Tutu lectured at the National University of Lesotho . For other uses, see Kings College. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... A masters degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to six years in duration. ... St Albans Cathedral from the west. ... Bletchingley is a village in Surrey, United Kingdom. ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, 1983), better known as John Vorster, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A chaplain in the 45th Infantry Division leads a Christmas Day service in Italy, 1943. ... Fort Hare University is located on the Tyhume river in a South African town known as Alice in English or as eDikeni in the local Xhosa language. ... The National University of Lesotho is situated at Roma (pop. ...


Tutu faced a difficult balancing act: voicing black discontent while leading a largely white parish. Alternately charming and challenging them, he appealed to their Afrikaner heritage, recalling that their forebears had endured British concentration camps. Somewhat to the bewilderment of other black leaders, he patiently courted Vorster’s successor, P. W. Botha, explaining that even Moses continued to reason with Pharaoh. But white liberals grew nervous when Tutu called for a boycott of South African products.[5] In 1972 Tutu returned to the UK, where he was appointed vice-director of the Theological Education Fund of the World Council of Churches, at Bromley in Kent. He returned to South Africa in 1975 and was appointed Anglican Dean of Johannesburg—the first African person to hold that position. P.W. Botha Pieter Willem Botha, (born January 12, 1916) commonly known as P.W. and as die groot krokodil (the great crocodile) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and State President of South Africa from 1984 to 1989. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... For other uses, see Bromley (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... A dean, in a church context, is a cleric holding certain positions of authority within a religious hierarchy. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ...


Personal life

On 2 July 1955, Tutu married Nomalizo Leah Shenxane, a teacher who had met while at college, and they had four children: Trevor Thamsanqa Tutu, Theresa Thandeka Tutu, Naomi Nontombi Tutu and Mpho Andrea Tutu, all of whom attended the Waterford Kamhlaba School in Swaziland.[6] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that Kamhlaba be merged into this article or section. ...


His son, Trevor Tutu, caused a bombscare at East London Airport in 1989 and was arrested. In 1991 he was convicted of contravening the Civil Aviation Act by falsely claiming there had been a bomb on board a South African Airways 'plane at East London Airport.[7] The bomb threat delayed the Johannesburg bound flight for more than three hours, costing South African Airways some R28000. At the time Trevor Tutu announced his intention to appeal against his sentence, but failed to arrive for the appeal hearings. He forfeited his bail of R15000.[7] He was due to begin serving his sentence in 1993, but failed to hand himself over to prison authorities. He was finally arrested in Johannesburg in August 1997. He applied for amnesty from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission which was granted in 1997. He was then released from Goodwood Prison in Cape Town where he had begun serving his three-and-a-half year prison sentence after a court in East London refused to grant him bail.[8] East London Airport is located in East London. ... South African Airways (SAA) is South Africas largest domestic and international airline company, with hubs in Cape Town and Johannesburg. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... South African Airways (SAA) is South Africas largest domestic and international airline company, with hubs in Cape Town and Johannesburg. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of Apartheid. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... East London (Afrikaans: Oos-Londen, Xhosa: Imonti) is a city in southeast South Africa, situated in the Eastern Cape Province at 32. ...


His daughter, Naomi Tutu, founded the Tutu Foundation for Development and Relief in Southern Africa, based in Hartford, Connecticut. She has followed in her father's footsteps as a human rights activist and is currently a program coordinator for the Race Relations Institute at Fisk University, in Nashville, Tennessee.[9] His other daughter, Mpho Tutu, has also followed her father's footsteps and in 2004 was ordained an Episcopal priest by her father.[10] She is also the founder and executive director of the Tutu Institute for Prayer and Pilgrimage and the chairperson of the board of the Global AIDS Alliance.[11] Hartford redirects here. ... {{THESE FOOLS GOT OWNED Hermosa, Herman and Jefferson Sts. ... Nashville redirects here. ... The word episcopal is derived from the Greek επίσκοπος, transliterated epískopos, which literally means overseer; the word, however, is used in religious contexts to refer to a bishop. ...


In 1997, Tutu was diagnosed with prostate cancer and underwent successful treatment in the United States of America. He subsequently became patron of the South African Prostate Cancer Foundation which was established in 2007.[12] HRPC redirects here. ...


Tutu's role during Apartheid

Apartheid in South Africa
Events and Projects

Sharpeville Massacre · Soweto uprising
Treason Trial
Rivonia Trial · Church Street bombing
CODESA · St James Church massacre
The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Treason Trial was a trial in which 156 people including Nelson Mandela were arrested in a raid and accussed of treason in 1956. ... The Rivonia Trial was an infamous trial which took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to ferment violent revolution. // Origins It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19... The Church Street bombing was a 1983 terrorist attack by the African National Congress in Pretoria, South Africa which killed 16 and wounded 130. ... The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993. ... The St James Church massacre was a massacre perpetrated at St James Church, Cape Town by the Azanian Peoples Liberation Army (APLA). ...

Organisations

ANC · IFP · AWB · Black Sash · CCB
Conservative Party · ECC · PP · RP
PFP · HNP · MK · PAC · SACP · UDF
Broederbond · National Party · COSATU
SADF · SAP For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The flag of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, is a political and paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership of Eugène TerreBlanche. ... The Black Sash was a non-violent white womens resistance organisation founded in 1955 in South Africa by Jean Sinclair. ... The Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB) was a covert South African apartheid-era hit squad[1]. Inaugurated in 1986, and fully functional by 1988 it was set up to eliminate anti-apartheid activists, destroy ANC facilities, and find means to circumvent the economic sanctions[1] imposed on that country. ... The Conservative Party of South Africa (Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a far-right party formed in 1982 as a breakaway from the ruling National Party. ... The End Conscription Campaign was an anti-apartheid organisation of conscientious objectors in South Africa. ... The Progressive Party was a liberal South African party that opposed the ruling National Partys policies of apartheid. ... The Reform Party was created by a group who left the United Party led by Harry Schwarz on February 11 1975. ... The Progressive Federal Party (PFP) was a South African political party formed in 1977. ... The Herstigte Nasionale Party van Suid-Afrika (Refounded National Party of South Africa) was formed as a right wing splinter group of the South African National Party. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... PAC symbol This article does not cite any references or sources. ... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The United Democratic Front (UDF) was one of the most important anti-apartheid organisations of the 1980s. ... The Afrikanerbond or, formerly, the Afrikaner Broederbond, is an organisation which promotes the interests of the Afrikaners. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) is a trade union federation in South Africa. ... The South African Defence Force (SADF) were the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994. ... The South African Police Service is the national police force of South Africa. ...

People

P.W Botha · Oupa Gqozo · DF Malan
Nelson Mandela · Desmond Tutu · F.W. de Klerk
Walter Sisulu · Helen Suzman · Harry Schwarz
Andries Treurnicht · HF Verwoerd · Oliver Tambo
BJ Vorster · Kaiser Matanzima · Jimmy Kruger
Steve Biko · Mahatma Gandhi · Trevor Huddleston Pieter Willem Botha (January 12, 1916 – October 31, 2006), commonly known as PW and Die Groot Krokodil (Afrikaans for The Big Crocodile), was the prime minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive state president from 1984 to 1989. ... Joshua Oupa Gqozo (10 March 1952 - ) was a former Ciskei military ruler. ... Daniel François Malan (May 22, 1874 - February 7, 1959) is seen as the champion of South African nationalism. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Helen Suzman was born Helen Gavronsky on 7th November 1917 in Germiston, South Africa as the daughter of Lithuanian-Jewish immigrants. ... Harry H. Schwarz (born Cologne, Germany, May 13, 1924), is a South African politician, diplomat, and jurist. ... Andries Treurnicht (1921-1993) was the founder and the leader of the Conservative Party in South Africa. ... Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 - 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 to 1966, when he was assassinated. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, 1983), better known as John Vorster, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima (June 15, 1915 - June 15, 2003) was a former leader of the then-bantustan of Transkei in South Africa; He led Transkei to self-government in 1964 and to an internationally unrecognised indepedence in October, 1976. ... James Thomas Jimmy Kruger (1917 - 1987) was a South African politician who rose to the position of Minister of Justice and the Police in the cabinet of Prime Minister John Vorster from 1974 to 1979. ... Stephen Bantu Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977)[1] was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Bronze bust in Bedford. ...

