FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Der Ring des Nibelungen
Operas by Richard Wagner
v  d  e

Die Hochzeit (1832)
Die Feen (1833)
Das Liebesverbot (1836)
Rienzi (1840)
Der fliegende Holländer (1843)
Tannhäuser (1845)
Lohengrin (1848)
Der Ring des Nibelungen: Das Rheingold (1854)
Der Ring des Nibelungen: Die Walküre (1856)
Tristan und Isolde (1859)
Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (1867)
Der Ring des Nibelungen: Siegfried (1871)
Der Ring des Nibelungen: Götterdämmerung (1874)
Parsifal (1882) Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Die Hochzeit (The Wedding) is an unfinished opera by Richard Wagner. ... // History Die Feen (The Fairies) is one of Richard Wagners earlier operas. ... Das Liebesverbot (The Ban on Love) is an early opera by Richard Wagner. ... Rienzi, der Letzte der Tribunen (Rienzi, the Last of the Tribunes) is an early opera by Richard Wagner in five acts, with the libretto written by the composer after Bulwer-Lyttons novel of the same name. ... The Flying Dutchman (German title: Der fliegende Holländer) is an opera, music and libretto by Richard Wagner. ... Tannhäuser or Tannhäuser und der Sängerkrieg auf die Wartburg (Tannhäuser and the Singers Contest on the Wartburg) is an opera in three acts, music and text by Richard Wagner, based on the two Germanic legends of Tannhäuser and the song contest at Wartburg. ... Lohengrin is a romantic opera (or music drama) in three acts by Richard Wagner. ... For the famous train, see Rheingold Express. ... Die Walküre (The Valkyrie) is the second of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Straßburg. ... Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Master Singers of Nuremberg) is an opera in three acts, written and composed by Richard Wagner. ... Siegfried is the third of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ...   (Twilight of the Gods – see Notes) is the last of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... Parsifal is an opera, or music drama, in three acts by Richard Wagner. ...

Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. The operas are based loosely on characters from the Norse sagas and the Nibelungenlied. The works are often referred to as "The Ring Cycle", "Wagner's Ring", or simply "The Ring". Literary cycles are groups of stories grouped around common figures, based on mythical figures or loosely on historic ones. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Music drama is the term ascribed to the revolutionary medium of artistic expression created by the German composer Richard Wagner. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ...


Wagner wrote the libretto and music over the course of about twenty-six years, from 1848 to 1874. The four operas that constitute the Ring cycle are, in the order of the imagined events they portray: Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...

Although individual operas are performed as works in their own right, a full understanding of the story of the Ring cycle requires attendance at all four operas, which was the intention and expectation of the composer. For the famous train, see Rheingold Express. ... Die Walküre (The Valkyrie) is the second of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... Siegfried is the third of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ...   (Twilight of the Gods – see Notes) is the last of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ...

Contents

The Title

Wagner's title is rendered in English as The Ring of the Nibelung. However the word Nibelung frequently confuses English speakers, resulting in misunderstanding of the German title, the English title, or how to use the word outside the title. The word Nibelung is in the singular. The Nibelung of the title is the dwarf Alberich, and the Ring in question is the one he fashions from the Rhinegold. The title therefore means "Alberich's Ring".[1] German Nibelung and the corresponding Old Norse form Niflung (Niflungr) refers in most of the German texts and in all the Old Norse texts to the royal family or lineage of the Burgundians who settled at Worms. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ...


Content

The cycle is a work of extraordinary scale. Perhaps the most outstanding facet of the monumental work is its sheer length: a full performance of the cycle takes place over four nights at the opera, with a total playing time of about 15 hours, depending on the conductor's pacing. The first and shortest opera, Das Rheingold, typically lasts two and a half hours, while the final and longest, Götterdämmerung, can take up to five hours in performance. A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ...


