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Encyclopedia > Desertification
Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea

Desertification (or desertization) is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting primarily from human activities and influenced by climatic variations. Current desertification is taking place much faster worldwide than historically and usually arises from the demands of increased populations that settle on the land in order to grow crops and graze animals. The National Labor Relations Board, an agency within the United States government, was created in 1935 as part of the National Labor Relations Act. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 569 KB) Summary Abandoned ship on the bed of the Aral Sea. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 569 KB) Summary Abandoned ship on the bed of the Aral Sea. ... The Gay Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... ((( Look at me im king of the world. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... Semi-arid generally describes climatic regions that receive low annual rainfall (250-500 mm or 10-20 in) and have predominantly shrub or short-grass vegetation. ... The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ...


A major impact of desertification is biodiversity loss and loss of productive capacity, for example, by transition from land dominated by perennial grasses to one dominated by perennial shrubs. In the southwestern deserts of the United States, semiarid ecosystems dominated by perennial bunchgrasses, including blue grama and black grama, have been replaced by shrublands dominated by creosotebush since the early 1900s. The change in vegetation is thought to have induced desertification in this region. In Madagascar's central highland plateau, 10% of the entire country has been lust to desertification due to slash and burn agriculture by indigenous peoples. In Africa, if current trends of soil degradation continue, the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025, according to UNU's Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa.[1] Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Productive capacity is a term used to define maximum possible output of an economy. ... Binomial name Bouteloua gracilis Steud. ... Binomial name Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr. ... Creosote bush in foreground, Kilbourne hole NM in background, and more creosote bushes stretching to the horizon The Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata, formerly Larrea divaricata) is an evergreen shrub of the Zygophyllaceae family. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... United Nations University (UNU) is a university established on December 6, 1973 by adoption of resolution 3081 by the United Nations General Assembly, upon the suggestion of U Thant, UN Secretary-General at the time. ...

Contents

Causes

Landsat image of sand dunes advancing on Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania.

Desertification is induced by several factors, primarily anthropogenic beginning the Holocene era. The primary reasons for ver cultivation, incorrect irrigation methods, deforestation, overdrafting of groundwater, increased soil salinity, and global climate change.[2] Image File history File links Nouakchott_SandDunesEncroaching. ... Image File history File links Nouakchott_SandDunesEncroaching. ... The Landsat program is the longest running enterprise for acqusition of imagery of Earth from space. ... Nouakchott department Nouakchott (Arabic: ‎ or ‎ [alleged translation from Berber The place of the winds] Nawākšūṭ) is the capital and by far the largest city of Mauritania, and is Saharas largest city if one excludes marginal cases like Cairo (in the Nile River Delta) and the cities north of... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Overdrafting is the process of extracting groundwater beyond the safe yield or equilibrium yield of the aquifer. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with soil salination. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


Deserts may be separated from surrounding, less arid areas by mountains and other contrasting landforms that reflect fundamental structural differences in the terrain. In other areas, desert fringes form a gradual transition from a dry to a more humid environment, making it more subtle to determine the desert border. These transition zones can have fragile, delicately balanced ecosystems. Desert fringes often are a mosaic of microclimates. Small hollows support vegetation that picks up heat from the hot winds and protects the land from the prevailing winds. After rainfall the vegetated areas are distinctly cooler than the surroundings. A landform comprises a geomorphological unit, and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of the terrain, and as such, is typically an element of topography. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Microclimate on rock located in intertidal zone on rock at Sunrise-on Sea Tree ferns thrive in a protected dell at the Lost Gardens of Heligan, in Cornwall, England, latitude 50° 15N A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area. ... Wind is the quasi-horizontal movement of air (as opposed to an air current) caused by a horizontal pressure gradient force. ...


In these marginal areas anti-human (alien) activity may stress the ecosystem beyond its tolerance limit, resulting in degradation of the land. By pounding the soil with their hooves, livestock compact the substrate, increase the proportion of fine material, and reduce the percolation rate of the soil, thus encouraging erosion by wind and water. Grazing and collection of firewood reduce or eliminate plants that bind the soil and prevent erosion. All these come about due to the trend towards settling in one area instead of a nomadic culture. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... In chemistry and other physical sciences, percolation is a type of filtering. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ...


