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Encyclopedia > Design
All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis by Louis Comfort Tiffany. The building structure and decorations are both examples of design.
A drawing for a booster engine for steam locomotives. Engineering is applied to design, with emphasis on function and the utilization of mathematics and science.
Design, when applied to fashion, includes considering aesthetics as well as function in the final form.

Design, usually considered in the context of applied arts, engineering, architecture, and other creative endeavors, is used both as a noun and a verb. As a verb, "to design" refers to the process of originating and developing a plan for a product, structure, system, or component. As a noun, "a design" is used for either the final (solution) plan (e.g. proposal, drawing, model, description) or the result of implementing that plan (e.g. object produced, result of the process). More recently, processes (in general) have also been treated as products of design, giving new meaning to the term "process design". Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 186 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 186 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Cathedral Basilica The Cathedral Basilica of Saint Louis, generally known as the St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (5770x2058, 949 KB) Booster engine installation layout. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (5770x2058, 949 KB) Booster engine installation layout. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 521 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1402 × 1614 pixel, file size: 152 KB, MIME type: image/gif) LE CORSET A TRAVERS LES AGES File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 521 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1402 × 1614 pixel, file size: 152 KB, MIME type: image/gif) LE CORSET A TRAVERS LES AGES File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Such styles may change quickly, and fashion in the more colloquial sense refers to the latest version of these styles. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Example of a cup figuring a tortise. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... This article is about building architecture. ... For other uses of Creativity, see Creativity (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... For planning in AI, see automated planning and scheduling. ... For other meanings of this term, see plan (disambiguation) Informal or ad-hoc plans are created by individual humans in all of their pursuits. ...


Designing normally requires a designer to consider the aesthetic, functional, and many other aspects of an object or a process, which usually requires considerable research, thought, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design. Designer is a broad term for a person who designs any of a variety of things. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... Look up functional in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the concept. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... Part of the one-tenth scale model of Bourton-on-the-Water at Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, England A scale model of the Singapore City Centre. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ...

Contents

Philosophies and studies of design

There is no universal language or unifying institution for designers of all disciplines. Raised levels of achievement often lead to raised expectations. In structuration theory, design is both medium and outcome generating a Janus like face, with every ending marking a new beginning. Organizational communication, broadly speaking, is: the transactional, symbolic process in which the activities of a social collective are coordinated to achieve individual and collective goals. ... Insititutional Memory is episode 153 of The West Wing. ... Structuration theory, in anthropology, maintains that a repeated cultural practice builds social structure, and that practices are dictated by the social structure. ... Roman bust of Janus, Vatican. ...


There are countless philosophies for guiding design as the design values and its accompanying aspects within modern design vary, both between different schools of thought and among practicing designers.[1] Design philosophies are usually for determining design goals. A design goal may range from solving the least significant individual problem of the smallest element to the most holistic influential utopian goals. Design goals are usually for guiding design. However, conflicts over immediate and minor goals may lead to questioning the purpose of design, perhaps to set better long term or ultimate goals. Holism (from holon, a Greek word meaning entity) is the idea that the properties of a system cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its components alone. ... See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ...


Philosophies for guiding design

A design philosophy is a guide to help make choices when designing such as ergonomics, costs, economics, functionality and methods of re-design. An example of a design philosophy is “dynamic change” to achieve the elegant or stylish look you need.


Approaches to design

A design approach is a general philosophy that may or may not include a guide for specific methods. Some are to guide the overall goal of the design. Other approaches are to guide the tendencies of the designer. A combination of approaches may be used if they don't conflict.