The cycle is modelled after ancient Greek dramas that were presented as three tragedies and one satyr play. The Ring properly begins with Die Walküre and ends with Götterdämmerung, with Rheingold as a prelude. Wagner called Das Rheingold a Vorabend or "Preliminary Evening", and Die Walküre, Siegfried and Götterdämmerung were subtitled First Day, Second Day and Third Day, respectively, of the trilogy proper. Greek theatre or Greek Drama came into its own between 600 and 200 BC in the ancient city of Athens. ... Papposilenus playing the crotals, theatrical type of the satyr play, Louvre Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of tragicomedy, similar to the modern-day burlesque style. ... A prelude is a short piece of music, usually in no particular internal form, which may serve as an introduction to succeeding movements of a work that are usually longer and more complex. ...   (Twilight of the Gods – see Notes) is the last of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... A trilogy is a set of three works of art, usually literature or film, that are connected and can be seen as a single work, as well as three individual ones. ...


The scale and scope of the story is epic. It follows the struggles of gods, heroes, and several mythical creatures, over the eponymous magic Ring that grants domination over the entire world. The drama and intrigue continue through three generations of protagonists, until the final cataclysm at the end of Götterdämmerung. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ...


The music of the cycle is thick and richly textured, and grows in complexity as the cycle proceeds. Wagner wrote for an orchestra of gargantuan proportions, including a greatly enlarged brass section with new instruments such as the Wagner tuba, bass trumpet and contrabass trombone. He eventually had a purpose-built theatre (the Bayreuth Festspielhaus) constructed in Bayreuth in which to perform this work. The theatre had a special stage which blended the huge orchestra with the singers' voices, allowing them to sing at a natural volume. The result was that the singers did not have to strain themselves vocally during the long performances. The acoustics of this performance space are among the best in the world. In other performance venues singers sometimes find it difficult to achieve this balance between voice and orchestra[citation needed]. For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... The Wagner tuba is a comparatively rare brass instrument that combines elements of both the horn and the tuba. ... Bass trumpet in C with rotary valves The bass trumpet is a type of low trumpet which was first developed during the 1820s in Germany. ... There are many different types of trombones. ... The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ... Bayreuth [pronounced by-royt] is a town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Frankish Alb and the Fichtelgebirge. ...


Story

Valkyrie from 1971 by Russian artist Konstantin Vasiliev

The plot revolves around a magic ring that grants the power to rule the world, forged by the Nibelung dwarf Alberich from gold stolen from the river Rhine. Several mythic figures struggle for possession of the Ring, including Wotan (Odin), the chief of the Gods. Wotan's scheme, spanning generations, to overcome his limitations, drives much of the action in the story. The hero Siegfried wins the Ring, as Wotan intended, but is eventually betrayed and slain. Finally, the Valkyrie Brünnhilde, Siegfried's lover and Wotan's estranged daughter, returns the Ring to the Rhine. In the process, the Gods are destroyed. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Konstantín Alekséevich Vasíliev (Russian: born September 3, 1942, in Maikop, deceased tragically in 1976) - Russian artist, leaved more then 400 works of art, both paintings and drawings. ... German Nibelung and the corresponding Old Norse form Niflung (Niflungr) refers in most of the German texts and in all the Old Norse texts to the royal family or lineage of the Burgundians who settled at Worms. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... Alberich, by Arthur Rackham. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... For other meanings of Odin,Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sigurd sculpture in Bremen Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr, German: Siegfried) was a legendary hero of Norse mythology, as well as the central character in the Völsunga saga. ... The Valkyries Vigil, by the Pre-Raphaelite painter Edward Robert Hughes. ... Sigurd and Brynhilds funeral In Norse mythology, Brynhildr was a shieldmaiden and a valkyrie. ...


For a detailed plot synopsis, see the articles for the individual operas.