Sand dunes can encroach on human habitats. Sand dunes move through a few different means, all of them assisted by wind. One way that dunes can move is through saltation, where sand particles skip along the ground like a rock thrown across a pond might skip across the water's surface. When these skipping particles land, they may knock into other particles and cause them to skip as well. With slightly stronger winds, particles collide in mid-air, causing sheet flows. In a major dust storm, dunes may move tens of meters through such sheet flows. And like snow, sand avalanches, falling down the steep slopes of the dunes that face away from the winds, also moving the dunes forward. This article is about the sand formations, for other meanings see Dune (disambiguation) Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian (wind-related) processes. ... In geology, saltation (from Latin, saltus, leap) refers to a bouncing-like motion when alluvium is dislodged from the streambed, travels in a parabolic path through the stream water, and then impacts back on to the bed. ... “Sandstorm” redirects here. ... A Himalayan avalanche near Mount Everest. ...


It is a common misconception that droughts by themselves cause desertification. While drought is a contributing factor, the root causes are all related to man's overexploitation of the environment. There is no geological evidence that deserts expanded significantly before the advent of civilization. Droughts are common in arid and semiarid lands, and well-managed lands can recover from drought when the rains return. Continued land abuse during droughts, however, increases land degradation. Increased population and livestock pressure on marginal lands has accelerated desertification. In some areas, nomads moving to less arid areas disrupt the local ecosystem and increase the rate of erosion of the land. Nomads typically try to escape the desert, but because of their land-use practices, they are bringing the desert with them. Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ...


Some arid and semi-arid lands can support crops, but additional pressure from greater populations or decreases in rainfall can lead to the few plants present disappearing. The soil becomes exposed to wind, causing soil particles to be deposited elsewhere. The top layer becomes eroded. With the removal of shade, rates of evaporation increase and salts become drawn up to the surface. This increases soil salinity which inhibits plant growth. The loss of plants causes less moisture to be retained in the area, which may change the climate pattern leading to lower rainfall. Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Vaporization redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with soil salination. ...


This degradation of formerly productive land is a complex process. It involves multiple causes, and it proceeds at varying rates in different climates. Desertification may intensify a general climatic trend toward greater aridity, or it may initiate a change in local climate. Desertification does not occur in linear, easily mappable patterns. Deserts advance erratically, forming patches on their borders. Areas far from natural deserts can degrade quickly to barren soil, rock, or sand through poor land management. The presence of a nearby desert has no direct relationship to desertification. Unfortunately, an area undergoing desertification is brought to public attention only after the process is well under way. Often little data are available to indicate the previous state of the ecosystem or the rate of degradation.


Combating desertification is complex and difficult, usually impossible without alteration of land management practises that led to the desertification. Over-exploitation of the land and climate variations can have identical impacts and be connected in feedbacks, which makes it very difficult to choose the right mitigation strategy. Investigating the historic desertification plays a special role since it allows better distinguishing of human and natural factors. In this context, recent research about historic desertification in Jordan questions the dominant role of man. It seems possible that current measures like reforestation projects cannot achieve their goals if global warming continues. Forests may die when it gets drier, and more frequent extreme events as testified in sediments from earlier periods could become a threat for agriculture, water supply, and infrastructure. The Mediterranean and its transition zones to the deserts are characterised by impressive Roman and Byzantine ruins, which are subject of discussion how these magnificient cities could be deserted. ...


Prehistoric patterns

Desertification is a historic phenomenon; the world's great deserts were formed by natural processes interacting over long intervals of time. During most of these times, deserts have grown and shrunk independent of human activities. Paleodeserts, large sand seas now inactive because they are stabilized by vegetation, some extending beyond the present margins of core deserts, such as the Sahara. Many deserts in western Asia arose because of an overpopulation of prehistoric species and subspecies during the late Cretaceous era. Issaouane Erg, Algeria. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ...


Dated fossil pollen indicates that today's Sahara desert has been changing between desert and fertile savanna. Studies also show that prehistorically the advance and retreat of deserts tracked yearly rainfall, whereas a pattern of increasing amounts of desert began with human-driven activities of overgrazing and deforestation. Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... This article is about arid terrain. ... This article is about grassland. ... // In the dictionary and agriculture, overgrazing is when plants are exposed to grazing for too long, or without sufficient recovery periods. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ...