Places

Bantustan · District Six · Robben Island
Sophiatown · South-West Africa
Soweto · Vlakplaas Map of the black homelands in South Africa as of 1986 Map of the black homelands in Namibia as of 1978 Bantustan is a territory designated as a tribal homeland for black South Africans and Namibians during the apartheid era. ... District Six is the name of a former neighborhood of Cape Town, South Africa, best known for the forced removal of its inhabitants during the 1970s. ... Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ... Sophiatown was a lively, mostly-black suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conquered from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... For the township in Namibia, see Soweto (Namibia). ... Vlakplaas is a farm that served as the headquarters of a counterinsurgency unit working for the apartheid government in South Africa. ...

Other aspects

Apartheid laws · Freedom Charter
Sullivan Principles · Kairos Document
Disinvestment campaign
South African Police The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... The Freedom Charter was adopted at the Congress of the People in Kliptown, South Africa on 26 June 1955 by the African National Congress and its allies. ... The Sullivan Principles were developed in 1977 by the Rev. ... The Kairos Document (KD) is a provocative theological statement issued by an anonymous group of theologians mostly based in the black townships of Soweto, South Africa, in 1985. ... The campaign gained prominence in the mid-1980s on university campuses in the US. The debate headlined the October 1985 issue (above) of Vassar Colleges student newspaper. ... The South African Police Service is the national police force of South Africa. ...

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In 1976 protests in Soweto, also known as the Soweto Riots, against the government's use of Afrikaans as a compulsory medium of instruction in black schools became a massive uprising against apartheid. From then on Tutu supported an economic boycott of his country. He vigorously opposed the "constructive engagement" policy of the Reagan administration in the United States, which advocated "friendly persuasion". Tutu rather supported disinvestment, although it hit the poor hardest for if disinvestment threw blacks out of work, Tutu argued, at least they would be suffering "with a purpose". Disinvestment did succeed, causing the value of the Rand to plunge and pressuring the government toward reform. Tutu pressed the advantage and organised peaceful marches which brought thirty thousand people onto the streets of Cape Town. That was the turning point: within months, Nelson Mandela was freed from prison, and apartheid was beginning to crumble.[5] For the township in Namibia, see Soweto (Namibia). ... Fatally-wounded Hector Pieterson (13), one of the first fatalities, is carried by Mbuyisa Makhubo on June 16, 1976, with Antoinette Pieterson (17) running alongside. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ...


Desmond Tutu was Bishop of Lesotho from 1976 until 1978, when he became Secretary-General of the South African Council of Churches. From this position, he was able to continue his work against apartheid with agreement from nearly all churches. Tutu consistently advocated reconciliation between all parties involved in apartheid through his writings and lectures at home and abroad. Tutu's opposition was vigorous and unequivocal, and he was outspoken both in South Africa and abroad, often comparing apartheid to Nazism and Communism. As a result the government twice revoked his passport, and he was jailed briefly in 1980 after a protest march. It was thought by many that Tutu's increasing international reputation and his rigorous advocacy of non-violence protected him from harsher penalties. Tutu was also harsh in his criticism of the violent tactics of some anti-apartheid groups such as the African National Congress and denounced terrorism and Communism. When a new constitution was proposed for South Africa in 1983 to defend against the anti-apartheid movement, Bishop Tutu helped form the National Forum Committee to fight the constitutional changes.[13] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... A number of international organizations and other bodies use the title secretary general or secretary-general for their chief administrative officer. ... The South African Council of Churches (SACC) is an interdenominational forum in South Africa. ... For the episode of the television series The Office, see Conflict Resolution (The Office episode) As you know, wikipedia. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


In 1985, Tutu was appointed the Bishop of Johannesburg before he became the first black person to lead the Anglican Church in South Africa on 7 September 1986 on the retirement of former Archbishop, Philip Welsford Richmond Russell. From 1987 to 1997 he was president of the All Africa Conference of Churches. In 1989 he was invited to Birmingham, England, United Kingdom as part of Citywide Christian Celebrations. Tutu and his wife visited a number of establishments including the Nelson Mandela School in Sparkbrook. This article is about the city in South Africa. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... See also Birmingham, USA, and other places called Birmingham. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Sparkbrook and Small Heath constituency shown within Birmingham Sparkbrook is an area in south-east Birmingham, England. ...


Tutu was considered as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1990, however George Carey was chosen in his stead. Tutu has commented that he is "glad" that he was not chosen as once installed in Lambeth Palace, he would have been homesick for South Africa, unhappy to be away from home during a critical time in the country's history.[14] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Lambeth Palaces gatehouse. ...


In 1990, Tutu and the ex-Vice Chancellor of the University of the Western Cape Professor Jakes Gerwel founded the Desmond Tutu Educational Trust. The Trust was established to fund developmental programmes in tertiary education and provides capacity building at 17 historically disadvantaged institutions. Tutu's work as a mediator in order to prevent all-out racial war was evident at the funeral of South African Communist Party leader Chris Hani in 1993. Tutu spurred a crowd of 120,000 to repeat after him the chants, over and over: "We will be free!", "All of us!", "Black and white together!" and finished his speech saying: The University of the Western Cape (UWC) is a university located in the Bellville suburb of Cape Town, South Africa. ... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

"We are the rainbow people of God! We are unstoppable! Nobody can stop us on our march to victory! No one, no guns, nothing! Nothing will stop us, for we are moving to freedom! We are moving to freedom and nobody can stop us! For God is on our side!"[15]

In 1993, he was a patron of the Cape Town Olympic Bid Committee. In 1994 he was an appointed a patron of the World Campaign Against Military and Nuclear Collaboration with South Africa, Beacon Millennium and Action from Ireland. In 1995 he was appointed a Chaplain and Sub-Prelate of the Venerable Order of Saint John by Queen Elizabeth II,[16] and he became a patron of the American Harmony Child Foundation and the Hospice Association of Southern Africa. This article is about the order after its revival in the 19th century. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


Tutu's role since Apartheid

This quilt by Hollis Chatelain features Tutu surrounded by children.

After the fall of apartheid, Tutu headed the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. He retired as Archbishop of Cape Town in 1996 and was succeeded by Njongonkulu Ndungane. At a thanksgiving for Desmond Tutu upon his retirement as Archbishop in 1996, Nelson Mandela said: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of Apartheid. ... The Archbishop of Cape Town is the Primate / Metropolitan of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa. ... The Most Reverend Njongonkulu Winston Hugh Ndungane is Archbishop of Capetown and Primate of the Church in the Province of Southern Africa. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ...

His joy in our diversity and his spirit of forgiveness are as much part of his immeasurable contribution to our nation as his passion for justice and his solidarity with the poor.[2]

Since his retirement, Tutu has worked as a global activist on issues pertaining to democracy, freedom and human rights. In 2006, Tutu launched a global campaign, organised by Plan, to ensure that all children were registered at birth, as an unregistered child did not officially exist and was vulnerable to traffickers and during disasters.[17] Plan, also known as Foster Parents Plan in some countries, is a child-oriented charity, and works in 46 countries to provide programs to 1. ...


