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Encyclopedia > Desensitization

Desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organism's negative reaction to a substance or stimulus.

In medicine

For example, if a person with This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. The other major but far less common diabetes is diabetes insipidus (water diabetes, DI). Diabetes mellitus is a medical disorder characterized by varying or persistent hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar levels), especially after eating. All types of diabetes mellitus share... diabetes mellitus has a bad This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. This article deals specifically with IgE mediated hypersensitivity. For other types of allergic or hypersensitive reactions see the main article: Hypersensitivity An allergy or Type I hypersensitivity is a immune malfunction whereby a... allergic reaction to taking a full 1. n An amount of medication to be taken at one time. 2. n An amount of radiation received. 3. v To give a dose of medicine to somebody, or to measure an amount for this. 4. n An album by the jam band Govt Mule. See Dose (album... dose of beef The structure of insulin Red: carbon; green: oxygen; blue: nitrogen; pink: sulfur. The blue/purple ribbons denote the skeleton [-N-C-C-]n in the proteins amino acid sequence H-[-NH-CHR-CO-]n-OH where R is the part protruding from the skeleton in each amino acid. Insulin... insulin, the doctor gives the person a very small amount of the insulin at first. Over a period of time, larger doses are given until the person is taking the full dose. This is one way to help the body get used to the full dose and to avoid having the allergic reaction to beef-origin insulin.

In Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. If these substances have medicinal properties, they are referred to as pharmaceuticals. The field encompasses drug composition, drug properties, interactions, toxicology, and desirable effects that can be used in... pharmacology, desensitization is the loss of responsiveness to the continuing or increasing dose of a drug. Also termed Tachyphylaxis is the diminution of a pharmacological response during the continued or repeated administration of an activating substance. Tachyphylaxis or receptor desensitization appears counterintuitive because the addition of more of an activating ligand lessens the elicited response. See also desensitization or physiological tolerance. Categories: Pharmacodynamics ... tachyphylaxis, down-regulation, fade or Drug tolerance occurs when a subjects reaction to a drug (such as a painkiller or intoxicant) decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect. In addicted patients, the resulting pattern of uncontrolled escalating doses may lead to drug overdose. Tolerance may be related to the... drug tolerance. See also In physiology, tolerance occurs when an organism builds up a resistance to the effects of a substance after repeated exposure. This can occur with environmental substances such as salt or pesticides. It is also commonly encountered in pharmacology, when a subjects reaction to a drug (such as a painkiller... physiological tolerance.

In psychology

In Psychology Areas Cognition Development Disorder Emotion Perception Personality Self Social Approaches Behavioral Biological Cognitive Evolutionary Humanistic Psychodynamic Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. It is largely concerned with humans, although the behaviour and thought of other animals is also studied... psychology, desensitization (or graduated exposure therapy) is a process for mitigating the harmful effects of The term phobia, which comes from the Ancient Greek word for fear (φόβος, fobos), denotes a number of psychological and physiological conditions that can range from serious disabilities to common fears to minor quirks. Phobias are the most common form of anxiety disorder. An American study... phobias or other disorders. It also occurs when an emotional response is repeatedly evoked in situations in which the action tendency that is associated with the emotion proves irrelevant or unnecessary. Agoraphobia is a form of anxiety disorder. The name is literally translated as a fear of the marketplace, from the Greek agora, and thus of open or public spaces. Many people suffering from agoraphobia, however, are not afraid of the open spaces themselves, but of situations often associated with these... Agoraphobics, who fear open spaces and social gatherings outside their own home, may be gradually led to increase their interaction with the outside world by putting them in situations that are uncomfortable but not panic-provoking for them. Mastering their anxiety in very small doses can allow them to take greater steps to self-reliance. Desensitization can be an alternative or a supplement to anxiety-reducing medication.

In animals

Animals can also be desensitized to their rational or irrational fears. A Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. It is often inextricably associated with the activity... race horse who fears the starting gate can be desensitized to the fearful elements (the creak of the gate, the starting bell, the enclosed space) one at a time, in small doses or at a distance.

  Results from FactBites:
Regulation of alpha 4beta 2 Nicotinic Receptor Desensitization by Calcium and Protein Kinase C -- Fenster et al. 55 ... (6356 words)
Desensitization onset and recovery are described by double exponentials (dashed lines) with time constants (and relative amplitudes) indicated.
Cachelin AB and Colquhoun D (1989) Desensitization of the acetylcholine receptor of frog end-plates measured in a Vaseline-gap voltage clamp.
Khiroug L, Sokolova E, Giniatullin R, Afzalov R and Nistri A (1998) Recovery from desensitization of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of rat chromaffin cells is modulated by intracellular calcium through distinct second messengers.
Dependence of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Recovery from Desensitization on the Duration of Agonist Exposure -- ... (3829 words)
A response to a 1-s desensitizing pulse of ACh (trace d) is shown on the left followed by responses to test pulses of ACh applied 10 s (trace 1), 40 s (trace 2), 80 s (trace 3), 120 s (trace 4), or 200 s (trace 5) after a desensitizing pulse.
Recovery pulses were elicited with the same agonist used for induction of desensitization (ordinate, normalized to the peak current produced during the desensitizing pulse) as a function of time interval between desensitizing and test pulses (abscissa, seconds).
1 except that the agonist used for the desensitizing pulse was different from the agonist used in the test pulses during the recovery phase.
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