Wagner created the story of the Ring by fusing elements from many German and Scandinavian myths and folk tales. The Old Norse Eddas supplied much of the material for Das Rheingold, while Die Walküre was largely based on the Volsunga saga. Siegfried contains elements from the Eddas, the Volsunga Saga and Thidreks saga. The final opera, Götterdämmerung, draws from the 12th century High German poem known as the Nibelungenlied, which appears to have been the original inspiration for the Ring, and for which the cycle was named. (For a detailed examination of Wagner's sources for the Ring, and his treatment of them, see among other works Deryck Cooke's unfinished study of the Ring, I Saw the World End, and Ernest Newman's Wagner Nights. Also useful is a translation by Stewart Spencer (Wagner's Ring of the Nibelung: Companion, edited by Barry Millington) which, as well as containing essays--including one on the source material--provides an English translation of the entire text which seeks to remain faithful to the early medieval Stabreim technique Wagner used.) For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... The term Edda (Plural: Eddas or Icelandic plural: Eddur) applies to the Old Norse Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, both of which were written down in Iceland during the 13th century, although some of the poems included in them may be centuries older. ... The Ramsund carving in Sweden depicts 1) how Sigurd is sitting naked in front of the fire preparing the dragon heart, from Fafnir, for his foster-father Regin, who is Fafnirs brother. ... Thidreks saga (also Thidreksaga, Thidrekssaga, Niflungasaga) is a saga of the adventures of the hero Dietrich von Bern, believed to be based on the historical Theodoric the Great, and written down about 1250. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... Deryck Cooke (September 14, 1919 - October 27, 1975) was a British musicologist who was born in Leicester. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ...


In weaving these disparate sources into a coherent tale, Wagner injected many contemporary concepts. One of the principal themes in the Ring is the struggle of love, which is also associated with Nature and freedom, against power, which is associated with civilization and law. In the very first scene of the Ring, the scorned dwarf Alberich sets the plot in motion by renouncing love, an act that allows him to acquire the power to rule the world by means of forging a magical ring. In the last scene of that opera this ring of power is taken from him, so he places a curse on it: “Whosoever holds the ring, by the ring they shall be enslaved.” For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... “Natural” redirects here. ... Mohandas K. Gandhi - Freedom can be achieved through inner sovereignty. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Central New York City. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


Since its inception, the Ring has been subjected to a plethora of interpretations. George Bernard Shaw, in The Perfect Wagnerite, argues for a view of the Ring as an essentially socialist critique of industrial society and its abuses. Robert Donington in Wagner's Ring and its Symbols interprets it in terms of Jungian psychology as an account of the development of unconscious archetypes in the mind, leading towards individuation. Peter Kjærulff, in The Ringbearer's Diary, interprets the Ring as an attempt to expose a structure of ideas he refers to as The Cursed Ring, which he also links to J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings and Plato's The Ring of Gyges. George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was an Irish dramatist, literary critic, and socialist. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... In sociology, industrial society refers to a society with a modern societal structure. ... Jungian psychology refers to a school of psychology originating in the ideas of Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and advanced by many other thinkers who followed in his tradition. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... Individuation comprises the processes whereby the undifferentiated becomes or develops individual characteristics, or the opposite process, by which components of an individual are integrated into a more indivisible whole. ... Peter Kjærulff (b. ... The Cursed Ring is a structure of ideas which Danish author Peter Kjaerulff has found to be behind Platos The Ring of Gyges (mentioned in Platos Republic), Richard Wagners Der Ring des Nibelungen and J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. The following is... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... This article is about the novel. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gyges of Lydia. ...


Music

In his previous operas, Wagner had tried to disguise the song breaks as part of the music. For the Ring he decided to adopt a through-composed style, where each act of each opera would be a complete song with no breaks whatsoever. In the essay Opera and Drama, (1852) Wagner describes the way in which poetry, music and the visual arts should combine to form what he called The Artwork of the Future. He called these artworks "music-dramas", and thereafter very rarely referred to his works as operas.[2] Through-composed music is music which is relatively continous, non-sectional, and/or non-repetitive. ...