Role in South Africa

Since his retirement, Tutu has worked to critique the new South African government. Tutu has been vocal in condemnation of corruption, the ineffectiveness of the ANC-led government to deal with poverty, and the recent outbreaks of xenophobic violence in townships across South Africa. ANC redirects here. ...


After a decade of freedom for South Africa, Archbishop Tutu was honoured with the invitation to deliver the annual Nelson Mandela Foundation Lecture. On November 23, 2004 Tutu was given the address entitled, "Look to the Rock from Which You Were Hewn." This lecture, critical of the ANC-controlled government, stirred a pot of controversy between Tutu and Thabo Mbeki, calling into question "the right to criticise."[18] is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki ,KStJ [2][3] (born June 18, 1942)[2] is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ...


He made a stinging attack against South Africa's political elite, saying the country was "sitting on a powder keg"[19] because of its failure to alleviate poverty a decade after apartheid's end. Tutu also said that attempts to boost black economic ownership were only benefiting an elite minority, while political "kowtowing" within the ruling ANC was hampering democracy. Tutu asked, "What is black empowerment when it seems to benefit not the vast majority but an elite that tends to be recycled?"[19]


The archbishop criticised politicians for debating whether to give the poor an income grant of $16 (£12) a month and said the idea should be seriously considered. Tutu has often spoken in support of the Basic Income Grant (BIG) which has so far been defeated in parliament. After the first round of volleys were fired, South African Press Association journalist, Ben Maclennan reported Tutu's response as: "Thank you Mr President for telling me what you think of me, that I am--a liar with scant regard for the truth, and a charlatan posing with his concern for the poor, the hungry, the oppressed and the voiceless."[20] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... Ben Maclennan Ben Maclennan (born 1956) is a celebrated South African author and journalist of Scottish heritage. ...


Tutu warned of corruption shortly after the re-election of the African National Congress government of South Africa, saying that they "stopped the gravy train just long enough to get on themselves."."[21] In August 2006 Archbishop Tutu publicly urged Jacob Zuma, the South African politician who had been accused of sexual crimes and corruption, to drop out of the ANC's presidential succession race. He said in a public lecture that he would not be able to hold his "head high" if Zuma became leader after being accused both of rape and corruption. In September 2006, Tutu repeated his opposition to Zuma's candidacy as ANC leader due to Zuma's "moral failings"."[22] For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born April 12, 1942 at Inkandla, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) is the president of the governing political party, the African National Congress (ANC), and a former Deputy President of the Republic of South Africa. ...


The head of the Congress of South African Students condemned Tutu as a "loose cannon" and a "scandalous man" — a reaction which prompted an angry Mbeki to side with Tutu. Zuma's personal advisor responded by accusing Tutu of having double standards and "selective amnesia" (as well as being old). Elias Khumalo claims the archbishop "had found it so easy to accept the apology from the apartheid government that committed unspeakable atrocities against millions of South Africans", yet now "cannot find it in his heart to accept the apology from this humble man who has erred". Tutu and Zuma’s public criticism of each other are reflections of a turbulent time in South African politics.[23]


Tutu has condemned the xenophobic violence which occurred throughout South Africa in May 2008. Tutu, who once intervened in the apartheid years to prevent a mob necklacing a man, said that when South Africans were fighting against apartheid they had been supported by people around the world and particularly in Africa. Although they were poor, other Africans welcomed South Africans as refugees, and allowed liberation movements to have bases in their territory even if it meant those countries were going to be attacked by the South African Defence force. Tutu called on South Africans to end the violence as thousands of refugees have sought refuge in shelters.[24]


Chairman of The Elders

On 18 July 2007 in Johannesburg, South Africa, Nelson Mandela, Graça Machel, and Desmond Tutu convened The Elders, a group of world leaders to contribute their wisdom, leadership and integrity to tackle some of the world's toughest problems. Mandela announced its formation in a speech on his 89th birthday. Archbishop Tutu is serving as its Chair. Other founding members include Kofi Annan, Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Jimmy Carter, Li Zhaoxing, Mary Robinson, Muhammad Yunus and Aung San Suu Kyi, whose chair was left symbolically empty due to her confinement as a political prisoner in Burma. is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Graça Machel in 1984, with then husband President Samora Machel of Mozambique and P W Botha and Pik Botha of South Africa at the signing of the Nkomati Accord. ... The Global Elders or The Elders is a group of public figures noted as statemen, peace activists, and human rights advocates. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... Ela Bhatt is the founder of the Self-Employed Womens Association (SEWA) and served as the General Secretary of SEWA from 1972-1996. ... Gro Harlem Brundtland [IPA: gro hÉ‘É­É›m brʉntlÉ‘nd] (born April 20, 1939) is a Norwegian politician, diplomat, and physician, and an international leader in sustainable development and public health. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Li (李) Li Zhaoxing (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born October 20, 1940) was the foreign minister of the Peoples Republic of China from 2003 to 2007. ... For the poet, see Mary Robinson (poet). ... For the Indian diplomat, see Mohammad Yunus (diplomat). ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ...


"This group can speak freely and boldly, working both publicly and behind the scenes on whatever actions need to be taken,” Mandela commented. “Together we will work to support courage where there is fear, foster agreement where there is conflict, and inspire hope where there is despair."[25] The Elders will be independently funded by a group of Founders, including Richard Branson, Peter Gabriel, Ray Chambers, Michael Chambers, Bridgeway Foundation, Pam Omidyar, Humanity United, Amy Robbins, Shashi Ruia, Dick Tarlow and the United Nations Foundation. Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950) is an English business magnate, best known for his Virgin brand of over 360 companies. ... Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950, in Cobham,[1] Surrey, England) is an English musician. ... Michael Chambers is an African-American actor and dancer. ... Pierre M. Omidyar (born June 21, 1967) is a French-born Iranian-American entrepreneur and philanthropist/economist, and the founder/chairman of the eBay auction site. ... Amy Robbins is an English actor born 1971 in Higher Bebington, The Wirral, England. ... The [United Nations Foundation] was created in 1998 with entrepreneur and philanthropist Ted Turner’s historic $1 billion gift to support UN causes. ...


Role in the Third World

Tutu and Brad Pitt on the cover of Vanity Fair

Tutu has focused on drawing awareness to issues such as poverty, AIDS and non-democratic governments in the Third World. In particular he has focused on issues in Zimbabwe and Palestine. Tutu also led The Elders' first mission to travel to Sudan in September-October 2007 to foster peace in the Darfur crisis. "Our hope is that we can keep Darfur in the spotlight and spur on governments to help keep peace in the region," said Tutu.[26] William Bradley Brad Pitt (born December 18, 1963) is an Academy award-nominated American actor, film producer, and social activist. ... Title-page to Vanity Fair, drawn by Thackeray, who furnished the illustrations for many of his earlier editions Vanity Fair: A Novel without a Hero is a novel by William Makepeace Thackeray that satirizes society in early 19th-century England. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The Darfur conflict is an ongoing conflict in the Darfur region of western Sudan, mainly between the Janjaweed, a government-supported militia recruited from local Arab tribes, and the non-Arab peoples of the region. ...


Tutu has also been vocal in his condemnation of Chinese crackdowns on Tibetan activists. Tutu spoke at a candle-lit vigil on the eve of the San Francisco relay. Tutu does not support a full boycott of the Olympic Games, but he has called on the heads of States worldwide to not attend the Opening Ceremonies of the 2008 Beijing Olympics.[27] This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be held in Beijing in the Peoples Republic of China from August 8, 2008 to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony to take place at 8 p. ...