Some popular approaches include:

  • User-centered design, which focuses on the needs, wants, and limitations of the end user of the designed artifact.
  • Use-centered design, which focuses on the goals and tasks associated with the use of the artifact, rather than focusing on the end user.
  • KISS principle, (Keep it Simple, Stupid), which strives to eliminate unnecessary complications
  • There is more than one way to do it (TMTOWTDI), a philosophy to allow multiple methods of doing the same thing
  • Murphy's Law (things will go wrong in any given situation, if you give them a chance)

It has been suggested that User Centered Design be merged into this article or section. ... The use-centered design is a design philosophy in which the focus is on the goals and tasks associated with the use of certain technology, as opposed to user-centered design approach, where the focus is on the user alone. ... The term KISS is an acronym of the phrase Keep It Simple, Stupid, and the KISS principle states that design simplicity should be a key goal and unnecessary complexity avoided. ... There is more than one way to do it (TIMTOWTDI, usually pronounced Tim Toady) is a Perl motto. ... For other uses, see Murphys Law (disambiguation). ...

Philosophies for methods of designing

The Room de Luxe at The Willow Tearooms features furniture and interior design by Mackintosh and Margaret Macdonald.
Main article: Design methods

Design Methods is a broad area that focuses on: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1508, 310 KB) Summary The Room de Luxe at The Willow Tearooms, Glasgow designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in collaboration with Margaret MacDonald for Catherine Cranston. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1508, 310 KB) Summary The Room de Luxe at The Willow Tearooms, Glasgow designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in collaboration with Margaret MacDonald for Catherine Cranston. ... Design Methods is a broad area that focuses on: Divergence – Exploring possibilities and constraints of inherited situations by applying critical thinking through qualitative and quantitative research methods to create new understanding (problem space) toward better design solutions Transformation – Redefining specifications of design solutions which can lead to better guidelines for...

  • Exploring possibilities and constraints by focusing critical thinking skills to research and define problem spaces for existing products or services—or the creation of new categories; (see also Brainstorming)
  • Redefining the specifications of design solutions which can lead to better guidelines for traditional design activities (graphic, industrial, architectural, etc.);
  • Managing the process of exploring, defining, creating artifacts continually over time
  • Prototyping possible scenarios, or solutions that incrementally or significantly improve the inherited situation
  • Trendspotting; understanding the trend process.

Exploration is the act of searching or traveling for the purpose of discovery, e. ... This article is about a term used in economics. ... Look up brainstorming in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Definition (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with prototype. ...

Philosophies for the purpose of designs

In philosophy, the abstract noun "design" refers to a pattern with a purpose. Design is thus contrasted with purposelessness, randomness, or lack of complexity. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Purpose in its most general sense is the anticipated aim which guides action. ... Random redirects here. ... Complexity in general usage is the opposite of simplicity. ...


To study the purpose of designs, beyond individual goals (e.g. marketing, technology, education, entertainment, hobbies), is to question the controversial politics, morals, ethics and needs such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs. "Purpose" may also lead to existential questions such as religious morals and teleology. These philosophies for the "purpose of" designs are in contrast to philosophies for guiding design or methodology. Next big thing redirects here. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... This article is about pastimes. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Morality is a complex of principles based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... A need is the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a goal and the reason for the action, giving purpose and direction to behavior. ... Maslows Hierarchy of Needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1945 paper A Theory of Human Motivation, which he subsequently extended to include his observations of humans innate curiosity. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement emphasizing individualism, individual freedom, and subjectivity. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Teleology (Greek: telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in nature or human creations. ...


Often a designer (especially in commercial situations) is not in a position to define purpose. Whether a designer is, is not, or should be concerned with purpose or intended use beyond what they are expressly hired to influence, is debatable, depending on the situation. Not understanding or disinterest in the wider role of design in society might also be attributed to the commissioning agent or client, rather than the designer.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Design as a process

Design as a process can take many forms depending on the object being designed and the individual or individuals participating. Process (lat. ...


Defining a design process

According to video game developer Dino Dini in a talk given at the 2005 Game Design and Technology Workshop held by Liverpool JM University, design underpins every form of creation from objects such as chairs to the way we plan and execute our lives. For this reason it is useful to seek out some common structure that can be applied to any kind of design, whether this be for video games, consumer products or one's own personal life. Dino Dini (born June 5, 1965) is a computer game developer specializing in football games. ...