As a new foundation for his music-dramas, Wagner adopted the use of what he called Grundthemen, or "base themes", although they are usually referred to elsewhere as leitmotifs. These are recurring melodies and/or harmonic progressions, sometimes tied to a particular key and often to a particular orchestration. They musically denote an action, object, emotion, character or other subject mentioned in the text and/or presented onstage. Wagner referred to them in Opera and Drama as "guides-to-feeling", and described how they could be used to inform the listener of a musical or dramatic subtext to the action onstage in the same way as a Greek Chorus did for Attic Drama. While other composers before Wagner had already used leitmotifs, the Ring was unique in the extent to which they were employed, and in the ingeniousness of their combination and development. A leitmotif (also spelled leitmotiv) is a recurring musical theme, associated within a particular piece of music with a particular person, place or idea. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... In music theory, the key identifies the tonic triad, the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section. ... Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed for another medium. ... The Greek chorus (choros) is believed to have grown out of the Greek dithyrambs and tragikon drama in tragic plays of the ancient Greek theatre. ... Greek theatre or Greek Drama came into its own between 600 and 200 BC in the ancient city of Athens. ...


Any important subject in The Ring is usually accompanied by a leitmotif; indeed, there are long stretches of music which are constructed exclusively from them. One such example occurs in Götterdämmerung: Siegfried's journey down the river Rhine is described first through a rhapsody on the Siegfried theme which then merges into the Rhine theme and finally into the motifs denoting the Gibichung Hall. There are dozens of individual motifs scattered throughout the Ring. They often occur as a musical reference to a presentation of their subject onstage, or to a direct reference in the text, or more subtly implied by the text. Many of them appear in several operas, and some even in all four. Sometimes, as in the character of the Woodbird, a cluster of motives is associated with a single character.   (Twilight of the Gods – see Notes) is the last of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ...


As the cycle progresses, and especially from the third act of Siegfried on, these motives are presented in increasingly sophisticated combinations. Wagner also used his father-in-law Franz Liszt's technique of "metamorphosis of themes" to effect a dynamic development of many leitmotifs into quite different ones with a life all of their own. A clear example occurs in the transition from the first to the second scene of Das Rheingold, in which the musical theme associated with the ring of power, newly forged, transforms into that of Valhalla, Wotan's just-completed fortress, intended as a base from which he as chief of the gods can impose his law on the world, embodied by his spear. Thus an implication is made which is left unstated in the libretto; but regardless of how a listener might make the implied connection by associating the "ring" motive with Valhalla (which will be destroyed along with the ring), the burden of the argument at this point is entirely musical. The most important result of this kind of technique is the setting up of an infinitely complex web of musico-conceptual associations which continues to provide material for discussion. Siegfried is the third of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... “Liszt” redirects here. ... For the famous train, see Rheingold Express. ... For other uses, see Valhalla (disambiguation). ...


Aspects of the leitmotif system did attract criticism for being too obvious. Some have misunderstood the function of leitmotives, imagining that they are simply to inform the listener which character, object or idea has just arrived on stage or been mentioned, but this is no more what leitmotives are for than, for example, Debussy wrote "La Mer" to describe the sea to people who hadn't seen it for themselves. Several critics, such as Theodor Adorno in his essay In Search of Wagner, have speculated that Wagner himself did not know how to end the cycle, and merely spun together a few obvious motives. Adorno claimed that the final bars of the Ring (the so-called "Redemption through love" motif) were only used because they were the most beautiful sounding. George Bernard Shaw dismissed this motif, saying "the gushing effect which is its sole valuable quality is so cheaply attained that it is hardly going too far to call it the most trumpery phrase in the entire tetralogy". Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was an Irish dramatist, literary critic, and socialist. ...


The advances in orchestration and tonality Wagner made in this work are of seminal importance in the history of Western music. He wrote for a very large orchestra, with a palette of seventeen different instrumental families used singly or in a myriad of combinations to express the great range of emotion and events of the drama. Wagner even went so far as to commission the production of new instruments, including the Wagner tuba, invented to fill a gap he found between the tone qualities of the French horn and the trombone, as well as variations of existing instruments, such as the bass trumpet and a contrabass trombone with a double slide. Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed for another medium. ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ... The Wagner tuba is a comparatively rare brass instrument that combines elements of both the horn and the tuba. ... Bass trumpet in C with rotary valves The bass trumpet is a type of low trumpet which was first developed during the 1820s in Germany. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ...