A chief difference of prehistoric versus present desertification is the much greater rate of desertification than in prehistoric and geologic time scales, due to anthropogenic influences. Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ...


Historical and current desertification

See also: Timeline of environmental events

Overgrazing and to a lesser extent drought in the 1930s transformed parts of the Great Plains in the United States into the "Dust Bowl". During that time, a considerable fraction of the plains population abandoned their homes to escape the unproductive lands. Improved agricultural and water management have prevented a disaster of the earlier magnitude from recurring, but desertification presently affects tens of millions of people with primary occurrence in the lesser developed countries. The timeline of environmental events is a historical account of events that have shaped humanitys perspective on the environment. ... // In the dictionary and agriculture, overgrazing is when plants are exposed to grazing for too long, or without sufficient recovery periods. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Farmer and two sons during a dust storm, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, 1936 The Dust Bowl, or the dirty thirties, was a period of horrible dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940), caused by severe... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...

Lake Chad in a 2001 satellite image, with the actual lake in blue. The lake has shrunk by 95% since the 1960s.[3]

Desertification is widespread in many areas of the People's Republic of China. The populations of rural areas have increased since 1949 for political reasons as more people have settled there. While there has been an increase in livestock, the land available for grazing has decreased. Also the importing of European cattle such as Friesian and Simmental, which have higher food intakes, has made things worse. Description: A composite of images showing the diminishing Lake Chad from 1973 to 2001. ... Description: A composite of images showing the diminishing Lake Chad from 1973 to 2001. ... Lake Chad (in French: Lac Tchad) is a large, shallow lake in Africa. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... The Holstein, or Friesian as it is known in the UK, is a cattle breed used in dairy farming. ...


Human overpopulation is leading to destruction of tropical wet forests and tropical dry forests, due to widening practices of slash-and-burn and other methods of subsistence farming necessitated by famines in lesser developed countries. A sequel to the deforestation is typically large scale erosion, loss of soil nutrients and sometimes total desertification. Examples of this extreme outcome can be seen on Madagascar's central highland plateau, where about seven percent of the country's total land mass has become barren, sterile land. Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests and tropical rainforests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ... Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ...


Overgrazing has made the Rio Puerco Basin of central New Mexico one of the most eroded river basins of the western United States and has increased the high sediment content of the river.[4] Overgrazing is also an issue with some regions of South Africa such as the Waterberg Massif, although restoration of native habitat and game has been pursued vigorously since about 1980. // In the dictionary and agriculture, overgrazing is when plants are exposed to grazing for too long, or without sufficient recovery periods. ... The Rio Puerco is a river in the American state of New Mexico. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... River gorge in the Lapalala Wilderness, Waterberg, South Africa, showing horizontal sandstone layering. ...


Another example of desertification occurring is in the Sahel. The chief cause of desertification in the Sahel is slash-and-burn farming practised by an expanding human population.[5] The Sahara is expanding south at an average rate of 30 miles per year.[6] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...


The Desert of Maine is a 40 acre dune of glacial silt near Freeport, Maine. Overgrazing and soil erosion exposed the cap of the dune, revealing the desert as a small patch that continued to grow, overtaking the land. The site is maintained as a tourist attraction.[7] The Desert of Maine is a 40-acre tract of exposed sand in pine forest near Freeport, Maine. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... Freeport in 2003 Freeport is a town in Cumberland County, Maine, United States. ...


Ghana[8] and Nigeria currently experience desertification; in the latter, desertification overtakes about 1,355 square miles (3,510 km²) of land per year. The Central Asian countries, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are also affected. More than 80% of Afghanistan's land could be subject to soil erosion and desertification.[9] In Kazakhstan, nearly half of the cropland has been abandoned since 1980. In Iran, sand storms were said to have buried 124 villages in Sistan and Baluchestan Province in 2002, and they had to be abandoned. In Latin America, Mexico and Brazil are affected by desertification.[10] Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... Sistān o BalÅ«chestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Countering desertification

Desertification has been recognized as a major threat to biodiversity. Numerous countries have developed Biodiversity Action Plans to counter its effects, particularly in relation to the protection of endangered flora and fauna. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ...