For such an important concept, the question "What is Design?" appears to yield answers with limited usefulness. Dino Dini states that the design process can be defined as "The management of constraints". He identifies two kinds of constraint, negotiable and non-negotiable. The first step in the design process is the identification, classification and selection of constraints. The process of design then proceeds from here by manipulating design variables so as to satisfy the non-negotiable constraints and optimizing those which are negotiable. It is possible for a set of non-negotiable constraints to be in conflict resulting in a design with no solution; in this case the non-negotiable constraints must be revised. For example, take the design of a chair. A chair must support a certain weight to be useful, and this is a non-negotiable constraint. The cost of producing the chair might be another. The choice of materials and the aesthetic qualities of the chair might be negotiable. Dino Dini (born June 5, 1965) is a computer game developer specializing in football games. ...


Dino Dini theorizes that poor designs occur as a result of mismanaged constraints, something he claims can be seen in the way the video game industry makes "Must be Fun" a negotiable constraint where he believes it should be non-negotiable. Dino Dini (born June 5, 1965) is a computer game developer specializing in football games. ...


It should be noted that "the management of constraints" may not include the whole of what is involved in "constraint management" as defined in the context of a broader Theory of Constraints, depending on the scope of a design or a designer's position. Theory of Constraints (TOC) is an overall management philosophy that aims to continually achieve more of the goal of a system. ...

An architect at his drawing board, 1893. The Peter Arno phrase "Well, back to the old drawing board" makes light of the fact that designs sometimes fail and redesign is necessary. The phrase has meaning beyond structural designs and is an idiom when a drawing board is not used in a design.

Redesign Something that is redesigned requires a different process than something that is designed for the first time. A redesign often includes an evaluation of the existent design and the findings of the redesign needs are often the ones that drive the redesign process. Download high resolution version (2195x2710, 203 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2195x2710, 203 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... A drafting table in use A drawing board (also drawing table, drafting table, architects table or draughting table) is, in its antique form, a kind of multipurpose Desk which can be used for any kind of drawing, writing or impromptu sketching on a large sheet of paper or for... Peter Arno (1904 - 1968) was a U.S. cartoonist. ... I NEED TO FUCK SOMEONE! I AM TIRED OF PORN! SOMEONE HELP ME! ...


Typical steps

A design process may include a series of steps followed by designers. Depending on the product or service, some of these stages may be irrelevant, ignored in real-world situations in order to save time, reduce cost, or because they may be redundant in the situation.


Typical stages of the design process include:

  • Pre-production design
  • Design during production
  • Post-production design feedback for future designs
  • Redesign - any or all stages in the design process repeated (with corrections made) at any time before, during, or after production.
Look up design in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Design brief – A comprehensive written document for a design project developed in concert by a person representing the business need for design and the designer. ... This article is about the concept. ... Specification may refer to several different concepts: Specification (standards) refers to specific standards Specificatio - a legal concept Specification (regression) refers to the practice of translating theory into a regression model Category: ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... A concept is an abstract, universal psychical entity that serves to designate a category or class of entities, events or relations. ... For the similarly-named Surrealist journal, see Documents (journal). ... For other uses, see Presentation (disambiguation). ... Product Development is the process of development of products. ... Look up test in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In situ is a Latin phrase meaning in the place. ... Look up Implementation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about characterizing and appraising something of interest. ... A conclusion is a final proposition, which is arrived at after the consideration of evidence, arguments or premises. ... Constructive criticism (often shortened to CC or concrit) is the process of offering valid and well-reasoned opinions about the work of others, usually involving both positive and negative comments, in a friendly manner rather than an oppositional one. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Terminology

The word "design" is often considered ambiguous depending on the application.


Design and art

Design is often viewed as a more rigorous form of art, or art with a clearly defined purpose. The distinction is usually made when someone other than the artist is defining the purpose. In graphic arts the distinction is often made between fine art and commercial art. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Graphic design is the applied art of arranging image and text to communicate a message. ... Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ... Commercial art refers to art created for commercial purposes, primarily advertising. ...