In addition Wagner weakened traditional tonality to the extent that most of the Ring, especially from Siegfried Act III onwards, cannot be said to be in traditionally defined "keys", but rather in "key areas", each of which flow smoothly into the following one. This fluidity avoided the musical equivalent of "full stops" or "periods", and was an important part of the style that enabled Wagner to build the work's huge structures - Das Rheingold is unbroken at two-and-a-half hours long. Tonal indeterminacy was heightened by the vastly increased freedom with which he used dissonance. Simple major or minor (i.e. consonant) chords are rare in the Ring, and this work, together with Tristan und Isolde, is frequently cited as a milestone on the way to Arnold Schoenberg's revolutionary break with the traditional concept of key and his rejection of consonance as the basis of an organising principle in music. In music theory, the key identifies the tonic triad, the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section. ... For the famous train, see Rheingold Express. ... Dissonance has several meanings, all related to conflict or incongruity. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Straßburg. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (the anglicized form of Schönberg — Schoenberg changed the spelling officially when he left Germany and re-converted to Judaism in 1933; September 13, 1874 – July 13, 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer. ...


List of Characters

  • The Gods[3]
    • Wotan, King of the Gods (God of light, air, and wind) (bass-baritone)
    • Fricka, Wotan's consort, goddess of marriage (mezzo-soprano)
    • Freia, Fricka's sister, goddess of love/youth (soprano)
    • Donner, Fricka's brother, god of thunder (baritone)
    • Froh, Fricka's brother, god of spring/happiness (tenor)
    • Erda, goddess of wisdom/Earth (contralto)
    • Loge, demigod of fire (tenor in Das Rheingold, represented musically elsewhere)
    • The Norns, the weavers of fate, daughters of Erda (contralto, mezzo-soprano, soprano)
  • The Wälsungs, offspring of Wotan (disguised as Wälse) and a mortal woman
  • The Valkyries, warrior-maidens, daughters of Wotan and Erda
    • Brünnhilde (soprano)
    • Waltraute (mezzo-soprano)
    • Helmwige (soprano)
    • Gerhilde (soprano)
    • Siegrune (mezzo-soprano)
    • Schwertleite (mezzo-soprano)
    • Ortlinde (soprano)
    • Grimgerde (mezzo-soprano)
    • Rossweisse (mezzo-soprano)
  • The Rhinemaidens
    • Woglinde (soprano)
    • Wellgunde (soprano)
    • Flosshilde (contralto)
  • Giants
  • Nibelungs
    • Alberich (baritone)
    • Mime, his brother, and Siegfried's foster father (tenor)
  • Mortals
    • Gunther, King of the Gibichungs, son of King Gibich and Queen Grimhilde (baritone)
    • Gutrune, his sister (soprano)
    • Hagen, their half-brother, son of Alberich and Queen Grimhilde (bass)
    • Hunding, Sieglinde's husband, chief of the Neidings (bass)
  • The Voice of a Woodbird (soprano)