A number of solutions have been tried in order to reduce the rate of desertification and regain lost land; however, most measures treat symptoms of sand movement and do not address the root causes of land modification such as overgrazing and unsustainable farming. Leguminous plants, which extracts nitrogen from the air and fixes it in the soil, can be planted to restore fertility. Stones stacked around the base of trees collect morning dew and help retain soil moisture. Artificial grooves can be dug in the ground to retain rainfall and trap wind-blown seeds. In Iran, petroleum is being sprayed over semi-arid cropland. This coats seedlings to prevent moisture loss and stop them being blown away. Windbreaks made from trees and bushes to reduce soil erosion and evapotranspiration were widely encouraged by development agencies from the middle of the 1980s in the Sahel area of Africa. // In the dictionary and agriculture, overgrazing is when plants are exposed to grazing for too long, or without sufficient recovery periods. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Petro redirects here. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In developing countries, with many local people using trees for firewood and cooking the problem has become acute. In order to gain further supplies of fuel the local population add more pressure to the depleted forests; adding to the desertification process. Solar ovens and efficient wood burning cook stoves are being advocated as a means to relieving some of this pressure upon the environment. solar oven A solar oven or solar furnace is a way of harnessing the suns power to cook food. ...

Trees are planted instead of sand fences to reduce sand accumulating in a UAE highway.

While desertification has received some publicity by the news media, most people are unaware of the extent of environmental degradation of productive lands and the expansion of deserts. In 1988 Ridley Nelson pointed out that desertification is a subtle and complex process of deterioration. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ...


At the local level, individuals and governments can partially or temporarily forestall desertification. Sand fences are used throughout the Middle East and the US, in the same way snow fences are used in the north. Placement of straw grids, each up to a square meter in area, will also decrease the surface wind velocity. Shrubs and trees planted within the grids are protected by the straw until they take root. However, some studies suggest that planting of trees depletes water supplies in the area. [3] In areas where some water is available for irrigation, shrubs planted on the lower one-third of a dune's windward side will stabilize the dune. This vegetation decreases the wind velocity near the base of the dune and prevents much of the sand from moving. Higher velocity winds at the top of the dune level it off and trees can be planted atop these flattened surfaces. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A snow fence is a structure used to force drifing of snow to occur in a predictable place, rather than in a more natural method. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ...

A row of tree fences along the highway. Plants with fine leaves can trap sand.

Oases and farmlands in windy regions can be protected by planting tree fences or grass belts. Sand that manages to pass through the grass belts can be caught in strips of trees planted as wind breaks 50 to 100 meters apart adjacent to the belts. Small plots of trees may also be scattered inside oases to stabilize the area. On a much larger scale, a "Green Wall of China", which will eventually stretch more than 5,700 kilometers in length, nearly as long as the Great Wall of China, is being planted in north-eastern China to protect "sandy lands" – deserts created by human activity. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 838 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Authors own picture. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 838 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Authors own picture. ... The Green Wall of China will be a human-planted forest in China, designed to hold back the Gobi Desert. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th...


Africa, with coordination from Senegal, has launched its own "gree wall" project[11]. Trees will be planted on a 15 km wide land strip from Senegal to Djibouti. Aside from countering desert progression, the project is also aimed at creating new economic activities, especially thanks to tree products such as gum arabic [12] Acacia senegal plant from Koehlers Medicinal-Plants 1887 Gum arabic, a natural gum also called gum acacia, is a substance that is taken from two sub-Saharan species of the acacia tree, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. ...


More efficient use of existing water resources and control of salinization are other effective tools for improving arid lands. New ways are being sought to use surface-water resources such as rain water harvesting or irrigating with seasonal runoff from adjacent highlands. New ways are also being sought to find groundwater resources and to develop more effective ways of irrigating arid and semiarid lands. Research on the reclamation of deserts is also focusing on discovering proper crop rotation to protect the fragile soil, on understanding how sand-fixing plants can be adapted to local environments, and on how grazing lands and water resources can be developed effectively without being overused.