"For God's sake, for the sake of our children, for the sake of their children, for the sake of the beautiful people of Tibet - don't go. Tell your counterparts in Beijing you wanted to come but looked at your schedule and realised you have something else to do."[28]

Zimbabwe

Tutu has been vocal in his criticism of human rights abuses in Zimbabwe as well as the South African government's policy of quiet diplomacy towards Zimbabwe. In 2007 he said the "quiet diplomacy" pursued by the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) had "not worked at all" and he called on Britain and the West to pressure SADC, including South Africa, which was chairing talks between President Mugabe's Zanu-PF party and the opposition Movement for Democratic Change, to set firm deadlines for action, with consequences if they were not met.[29] Tutu has often criticized Robert Mugabe in the past and he once described the autocratic leader as "a cartoon figure of an archetypical African dictator".[1] Mugabe, on the other hand, has called Tutu an "angry, evil and embittered little bishop".[30] SADC may stand for: Southern African Development Community St Albans and District Council. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party ZANU... The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) is a Zimbabwean political party now split. ... Mugabe redirects here. ...

We Africans should hang our heads in shame. How can what is happening in Zimbabwe elicit hardly a word of concern let alone condemnation from us leaders of Africa? After the horrible things done to hapless people in Harare, has come the recent crackdown on members of the opposition ... what more has to happen before we who are leaders, religious and political, of our mother Africa are moved to cry out "Enough is enough?".[31]

He has often stated that all leaders in Africa should condemn Zimbabwe: "What an awful blot on our copy book. Do we really care about human rights, do we care that people of flesh and blood, fellow Africans, are being treated like rubbish, almost worse than they were ever treated by rabid racists?"[1] After the Zimbabwean presidential elections in April 2008, Tutu expressed his hope that Mugabe would step down after it was initially reported that Mugabe had lost the elections. Tutu reiterated his support of the democratic process and hoped that Mugabe would adhere to the voice of the people:

That is democracy. Democracy is, you change government when people decide. I mean when your time is over, your time is over. We hope the transition will be a peaceful one, relatively peaceful, and that Mr Mugabe will step down with dignity, gracefully.[32]

Tutu called Mugabe "someone we were very proud of", as he "did a fantastic job, and it’s such a great shame, because he had a wonderful legacy. If he had stepped down ten or so years ago he would be held in very, very high regard. And I still want to say we must honour him for the things that he did do, and just say what a shame."[32]


Tutu stated that he feared that riots would break out in Zimbabwe if the election results were ignored. He proposed that a peace-keeping force should be sent to the region to ensure stability.

Anything that would save the possibilities of bloodshed, of conflict, I am quite willing to support. The people of Zimbabwe have suffered enough, and we don’t...want any more possibilities of bloodshed. In a fraught situation such as we have had in Zimbabwe, anything that is helping towards a move, a transition, from the repression to the possibilities of democracy and freedom, oh, for goodness sake, please let us accept that.[32]

Palestine

Tutu has spoken of the significant role Jews played in the anti-Apartheid struggle in South Africa, has voiced support for Israel's security concerns, and has spoken against tactics of suicide bombing and incitement to hatred.[33] He is also an active and prominent proponent of the campaign for divestment from Israel[34], and has likened Israel's treatment of Palestinians to the treatment of Black South Africans under apartheid.[33] Tutu used the analogy on a Christmas visit to Jerusalem on 25 December 1989, when he said in a Haaretz article that he is a "black South African, and if I were to change the names, a description of what is happening in Gaza and the West Bank could describe events in South Africa."[35] A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... Boycotts of Israel are a series of economic and political campaigns against the State of Israel in the course of the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ...


He was criticised by American Jewish Committee who, in 1988, quoted him as saying that Zionism has "very many parallels with racism", on the grounds that it "excludes people on ethnic or other grounds over which they have no control".[36] In 2003, Tutu accepted the role as patron of Sabeel International,[37] a Christian liberation theology organization which supports the concerns of the Palestinian Christian community and has actively lobbied the International Christian community for divestment from Israel.[38] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... The Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center in Jerusalemwas founded by Palestinian Christian. ... Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ...


United Nations role

Portrait of Tutu, 30" x 40" oil on canvas by Dick Zimmerman

In 2003, he was elected to the Board of Directors of the International Criminal Court's Trust Fund for Victims.[39] He was named a member of the UN advisory panel on genocide prevention in 2006.[40] The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ...


However, Tutu has also criticised the UN, particularly on the issue of West Papua. Tutu expressed support for the West Papuan independence movement, criticizing the United Nations' role in the takeover of West Papua by Indonesia. Tutu said: "For many years the people of South Africa suffered under the yoke of oppression and apartheid. Many people continue to suffer brutal oppression, where their fundamental dignity as human beings is denied. One such people is the people of West Papua."[41] Map showing West New Guinea region The region of West New Guinea is the western half of the island of New Guinea or Papua, and has also been known as Irian Jaya or West Papua. ... Map showing West New Guinea region The region of West New Guinea is the western half of the island of New Guinea or Papua, and has also been known as Irian Jaya or West Papua. ... UN redirects here. ...


Tutu was named to head a United Nations fact-finding mission to the Gaza Strip town of Beit Hanoun, where, in a November 2006 incident the Israel Defense Forces killed 19 civilians after troops wound up a week-long incursion aimed at curbing Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel from the town.[42] Tutu planned to travel to the Palestinian territory to "assess the situation of victims, address the needs of survivors and make recommendations on ways and means to protect Palestinian civilians against further Israeli assaults," according to the president of the UN Human Rights Council, Luis Alfonso De Alba.[43] Israeli officials expressed concern that the report would be biased against Israel. Tutu cancelled the trip in mid-December, saying that Israel had refused to grant him the necessary travel clearance after more than a week of discussions.[44] However, Tutu and British academic Christine Chinkin are now due to visit the Gaza Strip via Egypt and will file a report at the September 2008 session of the Human Rights Council.[45] Beit Hanoun (Arabic: ‎) is a town of 35,000 which is administered by the Palestinian Authority like the rest of the Gaza Strip. ... The November 2006 Beit Hanoun incident occurred on 8 November 2006 when the Israel Defense Forces, responding to Qassam rockets fired by Palestinian militants at Israeli towns shelled the Gaza Strip town of Beit Hanoun, killing 20 Palestinians and wounding more than 40. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Combatants  Israel Defense Forces (Israeli Security Forces) Hamas Fatah (al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades), Popular Resistance Committees Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian Army of Islam Commanders Dan Halutz (Chief of Staff) Yoav Galant (Regional) Khaled Mashal (Leader of Hamas[1])Mohammed Deif (Leader of Hamas military wing) Strength 3,000 unknown possibly... The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... Luis Alfonso De Alba is the Permanent Representative of Mexico to the International Organizations in Geneva. ... The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ...


Political views

Against poverty

Before the 31st G8 summit at Gleneagles, Scotland in 2005, Tutu called on world leaders to promote free trade with poorer countries. Tutu also called on an end to expensive taxes on anti-AIDS drugs. Tutu said: Official G8 2005 Portrait. ... This article is about the country. ...

"I would hope they would begin to say, 'lets to do something about subsidies'. You ask the so-called-developing world, 'Why can't you people produce more?' - and they produce - and then they find that the markets have barriers that are put down or are clobbered twice over."[46]

Following this summit, the G8 leaders promised to increase aid to developing countries by $48bn a year by 2010. Further, they gave their word of honour that they would do the best they could to achieve universal access to prevention and treatment for the millions and millions of people globally threatened by HIV/AIDS.