For other meanings of Odin,Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... A bass-baritone is a singing voice that shares certain qualities of both the baritone and the bass. ... Frigg spinning the clouds, by J C Dollman In Norse mythology, Frigg (Eddas) or Frigga (Gesta Danorum) was said to be foremost among the goddesses,[1] the wife of Odin, queen of the Æsir, and goddess of the sky. ... A mezzo-soprano (meaning medium soprano in Italian) is a female singer with a range usually extending from the A below middle C to the F an eleventh above middle C. Mezzo-sopranos generally have a darker (or lower) vocal tone than sopranos, and their vocal range is between that... A statue of Freyja at DjurgÃ¥rden, Stockholm, Sweden. ... This article is about the singing voice part. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... Baritone (French: ; German: ; Italian: ) is most commonly the type of male voice that lies between bass and tenor. ... Freyr is a very important god in Old Norse religion. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... Jord was, in Norse mythology, the goddess of the Earth. ... In music, an alto is a singer with a vocal range somewhere between a tenor and a soprano. ... For other uses, see Loki (disambiguation). ... The Norns spin the threads of fate at the foot of Yggdrasil, the tree of the world. ... Illustration by Alan Lee In Norse mythology, Volsung was the father of Sigmund. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Signy and Hagbard Signy is the name of two heroines in two legends from Scandinavian mythology which were very popular in medieval Scandinavia. ... Sigurd sculpture in Bremen Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr, German: Siegfried) was a legendary hero of Norse mythology, as well as the central character in the Völsunga saga. ... This article is about the Valkyries, figures of Norse mythology. ... Sigurd and Brynhilds funeral In Norse mythology, Brynhildr was a shieldmaiden and a valkyrie. ... In Norse mythology, Regin was the son of Hreidmar and foster father of Sigurd. ... Fáfnir guards the gold hoard in this illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagners Siegfried. ... A bass (or basso in Italian) is a male singer who sings in the deepest vocal range of the human voice. ... German Nibelung and the corresponding Old Norse form Niflung (Niflungr) refers in most of the German texts and in all the Old Norse texts to the royal family or lineage of the Burgundians who settled at Worms. ... Alberich, by Arthur Rackham. ... Mimir was a primal god of Norse mythology whose head was severed and sent to Odin during the war between the Aesir and the Vanir deities. ... For other uses, see Gunther (disambiguation). ... Gudrun and Sigurd In Norse mythology, Gudrun, who is called Kriemhild in the Nibelungenlied, was the sister of Gunnar. ... For the Högni of the Heimskringla and the legends of Helge Hundingsbane, see Högne. ...

Instrumentation

Wagner scored the Ring for an exceptionally large orchestra, but was very specific about how many instruments should play each part.


The woodwinds include 3 flutes and 1 piccolo, 3 oboes and 1 cor anglais, 3 clarinets and 1 bass clarinet, and 3 bassoons (with a note that contrabassoon(s) should be used if the bassoons used are unable to play the low A occasionally required). â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... This article is about the instrument in the flute family. ... The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... The cor anglais, or English horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ...


The brass section contains 8 horns, the last four players doubling on 2 B flat tenor and 2 F bass Wagner tubas, 3 trumpets and 1 bass trumpet as well as 3 tenorbass trombones, 1 contrabass trombone (doubling on bass trombone) and 1 contrabass tuba. For other uses, see Horn. ... The Wagner tuba is a comparatively rare brass instrument that combines elements of both the horn and the tuba. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... Bass trumpet in C with rotary valves The bass trumpet is a type of low trumpet which was first developed during the 1820s in Germany. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ...


The percussion section contains 2 pairs of timpani, a triangle, a pair of cymbals, a side drum and a carillon or glockenspiel. In Das Rheingold, the orchestra is completed with 6 harps plus one offstage harp. In several sections of the cycle, Wagner also calls for a thunder machine, 18 anvils, offstage horns and several stierhorns. A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... An old-fashioned triangle, with wand (beater) Angelika Kauffmann: LAllegra, 1779 The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. ... It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbalum instrument. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings. ... For the University of Regina student newspaper, see The Carillon. ... Most orchestral glockenspiels are mounted in a case. ... For the famous train, see Rheingold Express. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ...


In the strings there are 16 first and 16 second violins, 12 violas, 12 violoncellos and 12 double basses. For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... Alternate meaning: Cello web browser A cropped image to show the relative size of a cello to a human (Uncropped Version) The cello (also violoncello or cello) is a stringed instrument and part of the violin family. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...


