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Encyclopedia > Descriptive statistics

Descriptive Statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data gathered from an experimental study in various ways. They provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis, they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data. It is necessary to be familiar with primary methods of describing data in order to understand phenomena and make intelligent decisions. Various techniques that are commonly used are classified as: For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ...

• Graphical displays of the data in which graphs summarize the data or facilitate comparisons.
• Tabular description in which tables of numbers summarize the data.
• Summary statistics (single numbers) which summarize the data.

In general, statistical data can be briefly described as a list of subjects or units and the data associated with each of them. Although most research uses many data types for each unit, this introduction treats only the simplest case.

There may be two objectives for formulating a summary statistic:

1. To choose a statistic that shows how different units seem similar. Statistical textbooks call one solution to this objective, a measure of central tendency.
2. To choose another statistic that shows how they differ. This kind of statistic is often called a measure of statistical variability.

When summarizing a quantity like length or weight or age, it is common to answer the first question with the arithmetic mean, the median, or, in case of an unimodal distribution, the mode. Sometimes, we choose specific values from the cumulative distribution function called quantiles. A statistic (singular) is the result of applying a statistical algorithm to a set of data. ... In statistics, central tendency is an average of a set of measurements, the word average being variously construed as mean, median, or other measure of location, depending on the context. ... A statistic (singular) is the result of applying a statistical algorithm to a set of data. ... In descriptive statistics, statistical dispersion (also called statistical variability) is quantifiable variation of measurements of differing members of a population within the scale on which they are measured. ... In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean (or simply the mean) of a list of numbers is the sum of all the members of the list divided by the number of items in the list. ... This article is about the statistical concept. ... In statistics, mode means the most frequent value assumed by a random variable, or occurring in a sampling of a random variable. ... In probability theory, the cumulative distribution function (abbreviated cdf) completely describes the probability distribution of a real-valued random variable, X. For every real number x, the cdf is given by where the right-hand side represents the probability that the random variable X takes on a value less than... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

The most common measures of variability for quantitative data are the variance; its square root, the standard deviation; the range; interquartile range; and the average absolute deviation (average deviation). Quantitative data is data measured or identified on a numerical scale. ... This article is about mathematics. ... In probability and statistics, the standard deviation of a probability distribution, random variable, or population or multiset of values is a measure of statistical dispersion of its values. ... In descriptive statistics, the range is the length of the smallest interval which contains all the data. ... In descriptive statistics, the interquartile range (IQR), also called the midspread and middle fifty is the range between the third and first quartiles and is a measure of statistical dispersion. ... The absolute deviation of an element of a data set is the absolute difference between that element and a given point. ...

When formulating a graphical display to summarise a dataset, the same two objectives may apply. A simple example of a graphical technique is a histogram, in which the central tendency and statistical variability can both be visualised. For the histograms usage in digital image processing, see Image histogram and Color histogram. ... In statistics, central tendency is an average of a set of measurements, the word average being variously construed as mean, median, or other measure of location, depending on the context. ... In descriptive statistics, statistical dispersion (also called statistical variability) is quantifiable variation of measurements of differing members of a population within the scale on which they are measured. ...

Steps in descriptive statistics GA_googleFillSlot("encyclopedia_square");

1. Collect data
2. Classify data
3. Summarize data
4. Present data
5. Proceed to inferential statistics if there are enough data to draw a conclusion.

In Christian liturgy, a collect is both a liturgical action and a short, general prayer. ... For Wikipedias categorization projects, see Wikipedia:Categorization. ... Statistical classification is a procedure in which individual items are placed into groups based on quantitative information on one or more characteristics inherent in the items (referred to as traits, variables, characters, etc) and based on a training set of previously labeled items. ... For other uses, see Presentation (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with statistical inference. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... A conclusion is a final proposition, which is arrived at after the consideration of evidence, arguments or premises. ...

Footnotes

1. ^ Sternstein, Martin (1996). Statistics. Barrons, p. 1. ISBN 0-8120-9311-9.

The level of measurement of a variable in mathematics and statistics is a classification that was proposed in order to describe the nature of information contained within numbers assigned to objects and, therefore, within the variable. ... Statistical regularity is a notion in statistics that if we throw a thumbtack onto a table once, we would have a hard time predicting whether the point would touch the surface of the table or not. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with inferential statistics. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with statistical inference. ... In descriptive statistics, summary statistics are used to summarize a set of observations, in order to communicate as much as possible as simply as possible. ... Data mining is the process of sorting through large amounts of data and picking out relevant information. ... Results from FactBites:

 Statistics - Conservapedia (1192 words) Statistics analyzes data in two primary ways, the first is called descriptive statistics which describes and summarizes the data. Statistics takes its name from the fact that it was traditionally taught to monarchs to enable them to manage affairs of state. Frequentist approaches to inferential statistics primarily involve trying to compare descriptive statistics of two data sets to determine if they are significantly different.
 Descriptive Statistics (1682 words) Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. Descriptive statistics are typically distinguished from inferential statistics. Descriptive Statistics are used to present quantitative descriptions in a manageable form.
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