Before the 32nd G8 summit in Germany in 2007, Tutu called on the G8 to focus on poverty in the Third World. Following the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000, it appeared that world leaders were determined as never before to set and meet specific goals regarding extreme poverty.[47] 32nd G8 summit The 32nd summit of the G8 group of industrialised nations took place from July 15 to July 17, 2006 outside Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... The Millennium Summit took place in the United Nations Headquarters. ...


Against unilateralism

Tutu and USA President George W. Bush on the cover of Vanity Fair

In January 2003, Tutu attacked British Prime Minister Tony Blair's stance in supporting American President George W. Bush over Iraq. The alliance of Britain and the United States of America led to the outbreak of the Iraq War later that year. Tutu asked why Iraq was being singled out when Europe, India and Pakistan also had weapons of mass destruction. Tutu demanded: George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Title-page to Vanity Fair, drawn by Thackeray, who furnished the illustrations for many of his earlier editions Vanity Fair: A Novel without a Hero is a novel by William Makepeace Thackeray that satirizes society in early 19th-century England. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

"When does compassion, when does morality, when does caring come in? I just hope that one day that people will realise that peace is a far better path to follow. Many, many of us are deeply saddened to see a great country such as the United States aided and abetted extraordinarily by Britain. I have a great deal of time for your prime minister but I'm shocked to see a powerful country use its power frequently, unilaterally. The United States says you do this to the world, if you don't do it we will do it - that's sad."[48]

In October 2004, Tutu appeared in a play at Off Broadway, New York called Guantanamo - Honour-bound to Defend Freedom. This play was highly critical of the US handling of detainees at Guantanamo Bay. Tutu played Lord Justice Steyn, a judge who questions the legal justification of the detention regime.[49] Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City in smaller theatres than Broadway, but larger than Off-Off-Broadway, productions. ... This article is about the state. ... Honor Bound to Defend Freedom is the motto of the Joint Task Force Guantánamo charged with running the Guantanamo Bay detainment camp. ... Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ...


In January 2005, Tutu added his voice to the growing dissent over terrorist suspects held at Camp X-Ray in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, referring to detentions without trial as "utterly unacceptable." Tutu compared these detentions to those under Apartheid. Tutu also emphasised that when South Africa had used those methods the country had been condemned, however when powerful countries such as Britain and the United States of America had invoked such power the world was silent and in that silence accepted their methods even though they violated essential human rights. Tutu said: Camp X-Ray, shown here under construction, was a temporary holding facility for detainees held at U.S. Naval Base Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. ... Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ...

The rule of law is in order to ensure that those who have power don't use their power arbitrarily and every person retains their human rights until you have proven conclusively that so-and-so is in fact guilty. Whilst we are saying thank you that these have been released, what is happening to those left behind? We in South Africa used to have a dispensation that detained people without trial and the world quite rightly condemned that as unacceptable. Now if it was unacceptable then how come it can be acceptable to Britain and the United States. It is so, so deeply distressing. I am opposed to any arbitrary detention that is happening, even in Britain.[50]

In February 2006, Tutu repeated these statements after a UN report was published which called for the closure of the camp. Tutu stated that the Guantanamo Bay camp was a stain on the character of the United States, while the legislation in Britain which gave a 28 day detention period for terror suspects was "excessive" and "untenable". Tutu pointed out that similar arguments were being made in Britain and the United States which the South African apartheid regime had used. "It is disgraceful and one cannot find strong enough words to condemn what Britain and the United States and some of their allies have accepted," said Tutu. Tutu also attacked Tony Blair's failed attempt to hold terrorist suspects in Britain for up to 90 days without charge. "Ninety days for a South African is an awful deja-vu because we had in South Africa in the bad old days a 90-day detention law," he said. Under apartheid, as at Guantanamo Bay, people were held for "unconscionably long periods" and then released, he said. Tutu stated: Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ... Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ...

"Are you able to restore to those people the time when their freedom was denied them? If you have evidence for goodness sake produce it in a court of law. People with power have an incredible capacity for wanting to be able to retain that power and don't like scrutiny."[51]

In 2007, Tutu stated that the global "war on terror" could not be won if people were living in desperate conditions. Tutu said that the global disparity between rich and poor people creates instability.

"You can never win a war against terror as long as there are conditions in the world that make people desperate - poverty, disease, ignorance, et cetera. I think people are beginning to realize that you can't have pockets of prosperity in one part of the world and huge deserts of poverty and deprivation and think that you can have a stable and secure world."[52]

Against HIV/AIDS and TB

Tutu has been a tireless campaigner for health and human rights, and has been particularly vocal in support of controlling TB and HIV.[53] In 2003 the Desmond Tutu HIV Centre was founded in Cape Town, while the Desmond Tutu TB Centre was founded in 2003 at Stellenbosch University. Tutu suffered from TB in his youth and has been active in assisting those afflicted, especially as TB and HIV/Aids deaths have become intrinsically linked in South Africa. “Those of you who work to care for people suffering from AIDS and TB are wiping a tear from God’s eye,” Archbishop Tutu said.[53] Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... Stellenbosch University (Afrikaans: Universiteit van Stellenbosch) is an internationally recognised university which is situated in the town of Stellenbosch, South Africa. ...


On 20 April 2005, after Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected as Pope Benedict XVI, Tutu said he was sad that the Roman Catholic Church was unlikely to change its opposition to condoms amidst the fight against HIV/AIDS in Africa: "We would have hoped for someone more open to the more recent developments in the world, the whole question of the ministry of women and a more reasonable position with regards to condoms and HIV/AIDS."[54] is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In 2007, statistics were released that indicated HIV and AIDS numbers were lower than previously thought in South Africa. However, Tutu named these statistics "cold comfort" as it was unacceptable that 600 people died of AIDS in South Africa everyday. Tutu also rebuked the government for wasting time by discussing what caused HIV/Aids, which particularly attacks Mbeki and Health Minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang for their denialist stance.[55] Dr. Manto Tshabalala-Msimang (born 9 October 1940) is the controversial Health Minister of South Africa under the government of Thabo Mbeki (as of 2007). ... The AIDS reappraisal movement (or AIDS dissident movement) is a loosely-connected group of activists, journalists, citizens, scientists, researchers, and doctors who deny, challenge, or question, in various ways, the mainstream scientific consensus that the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). ...


Church reform

In 2002, Tutu called for a reform of the Anglican Church in regard to how its leader, the Archbishop of Canterbury is chosen. The ultimate appointment is made by the British Prime Minister and thus Tutu said that the selection process will only be properly democratic and representative when the link between church and state is broken. In February 2006 Tutu took part in the 9th Assembly of the World Council of Churches, held in Porto Alegre, Brazil. There he manifested his commitment to ecumenism and praised the efforts of Christian churches to promote dialogue to diminish their differences. For Tutu, "a united church is no optional extra." The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... This article is about Porto Alegre, Brazil. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ...


In the debate about Anglican views of homosexuality he has opposed Christian discrimination against homosexuals. Commenting days after the 5 August 2003 election of Gene Robinson, an openly gay man to be a bishop in the Episcopal Church in the United States of America, Desmond Tutu said, "In our Church here in South Africa, that doesn't make a difference. We just say that at the moment, we believe that they should remain celibate and we don't see what the fuss is about."[56] Tutu has remarked that it is sad the Church is spending time disagreeing on seuxual orientation "when we face so many devastating problems – poverty, HIV/AIDS, war and conflict".[57] The issue of homosexuality is controversial in the Anglican Communion. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Right Reverend Vicky Imogene Gene Robinson (born May 29, 1947) is the ninth bishop of the Diocese of New Hampshire in the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... -1... Celibacy may refer either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ...