History of the Ring Cycle

Composition of the text

Main article: Der Ring des Nibelungen: Composition of the text

In summer 1848 Wagner wrote The Nibelung Myth as Sketch for a Drama, combining the medieval sources previously mentioned into a single narrative, very similar to the plot of the eventual Ring cycle, but nevertheless with substantial differences. Later that year he began writing a libretto entitled Siegfrieds Tod ("Siegfried's Death"). He was likely encouraged by a series of articles in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, inviting composers to write a "national opera" based on the Nibelungenlied, a 12th century High German poem which, since its rediscovery in 1755, had been hailed by the German Romantics as the "German national epic". Siegfrieds Tod dealt with the death of Siegfried, the central heroic figure of the Nibelungenlied. The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... For the general context, see Romanticism. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ...


By 1850, Wagner had completed a musical sketch (which he abandoned) for Siegfrieds Tod. He now felt that he needed a preliminary opera, Der junge Siegfried ("The Young Siegfried", later renamed to "Siegfried"), in order to explain the events in Siegfrieds Tod. The verse draft of Der junge Siegfried was completed in May 1851. By October, he had made the momentous decision to embark on a cycle of four operas, to be played over four nights: Das Rheingold, Die Walküre, Der Junge Siegfried and Siegfrieds Tod.


The text for all four operas was completed in December 1852, and privately published in February 1853.


Composition of the music

Main article: Der Ring des Nibelungen: Composition of the music

In November 1853, Wagner began the composition draft of Das Rheingold. Unlike the verses, which were written as it were in reverse order, the music would be composed in the same order as the narrative. Composition proceeded until 1857, when the final score up to the end of Act II of Siegfried was completed. Wagner then laid the work aside for twelve years, during which he wrote Tristan und Isolde and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Straßburg. ... Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Master Singers of Nuremberg) is an opera in three acts, written and composed by Richard Wagner. ...


By 1869, Wagner was living at Tribschen on Lake Lucerne, sponsored by King Ludwig II of Bavaria. He returned to Siegfried, and, remarkably, was able to pick up where he left off. In October, he completed the final opera in the cycle. He chose the title Götterdämmerung instead of Siegfried's Tod for this opera. In the completed work the gods are destroyed in accordance with the new pessimistic thrust of the cycle, not redeemed as in the more optimistic originally planned ending. Wagner also decided to show onstage the events of Das Rheingold and Die Walküre, which had hitherto only been presented as back-narration in the other two operas. These changes resulted in some discrepancies in the cycle, but these do not diminish the value of the work. Tribschen is a small town in the Swiss kanton of Luzern. ... For other uses, see Lake Lucerne (disambiguation). ... Ludwig (Louis) II, King of Bavaria, Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm, also known as Ludwig the Mad, and Mad King Ludwig (August 25, 1845 - June 13, 1886) was king of Bavaria from 1864 until his death. ...


Performances

First productions

On King Ludwig's insistence, and over Wagner's objections, "special previews" of Das Rheingold and Die Walküre were given at the National Theatre in Munich, before the rest of the Ring. Thus, Das Rheingold premiered on September 22, 1869, and Die Walküre on June 26, 1870. Wagner subsequently delayed announcing his completion of Siegfried in order to prevent this opera, too, being premiered against his wishes. is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Siegfried is the third of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ...


Wagner had long desired to have a special festival opera house, designed by himself, for the performance of the Ring. In 1871, he decided on a location in the Bavarian town of Bayreuth. In 1872, he moved to Bayreuth, and the foundation stone was laid. Wagner would spend the next two years attempting to raise capital for the construction, with scant success; King Ludwig finally rescued the project in 1874 by donating the needed funds. The Bayreuth Festspielhaus opened in 1876 with the first complete performance of the Ring, which took place from August 13 to August 17. For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Bayreuth [pronounced by-royt] is a town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Frankish Alb and the Fichtelgebirge. ... The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1882,[4] London impresario Alfred Schulz-Curtius organized the first staging in the United Kingdom of the Ring Cycle, conducted by Anton Seidl and directed by Angelo Neumann. See also: 1881 in music, other events of 1882, 1883 in music and the list of years in music. // Events January - Richard Wagner completes Parsifal Helsinki University Chorus (Ylioppilaskunnan Laulajat) is founded Gustav Mahler is employed at Olomouc Richard Strauss enters Munich University Published popular music Baa! Baa! Baa!     w. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... An impresario is a manager or producer in one of the entertainment industries, usually Music or Theatre. ... Alfred Schulz-Curtius was a classical music impresario who was active from the 1870s until the 1920s, primarily in continental Europe and the United Kingdom. ... Anton Seidl (7 May 1850 - 28 March 1898) was a Hungarian conductor. ...