In the realm of the arts, design is more relevant to the "applied" arts, such as architecture and product design. In fact today the term design is widely associated to modern industrial product design as initiated by Raymond Loewy. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Design implies a conscious effort to create something that is both functional and aesthetically pleasing. For example, a graphic artist may design an advertisement poster. This person's job is to communicate the advertisement message (functional aspect) and to make it look good (aesthetically pleasing). The distinction between pure and applied arts is not completely clear, but one may consider Jackson Pollock's (often criticized as "splatter") paintings as an example of pure art. One may assume his art does not convey a message based on the obvious differences between an advertisement poster and the mere possibility of an abstract message of a Jackson Pollock painting. One may speculate that Pollock, when painting, worked more intuitively than would a graphic artist, when consciously designing a poster. However, Mark Getlein suggests the principles of design are "almost instinctive", "built-in", "natural", and part of "our sense of 'rightness'."[3] Pollock, as a trained artist, may have utilized design whether conscious or not. Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ...


Design and engineering

Engineering is often viewed as a more rigorous form of design. Contrary views suggest that design is a component of engineering aside from production and other operations which utilize engineering. A neutral view may suggest that both design and engineering simply overlap, depending on the discipline of design. The American Heritage Dictionary defines design as: "To conceive or fashion in the mind; invent," and "To formulate a plan", and defines engineering as: "The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems." [4][5]. Both are forms of problem-solving with a defined distinction being the application of "scientific and mathematical principles". How much science is applied in a design is a question of what is considered "science". Along with the question of what is considered science, there is social science versus natural science. Scientists at Xerox PARC made the distinction of design versus engineering at "moving minds" versus "moving molecules". Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... Bold text // Headline text Link title This article is about the computer research center. ...


Design and production

The relationship between design and production is one of planning and executing. In theory, the plan should anticipate and compensate for potential problems in the execution process. Design involves problem-solving and creativity. In contrast, production involves a routine or pre-planned process. A design may also be a mere plan that does not include a production or engineering process, although a working knowledge of such processes is usually expected of designers. In some cases, it may be unnecessary and/or impractical to expect a designer with a broad multidisciplinary knowledge required for such designs to also have a detailed knowledge of how to produce the product. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses of Creativity, see Creativity (disambiguation). ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ...

Design and production are intertwined in many creative professional careers, meaning problem-solving is part of execution and the reverse. As the cost of rearrangement increases, the need for separating design from production increases as well. For example, a high-budget project, such as a skyscraper, requires separating (design) architecture from (production) construction. A Low-budget project, such as a locally printed office party invitation flyer, can be rearranged and printed dozens of times at the low cost of a few sheets of paper, a few drops of ink, and less than one hour's pay of a desktop publisher. Image File history File links Computer-aj_aj_ashton_01. ... Although creative professionals--people who work full-time in creative endeavors--have been a part of the workforce for more than 500 years, several events during the past decade have altered industry and public perception of these workers. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... An MFP (Multi Function Printer/Product/Peripheral), multifunctional, all-in-one (AiO), or mopier (Multiple Optical coPIER) or Multifunction Device (MFD), is an office machine that includes the following functionality in one physical body, so as to have a smaller footprint in a home or small-business setting (the SoHo... A 1990 hand-drawn flyer advertising a Goa trance party from Israel. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ...


This is not to say that production never involves problem-solving or creativity, nor design always involves creativity. Designs are rarely perfect and are sometimes repetitive. The imperfection of a design may task a production position (e.g. production artist, construction worker) with utilizing creativity or problem-solving skills to compensate for what was overlooked in the design process. Likewise, a design may be a simple repetition (copy) of a known preexisting solution, requiring minimal, if any, creativity or problem-solving skills from the designer. A production artist is an entry level job position in a creative profession. ... Carpenter at work in Tennessee, June 1942. ...


Process design

"Process design" (in contrast to "design process") refers to the planning of routine steps of a process aside from the expected result. Processes (in general) are treated as a product of design, not the method of design. The term originated with the industrial designing of chemical processes. With the increasing complexities of the information age, consultants and executives have found the term useful to describe the design of business processes as well as manufacturing processes. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Process design is the design of processes for desired physical and/or chemical transformation of materials. ... In a scientific sense, a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more chemicals or chemical compounds. ... A university computer lab containing many desktop PCs The transition of communication technology: Oral Culture, Manuscript Culture, Print Culture, and Information Age Information Age is a term that has been used to refer to the present economic era. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Business process reengineering. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ...