Tutu has increased his criticism of conservative attitudes to homosexuality within his own church, equating homophobia with racism. Stating at a conference in Nairobi that he is "deeply disturbed that in the face of some of the most horrendous problems facing Africa, we concentrate on 'what do I do in bed with whom'".[58] In an interview with BBC Radio 4 on 18 November 2007, Archbishop Desmond Tutu accused the church of being obsessed with homosexuality and declared: "If God, as they say, is homophobic, I wouldn't worship that God."[59] A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota...


Academic role

In 1998, he was appointed as the Robert R Woodruff Visiting Professor at Emory University, Atlanta. He returned to Emory University the following year as the William R Cannon Visiting Distinguished Professor. In 2000, he founded the Desmond Tutu Peace Foundation to raise funds for the Desmond Tutu Peace Centre in Cape Town. The following year he launched the Desmond Tutu Peace Foundation USA, which is designed to work with universities nationwide to create leadership academies emphasising peace, social justice and reconciliation. Robert Winship Woodruff (December 6, 1889 – March 7, 1985) was the president of The Coca-Cola Company from 1923 until 1954. ... Emory University is a private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Emory University is a private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. ...


In 2001, the Desmond Tutu Educational Trust, with funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, launched the Desmond Tutu Footprints of the Legends Awards which recognises leadership in combating prejudice, human rights, research and poverty eradication. Since 2004, he has been a Visiting Professor at King's College London, although in 2007, he joined 600 college students and sailed around the world with Semester at Sea.[60] The W.K. Kellogg Foundation was founded in June 1930 as the W.K. Kellogg Child Welfare Foundation by breakfast cereal pioneer Will Keith Kellogg. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... The m/v Explorer docked in La Guaira, Venezuela, a port sometimes visited by Semester at Sea Semester at Sea (SAS) is a study abroad program managed by the Institute for Shipboard Education (ISE) in Charlottesville, Virginia. ...


Honours

See also: List of honours for Desmond Tutu

On 16 October 1984, Tutu was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel Committee cited his "role as a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa."[61] This was seen as a gesture of support for him and The South African Council of Churches which he led at that time. In 1987 Tutu was awarded the Pacem in Terris Award.[62] It was named after a 1963 encyclical letter by Pope John XXIII that calls upon all people of good will to secure peace among all nations. Pacem in Terris is Latin for 'Peace on Earth'.[63] In 1992, he was awarded the Bishop John T. Walker Distinguished Humanitarian Service Award. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award has been awarded annually since 1964 in commemoration of the 1963 Encyclical Pacem in Terris of Pope John XXIII. It was created by the Davenport Catholic Interracial Council of the Diocese of Davenport in the U.S. state of Iowa. ... An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... A visibly ill Pope John XXIII, who died shortly afterwards, signing Pacem in Terris. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Bishop John T. Walker Distinguished Humanitarian Service Award (BWD or Bishop Walker Dinner) is an award presented annually by Africare to recognize those whose work has made a significant impact on raising the standard of living in Africa. ...


In June 1999, Tutu was invited to give the annual Wilberforce Lecture in Kingston upon Hull, commemorating the life and achievements of the anti-slavery campaigner William Wilberforce. Tutu used the occasion to praise the people of the city for their traditional support of freedom and for standing with the people of South Africa in their fight against apartheid. He was also presented with the freedom of the city.[64] Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... William Wilberforce (August 24, 1759 – July 29, 1833) was a British politician, philanthropist and slavery abolitionist. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


Tutu has been awarded the freedom of the city in cities in Italy, Wales, England and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. He has received numerous doctorates and fellowships at distinguished universities. He has been named a Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur by France, Germany has awarded him the Order of Merit Grand Cross, while he received the Sydney Peace Prize in 1999. He is also the recipient of the Gandhi Peace Prize, the King Hussein Prize and the Marion Doenhoff Prize for International Reconciliation and Understanding. In 2008, Governor Rod Blagojevich of Illinois proclaimed the 13th May 'Desmond Tutu Day'. On his visit to Illinois, Tutu was awarded the Lincoln Leadership Prize and unveiled his portrait which will be displayed at the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library in Springfield.[65] This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... The Sydney Peace Prize is awarded by the Sydney Peace Foundation, a not-for-profit organisation associated with the University of Sydney. ... The International Gandhi Peace Prize, named after Mahatma Gandhi, is awarded anually by the government of India for outstanding work and contribution to social, economic and political transformation through non-violence and other Gandhian methods. ... Milorad Blagojevich, commonly known as Rod R. Blagojevich (pronounced  , born December 10, 1956) is an American politician from the state of Illinois. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Media/film appearances

  • For the Bible Tells Me So (2007)
  • Virgin Radio (2007) - Tutu contacted Virgin Radio on October 15 2007 in the "Who's Calling Christian" phone in where famous people ring in to raise a substantial amount of money for charity.
  • The Foolishness of God: Desmond Tutu and Forgiveness (2007) (post-production) .... Himself
  • Our Story Our Voice (2007) (completed) .... Himself
  • 2006 Trumpet Awards (2006) (TV) .... Himself
  • De skrev historie .... Himself (1 episode, 2005)
  • The Shot That Shook the World (2005) (TV) .... Himself
  • The Peace! DVD (2005) (V) .... Himself
  • The Charlie Rose Show .... Himself (1 episode, 2005)
  • Out of Africa: Heroes and Icons (2005) (TV) .... Himself
  • Big Ideas That Changed the World (2005) (mini) TV Series .... Himself
  • Breakfast with Frost .... Himself (3 episodes, 2004-2005)
  • Tavis Smiley .... Himself (1 episode, 2005)
  • The South Bank Show .... Himself (1 episode, 2005)
  • Wall Street: A Wondering Trip (2004) (TV) .... Himself
  • The Daily Show .... Himself (1 episode, 2004)
  • Bonhoeffer (2003) .... Himself
  • Long Night's Journey Into Day (2000) (as Archbishop Desmond Tutu) .... Himself
  • Epidemic Africa (1999) .... Host
  • Cape Divided (1999) .... Himself
  • A Force More Powerful (1999) .... Himself

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 747 pixel, file size: 367 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 747 pixel, file size: 367 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchentag (German for German Protestant Church Day) is a movement of lay members of the Evangelical Church in Germany. ... For the French radio station, see Virgin Radio (France). ... Christian OConnell is an English radio DJ who presents the Virgin Radio weekday breakfast show. ... Our Story Our Voice is an independent political documentary 2007 which looks at the social tension in the world today. ... Breakfast with Frost was a talk show hosted by Sir David Frost on the BBC on Sunday mornings. ... The South Bank Show is a British television arts magazine show, presented by Melvyn Bragg and seen in over 60 countries — including Australia, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Sweden and the USA. Its stated aim is to bring both high art and popular culture to a mass audience. ... A Force More Powerful (1999) is a film written and directed by Steve York about non-violent resistance movements around the world. ...

Writings

Tutu has contributed to the field of social psychology. His writing appeared in Greater Good Magazine, published by the Greater Good Science Center of the University of California, Berkeley. His contributions include the interpretation of scientific research into the roots of compassion, altruism, and peaceful human relationships. His most recent article with Greater Good magazine is titled: "Why to Forgive", which examines how forgiveness is not only personally rewarding, but also politically necessary in allowing South Africa to have a new beginning. However, Tutu states that forgiveness is not turning a blind eye to wrongs; true reconciliation exposes the awfulness, the abuse, the pain, the hurt, the truth. It could even sometimes make things worse. It is a risky undertaking but in the end it is worthwhile, because in the end only an honest confrontation with reality can bring healing. The scope of social psychological research. ... Greater Good Science Center, UC Berkeley // The Greater Good Science Center, located at the University of California, Berkeley is an interdisciplinary research center devoted to the scientific understanding of happy and compassionate individuals, strong social bonds, and altruistic behavior. ... Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ...