See also

This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Ecological Engineering is the emerging field of the use of ecological processes within natural or constructed imitation of natural systems to achieve engineering goals. ... A micrograph image of Rhodococcus sp. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Subsistence farmers with a Treadle Pump. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... Map of countries and territories by fertility rate Graph of Total Fertility Rates vs. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This is a list of topics related (in whole or in part) to (a) phenomena in the natural environment which have a definite or significantly possible connection with human activity or (b) features of human activity which have a definite or significantly possible connection with the natural environment, even if... This is an incomplete list of major famines, ordered by date. ... The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa is an agreement to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Niger vegetation maps. ... Affected countries The 2006 Horn of Africa food crisis is an acute shortage of food affecting four Horn of Africa countries: Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti and Ethiopia. ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... For other uses, see Disaster (disambiguation). ...

External links and references

  1. ^ Africa may be able to feed only 25% of its population by 2025
  2. ^ E.O. Wilson, The Future of Life, 2001
  3. ^ Shrinking African Lake Offers Lesson on Finite Resources
  4. ^ "Desertification", United States Geological Survey (1997)
  5. ^ "Desertification - a threat to the Sahel", August 1994
  6. ^ Hunger is spreading in Africa
  7. ^ Maura J. Casey. The Little Desert That Grew in Maine. New York Times (2006-09-22).
  8. ^ "Ghana: Threats of Desertification Must Be Taken Seriously", Public Agenda (allAfrica.com), May 21, 2007.
  9. ^ Afghanistan: Environmental crisis looms as conflict goes on
  10. ^ Lester R. Brown, "The Earth Is Shrinking: Advancing Deserts and Rising Seas Squeezing Civilization", Earth Policy Institute, November 15, 2006.
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ FAO : [2]
  • Benjaminsen, Tor A., and Gunvor Berge (2000). Timbuktu: myter, menneske, miljø. Oslo: Spartakus forlag.
  • The Earth Is Shrinking: Advancing Deserts and Rising Seas Squeezing Civilization
  • Desert Research Institute, Nevada
  • Educational Quiz on the UN Year to Combat Desertification
  • Desertification.Info - IOSD/CED^R Center on Ecological Desertification and Reforestation
  • Eden Foundation article on desertification
  • FAO Information Portal - Properties and Management of Drylands
  • Geist, Helmut (2005): The Causes and Progression of Desertification, Abingdon: Ashgate
  • Lucke, Bernhard (2007): Demise of the Decapolis. Past and Present Desertification in the Context of Soil Development, Land Use, and Climate. Online: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:co1-opus-3431
  • GTZ CCD Project - A key player in combating desertification and drought effects
  • Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005): Desertification Synthesis Report
  • Reynolds, James F., and D. Mark Stafford Smith (ed.) (2002): Global Desertification – Do Humans Cause Deserts? Dahlem Workshop Report 88, Berlin: Dahlem University Press.
  • Stock, Robert (1995). Africa South of the Sahara. New York: The Guilford Press.
  • UNEP (2006): Global Deserts Outlook
  • UNEP Programme on Success Stories in Land Degradation/ Desertification Control
  • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification - Secretariat
  • Rural poverty and desertification on the Rural Poverty Portal
  • A guide for desert and dryland restoration By David A. Bainbridge
  • OUTGROWING THE EARTH: The Food Security Challenge in an Age of Falling Water Tables by Lester R. Brown
  • Fighting Desertification Through Conservation Report on a project to stop the advance of the Sahara in Algeria - IPS, 27 February 2007
  • Soil-Net.com A free schools-age educational site, featuring much on desertification, teaching about soil and its importance.

This article incorporates text from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/deserts/desertification/, a public domain work of the United States Government. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image needed Neil J. Smelser was a University of California, Berkeley sociologist who studied collective behavior. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... A conceptual outline for the program The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) is a research program that focuses on ecosystem changes over the course of decades, and projecting those changes into the future. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the state. ... Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ... The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa is an agreement to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements. ... Inter Press Service (abbreviated: IPS) is a global news agency. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... A work of the United States government, as defined by United States copyright law, is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the U.S. government as part of that persons official duties. ...

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