See also

Design disciplines

Commerce

Applications Enterprise Architecture is the practice of applying a comprehensive and rigorous method for describing a current and/or future structure and behavior for an organizations processes, information systems, personnel and organizational sub-units, so that they align with the organizations core goals and strategic direction. ... In business and engineering, new product development (NPD) is the term used to describe the complete process of bringing a new product or service to market. ... Packaging design can be viewed in four different ways: a means of protecting the contents of a package a contributor to the cost of the end product a sales canvas on which to promote the products attributes and benefits a part of the product experience itself. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Service design can be both tangible and intangible. ...

Communications Experience design is an approach to the design of products, services and environments based on a holistic consideration of the users experience. ... Game design is the process of designing the content and rules of a game. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Software design is the process that starts from a problem for which there is currently no acceptable (software) solution, and ends when such a solution has been created. ... “Software development” redirects here. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Computer stubs ... User experience design is a subset of the field of experience design which pertains to the creation of the architecture and interaction models which impact a users perception of a device or system. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For Wikipedias accessibility guideline, see Wikipedia:Accessibility. ... Web design is a process of conceptualization, planning, modeling, and execution of electronic media content delivery via Internet in the form of Markup language suitable for interpretation by Web browser and display as Graphical user interface (GUI). ...

Scientific and mathematical Book design refers to the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design, and sequence of the various components of a book into a coherent whole. ... Color psychology is a field of study devoted to analyzing the effect of color on human behavior and feeling, distinct from phototherapy (the use of ultraviolet light to cure infantile jaundice). ... Communication design is a sub-discipline of design (sometimes referred to as Graphic Design) which is concerned with how media intermission such as, print and digital pieces of work communicate with people in a visual way. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Graphics are often utilitarian and anonymous,[1] as these pictographs from the US National Park Service illustrate. ... Information design has been defined as the art and science of preparing information so that it can be used by human beings with efficiency and effectiveness (Jacobson 2000). ... Instructional design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... News design. ... Production designer is a term used in the movie industry to refer to the person with the responsibility for designing the sets and costumes and choosing locations, and thus for creating the overall visual appearance of a film. ... Sound design is a technical/conceptually creative field. ... Technical theatre describes the creation and execution of those aspects of theatre which are beyond performance, including the creation of the physical environment, sound elements, and special effects. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... Visual communication is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon. ...

Physical Combinatorial design theory is the part of combinatorial mathematics that deals with the existence and construction of systems of finite sets whose intersections have specified numerical properties. ... The first statistician to consider a methodology for the design of experiments was Sir Ronald A. Fisher. ...

An architectural designer is an architect that is primarily involved in the design of buildings or urban landscapes, as opposed to the construction documents and management required to construct it. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Designers at work in 1961. ... Cellular Manufacturing is a model for workplace design, and is an integral part of lean manufacturing systems. ... Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum. ... Glass ball made By Tyler Hopkins. ... Design engineer is a general term that covers multiple engineering disciplines: Electrical, mechanical and civil engineering are the basic three. ... Environmental design is the process of addressing environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. ... --76. ... Floral design is the art of using materials and flowers found in nature to create a pleasing and balanced composition for the enjoyment of people. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... Garden design is the art and process of designing the layout and planting of domestic gardens and landscapes. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... It has been suggested that Interior decoration be merged into this article or section. ... The art of using what people have in their homes to transform their spaces, without the need to purchasing new furniture. ... Central Park, like all parks, is an example of landscape architecture. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Sustainable design (also referred to as green design, eco-design, or design for environment) is the art of designing physical objects and the built environment to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Design approaches and methods