Tutu is the author of seven collections of sermons and other writings: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by...

  • Crying in the Wilderness, Eerdmans, 1982. ISBN 978-0802802705
  • Hope and Suffering: Sermons and Speeches, Skotaville, 1983. ISBN 978-0620067768
  • The Words of Desmond Tutu, Newmarket, 1989. ISBN 978-1557047199
  • Worshipping Church in Africa, Duke University Press, 1995. ASIN B000K5WB02
  • The Essential Desmond Tutu, David Phillips Publishers, 1997. ISBN 978-0864863461
  • No Future without Forgiveness, Doubleday, 1999. ISBN 978-0-385-49689-6
  • An African Prayerbook, Doubleday, 2000. ISBN 978-0385-47730-7
  • God Has a Dream: A Vision of Hope for Our Time, Doubleday, 2004. ISBN 978-0385-47784-0
  • The Rainbow People of God: The Making of a Peaceful Revolution, Doubleday, 1994. ISBN 978-0-385-47546-4

Tutu has also co authored numerous books: Wm. ... Duke University Press is a book publisher and a part of Duke University. ... It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ...

  • "Bounty in Bondage: Anglican Church in Southern Africa - Essays in Honour of Edward King, Dean of Cape Town" with Frank England, Torguil Paterson, and Torquil Paterson (1989)
  • "Resistance Art in South Africa" with Sue Williamson (1990)
  • The Rainbow People of God with John Allen (1994)
  • "Freedom from Fear: And Other Writings" with Vaclav Havel and Aung San Suu Kyi (1995)
  • "Reconciliation: The Ubuntu Theology of Desmond Tutu" with Michael J. Battle (1997)
  • "Exploring Forgiveness" with Robert D. Enright and Joanna North (1998)
  • "Love in Chaos: Spiritual Growth and the Search for Peace in Northern Ireland" with Mary McAleese (1999)
  • "Race and Reconciliation in South Africa (Global Encounters: Studies in Comparative Political Theory)" with William Vugt and G. Daan Cloete (2000)
  • "South Africa: A Modern History" with T.R.H. Davenport and Christopher Saunders (2000)
  • "At the Side of Torture Survivors: Treating a Terrible Assault on Human Dignity" with Bahman Nirumand, Sepp Graessner and Norbert Gurris (2001)
  • "Place of Compassion" with Kenneth E. Luckman (2001)
  • "Passion for Peace: Exercising Power Creatively" with Stuart Rees (2002)
  • "Out of Bounds (New Windmills)" with Beverley Naidoo (2003)
  • "Fly, Eagle, Fly!" with Christopher Gregorowski and Niki Daly (2003)
  • "Sex, Love and Homophobia: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Lives" with Amnesty International, Vanessa Baird and Grayson Perry (2004)
  • "Toward a Jewish Theology of Liberation" with Gustavo Gutierrez and Marc H. Ellis (2004)
  • "Radical Compassion: The Life and Times of Archbishop Ted Scott" with Hugh McCullum (2004)
  • "Third World Health: Hostage to First World Wealth" with Theodore MacDonald (2005)
  • "Where God Happens: Discovering Christ in One Another and Other Lessons from the Desert Fathers" with Rowan Williams (2005)
  • "Health, Trade and Human Rights" with Mogobe Ramose and Theodore H. MacDonald (2006)
  • "The Soul of a New Cuisine: A Discovery of the Foods and Flavors of Africa" with Marcus Samuelsson, Heidi Sacko Walters and Gediyon Kifle (2006)
  • "The Gospel According to Judas WMA: By Benjamin Iscariot" with Jeffrey Archer, Frank Moloney (2007)