Co-Design is a philosophy in the american pragmatist tradtion, which argues that all people have different ideals and perspectives and that any design process needs to deal with this. ... Creative Problem Solving begins when knowledge and simply thinking about a problem fails. ... Creativity techniques are heuristic methods to facilitate creativity in a person or a group of people. ... Design-Build(D-B) is a project delivery method in which the agency or owner holds a single contract with a single entity for both the design and construction of a project. ... Under the label Design for X a wide collection of specific design guidelines are summarized. ... Design management refers to an approach whereby organizations make design-relevant decisions in a market and customer-oriented way as well as optimizing design-relevant (enterprise-)processes. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The engineering design process is a process used by engineers to help develop products. ... An error-tolerant design is one that does not unduly penalize user errors. ... Fault-tolerance or graceful degradation is the property of a system that continues operating properly in the event of failure of some of its parts. ... Functional design is a design pattern used to simplify the design of computer software and increasingly, 3D modeling. ... MetaDesign is an influential German design consultancy founded by Erik Spiekermann. ... A hand-drawn mind map A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea. ... Open Design is a term that applies to the investigation and potential of open source and the collaborative nature of the internet to create physical objects. ... Participatory design is an approach to design that attempts to actively involve the end users in the design process to help ensure that the product designed meets their needs and is usable. ... Reliable system design is the design of systems with high levels of reliability and availability. ... TRIZ (IPA: ) is a romanized acronym for Russian “” () meaning Theory of solving inventive problems or Theory of inventive problem solving. It was developed by Soviet engineer and researcher Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues starting in 1946. ... Universal design, which is related to inclusive design and design for all, is an approach to the design of products, services and environments to be usable by as many people as possible regardless of age, ability or situation. ... User innovation refers to innovations developed by consumers and end users, rather than manufacturers. ...

Other design related topics

Design organizations

Design tools ED-Awards emblem European Design Awards (Also ED-Awards) is a Paneuropean institution consisting of an awards scheme, a conference and an annual catalogue for the European communication design industry. ... Logo of the Chartered Society of Designers The Chartered Society of Designers (CSD), headquartered in London, England, is the professional body for designers. ... The Design Association (DA) The Design Association accredits design businesses and in-house design teams based on a set of design and business criteria that have been researched and identified as markers of best practice and key factors in commissioning design services. ...

Design as intellectual property CADD and CAD redirect here. ... Graphic organizers are visual representations of knowledge, concepts or ideas. ...

Impact of design Industrial design rights are intellectual property rights that protect the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian. ... weener ... Industrial design rights in the European Union are protected by a double system of national and Union-wide protection. ...

Studying design Creative Industries (or sometimes Creative Economy) refers to a set of interlocking industry sectors, and are often cited as being a growing part of the global economy. ... American cultural icons. ...

Critical design, popularized by Tony Dunne and Fiona Raby, uses designed artifacts as an embodied critique or commentary on consumer culture. ... Design research emerged as a recognisable field of study in the 1960s, initially marked by a conference on Design methods at Imperial College, London, in 1962. ... The concept of wicked problems was originally proposed by H. J. Rittel (a pioneering theorist of design and planning, and late professor at the University of California, Berkeley) and M. Webber (1) in a seminal treatise for social planning. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Design

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Holm, Ivar (2006). Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial design: How attitudes, orientations and underlying assumptions shape the built environment. Oslo School of Architecture and Design. ISBN 8254701741.
  2. ^ CROSS, N., 2006. T211 Design and Designing: Block 2, page 99. Milton Keynes: The Open University.
  3. ^ Mark Gettlien, Living With Art, 8th ed. (New York: 2008) 121.
  4. ^ American Psychological Association (APA): design. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved January 10, 2007, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/design
  5. ^ American Psychological Association (APA): engineering. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved January 10, 2007, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/engineering
  6. ^ Examines the role of embedded behaviour in human environments.
  7. ^ Concerns the existence and construction of mathematical set systems that have specified numerical properties.
  8. ^ Actively involving users in the design process.
  9. ^ Drafting and other forms of modelling.
  10. ^ Includes economic, environmental and political issues.
Technical drawing, also known as drafting, is the practice of creating accurate representations of objects for technical, architectural and engineering needs. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...

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