Václav Havel [VAWTS-lav HA-vel] (born October 5, 1936) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ... For the United States Department of Justice Official see Michael A. Battle. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current President of Ireland. ... Emeritus Professor Stuart Rees AM is the Director of the Sydney Peace Foundation (founder of the Sydney Peace Prize), at the University of Sydney in Australia. ... Beverley Naidoo is a popular childrens author who has written a number of award-winning books about life in South Africa, where she spent her childhood. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Alan Yentob and Grayson Perry at private view of Gilbert & George retrospective, Tate Modern Grayson Perry (born 24 March 1960), is an award-winning English artist, best known for his ceramics and cross-dressing. ... Gustavo Gutiérrez is one of the founders of liberation theology. ... Professor Ellis at Baylor University. ... For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ... Marcus Samuelsson on the New York Restaurant Insider Magazine Marcus Samuelsson is a Swedish chef, born 1970 in Ethiopia, resident in the United States. ... Not to be confused with Geoffrey Archer or Baron Archer of Sandwell. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Archbishop Desmond Tutu lambasts African silence on Zimbabwe", USA Today, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-04-04. 
  2. ^ a b Fact Sheet: Archbishop Desmond Mpilo Tutu (19 January 2006). Retrieved on 2008-06-01.
  3. ^ Miller, Lindsay. Desmond Tutu - A Man with a Mission. Retrieved on 2008-06-01.
  4. ^ a b Aarvik, Egil (1984). Presentation Speech of 1984 Nobel Prize for Peace. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2008-06-01.
  5. ^ a b Wood, Lawrence (2006-10-17). Tutu's story. The Christian Century. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  6. ^ Our Patron - Archbishop Desmond Tutu. Cape Town Child Welfare. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
  7. ^ a b "Trevor Tutu freed from prison after being granted amnesty", SAPA, 28 November 1997. Retrieved on 2008-06-01. 
  8. ^ "Tutu's son in amnesty bid", Dispatch, 27 September 1997. Retrieved on 2008-06-01. 
  9. ^ Nontombi Naomi Tutu. Kent State University. Retrieved on 2008-06-01.
  10. ^ Reverend Mpho Tutu. 2004 Women of Distinction (2004). Retrieved on 2008-06-01.
  11. ^ The Reverend Mpho A. Tutu. Tutu Institute. Retrieved on 2208-06-01.
  12. ^ Prostate Cancer Foundation of South Africa (2007-03-03). "Taking the fight against prostate cancer to South Africans". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
  13. ^ Tutu, Desmond (1994). The Rainbow People of God: The Making of a Peaceful Revolution. Doubleday. 
  14. ^ "Tutu calls for church reform", BBC, 2002-06-10. Retrieved on 2008-01-23. 
  15. ^ Carlin, John (2006-11-12). Former aide John Allen’s authorised biography offers an intimate view of Desmond Tutu. The Observer. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  16. ^ London Gazette: no. 54002, page 5286, 7 April 1995. Retrieved on 2008-06-05.
  17. ^ "Tutu calls for child registration", BBC, 2005-02-22. Retrieved on 2008-01-23. 
  18. ^ Tutu, Mbeki & others (2005). Controversy: Tutu, Mbeki & the freedom to criticise. Centre for Civil Society.
  19. ^ a b Tutu warns of poverty 'powder keg'. BBC (2004-11-23).
  20. ^ Maclennan, Ben (2004-12-02). Quotes of the Week. Sapa.
  21. ^ Carlin, John. Interview with Tutu. PBS Frontline. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  22. ^ S Africa is losing its way - Tutu. BBC (2006-09-27).
  23. ^ "Zuma camp lashes out at 'old' Tutu", 2006-09-01. Retrieved on 2006-09-01. 
  24. ^ "'Please, please stop'", News24, 19 May 2008. Retrieved on 2008-05-31. 
  25. ^ The Elders (18 July 2007). "Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu Announce The Elders". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
  26. ^ Tutu denounces rights abuses. News24 (2007-12-10). Retrieved on 2008-01-23.
  27. ^ "Raw Video: Desmont Tutu On SF Torch Relay", CBS, 2008-04-08. Retrieved on 2008-04-10. 
  28. ^ "San Francisco set for torch relay", BBC, 2008-04-09. Retrieved on 2008-04-09. 
  29. ^ "Zimbabwe needs your help, Tutu tells Brown", Daily Telegraph, 2007-09-19. Retrieved on 2008-04-04. 
  30. ^ John Allen (2007-10-10). Working with a rabble-rouser. Times Online. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  31. ^ Desmond Tutu Quotes. South African History Online (2007). Retrieved on 2008-01-23.
  32. ^ a b c "‘Mugabe must step down with dignity’", The Times, 2008-04-02. Retrieved on 2008-04-04. 
  33. ^ a b "Apartheid in the Holy Land", The Guardian, 2002-04-29. Retrieved on 2006-11-28. 
  34. ^ "Israeli apartheid" (2002-06-27). The Nation (275): 4-5. 
  35. ^ Ruby, Walter. "Tutu says Israel's policy in terrorities remind him of SA", Jerusalem Post, 1989-02-01. 
  36. ^ Shimoni, Gideon (1988). "South African Jews and the Apartheid Crisis" (PDF). American Jewish Year Book 88: 50. American Jewish Committee. 
  37. ^ Desmond Tutu lends his name to Sabeel. comeandsee.com (2003-06-18). Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  38. ^ A call for morally responsible investment: A Nonviolent Response to the Occupation. Sabeel (2005-04). Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  39. ^ Amnesty International welcomes the election of a Board of Directors. Amnesty International (2003-09-12). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  40. ^ "Desmond Tutu turns 75", News24, 2006-10-06. Retrieved on 2008-01-22. 
  41. ^ Statement by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, South Africa. West Papuan Action (23 February 2004). Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
  42. ^ Slosberg, Jacob. "Tutu to head UN rights mission to Gaza", Jerusalem Post, 2006-11-29. 
  43. ^ Hoffman, Gil; Keinon, Herb. "Israel may give no-no to Tutu's trip to Beit Hanun", Jerusalem Post, 2006-12-09. 
  44. ^ "Desmond Tutu says Israel refused fact-finding mission to Gaza", International Herald Tribune, 2006-12-11. 
  45. ^ "Tutu heads for Gaza Strip", News24, 26 May 2008. Retrieved on 2008-05-31. 
  46. ^ "Archbishop Tutu calls for G8 help", BBC, 2005-03-17. Retrieved on 2008-01-23. 
  47. ^ World Aids Campaign (2006-10-19). "Desmond Tutu: Keep your Promises". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  48. ^ "Tutu condemns Blair's Iraq stance", BBC, 2003-01-05. Retrieved on 2008-01-23. 
  49. ^ "Tutu in anti-Guantanamo theatre", BBC, 2004-10-02. Retrieved on 2008-01-23. 
  50. ^ "Tutu calls for Guantanamo release", BBC, 2005-01-12. Retrieved on 2008-01-22. 
  51. ^ "Tutu calls for Guantanamo closure", BBC, 2006-02-17. Retrieved on 2008-01-22. 
  52. ^ Tutu: Poverty fueling terror. CNN (2007-09-16). Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  53. ^ a b "Archbischop Desmond Tutu urges TB/HIV workers to continue to relieve suffering from dual scourges", Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, 2005-09-28. Retrieved on 2008-04-24. 
  54. ^ "Africans hail conservative Pope", BBC News, 2005-04-20. Retrieved on 2006-05-26. 
  55. ^ "Aids stats 'cold comfort'- Tutu", News24, 2007-11-30. Retrieved on 2008-04-04. 
  56. ^ Desmond Tutu: gay bishop row is just "fuss". Gay.com UK (2006-08-11). Retrieved on 2006-05-26.
  57. ^ "Tutu calls on Anglicans to accept gay bishop", Spero News, 2005-11-14. Retrieved on 2006-05-26. 
  58. ^ "Tutu stands up for gays", Pink News, 2007-01-19. 
  59. ^ Desmond Tutu chides Church for gay stance. BBC (2007-11-18).
  60. ^ Nobel Peace Prize Winner Archbishop Desmond Tutu to Sail with Semester at Sea for Entire Spring Semester. University of Virginia (2006-09-26). Retrieved on 2008-01-05.
  61. ^ Norwegian Nobel Committee. "The Nobel Peace Prize for 1984". Press release. Retrieved on 2006-05-26.
  62. ^ Gish, Steven (1963). Desmond Tutu: A Biography. Greenwood Press, 126. Retrieved on 2008-06-06. 
  63. ^ Habitat for Humanity (1 November 2007). "Habitat for Humanity Lebanon Chairman to receive prestigious Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
  64. ^ 1999 Lecture: Archbishop Desmond Tutu. Wilberforce Lecture Trust. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
  65. ^ "Gov. Blagojevich Proclaims Today "Desmond Tutu Day" in Illinois". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In Futurama, Scientists increase the speed of light during this year. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Norwegian Nobel Committee (Den norske Nobelkomité) awards the Nobel Peace Prize each year. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further Reading

  • Shirley du Boulay, Tutu: Voice of the Voiceless (Eerdmans, 1988).
  • Michael J. Battle, Reconciliation: The Ubuntu Theology of Desmond Tutu (Pilgrim Press, 1997).
  • Steven D. Gish, Desmond Tutu: A Biography (Greenwood, 2004).
  • David Hein, "Bishop Tutu's Christology." Cross Currents 34 (1984): 492-99.
  • David Hein, "Religion and Politics in South Africa." Modern Age 31 (1987): 21-30.
  • John Allen, Rabble-Rouser for Peace: The Authorised Biography of Desmond Tutu (Rider Books, 2007).

For the United States Department of Justice Official see Michael A. Battle. ... John Allen was the first president of the University of South Florida, from 1960 to 1970. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Desmond Tutu
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Desmond Tutu
  • Desmond Tutu Diversity Trust
  • The Desmond Tutu Peace Centre
  • Tutu Foundation UK
  • Nobel e-Museum Nobel Peace Prize
  • Archbishop Desmond Tutu Centre for War and Peace Studies at Liverpool Hope University
  • IMDB Profile
  • Nobel lecture, 11 December 1984
  • Desmond Tutu on The Hour
  • http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/greatergood/archive/2004fallwinter/Fall04_Tutu.pdf
  • 2002: Jean Mayer Award
  • Dalai Lama, Bishop Tutu Join Seattle Interfaith Discussion
Preceded by
Philip Welsford Richmond Russell
Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town
1986-1996
Succeeded by
Njongonkulu Ndungane
Persondata
NAME Tutu, Desmond Mpilo
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION South African churchman, politician, archbishop, Nobel Prize winner
DATE OF BIRTH 7 October 1931
PLACE OF BIRTH Klerksdorp, Transvaal, South Africa
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Klerksdorp is a city and administrative district located in the North West Province (formerly Western Transvaal), South Africa. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Archbishop Desmond Tutu hero file (4183 words)
Meanwhile, Tutu is ordained as an Anglican parish priest and lectures at a theological seminary in Johannesburg.
1970 - Tutu lectures in theology at the University of Botswana in Roma, Lesotho.
Meanwhile, Tutu is elected as president of the All Africa Conference of Churches.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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