Notable Contemporary productions

The complete cycle is performed most years at the Bayreuth Festival: the first staging of a new production becomes a society event attended by many important and popular people like politicians, actors, musicians and sportsmen. Tickets are hard to get and are often reserved years in advance. Bayreuth Festspielhaus, as seen in 1882 The annual Bayreuth Festival in Bayreuth, Germany is devoted principally (but not exclusively) to performances of operas by the 19th century German composer Richard Wagner. ...


The Ring is a major undertaking for any opera company: staging four interlinked operas requires a huge commitment both artistically and financially. In most opera houses, production of a new Ring cycle will happen over a number of years, with one or two operas in the cycle being added each year. Bayreuth is unusual in that a new cycle is almost always created within a single year. The Ring cycle has been staged by opera companies in many different ways. Early productions often stayed close to Wagner's original Bayreuth staging. Trends set at Bayreuth have continued to be influential. Following the closure of the Festspielhaus during the Second World War, the 1950s saw productions by Wagner's grandsons Wieland and Wolfgang Wagner (known as the 'New Bayreuth' style) which emphasised the human aspects of the drama in a more abstract setting. Perhaps the most famous modern production was the centennial production of 1976 directed by Patrice Chéreau and conducted by Pierre Boulez. Set in the industrial revolution, it replaced the depths of the Rhine with a hydroelectric power dam and featured grimy sets populated by men and gods in business suits. This drew heavily on the reading of the Ring as a revolutionary drama and critique of the modern world, famously described by George Bernard Shaw in 'The Perfect Wagnerite'. Early performances were booed, but the production is now often regarded as revolutionary. Ring productions tend to fall into two camps: those which try to remain fairly close to Wagner's original stage design and direction, and those which seek to re-interpret the Ring for modern audiences, often inserting stage pictures and action which Wagner himself might not recognise. The production by Peter Hall, conducted by Georg Solti at Bayreuth in 1983 is an example of the former, while the production by Richard Jones at the Royal Opera House Covent Garden in 1994–1996, conducted by Bernard Haitink, is an example of the latter. Bayreuth Festspielhaus, as seen in 1882 The annual Bayreuth Festival in Bayreuth, Germany is devoted principally (but not exclusively) to performances of operas by the 19th century German composer Richard Wagner. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Patrice Chéreau (born November 2nd, 1944 in Lézigné, France) is a French director, film maker, actor, and producer. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Sir Peter Reginald Frederick Hall CBE (born 22 November 1930) is an English theatre and film director. ... Sir Georg Solti, KBE (pronounced IPA: ) (21 October 1912 – 5 September 1997) was a world-renowned Hungarian-British orchestral and operatic conductor. ... Bayreuth [pronounced by-royt] is a town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Frankish Alb and the Fichtelgebirge. ... Richard Jones (born 7 June 1953) is a British freelance opera and theatre director. ... The Floral Hall of the Royal Opera House The Royal Opera House is a performing arts venue in London. ... ...


Another interesting complete Ring cycle was begun in 2004, performed by the English National Opera at the Coliseum Theatre near London's Trafalgar Square. The production is notable for its use of contemporary minimalist sets and costumes. Many of the scenes look like rooms from Ikea and indeed the production is sponsored by the MFI furniture company. The London Coliseum, home of English National Opera English National Opera (ENO), located at the London Coliseum in St. ... The London Coliseum The Coliseum Theatre is one of Londons largest and best equipped theatres, opening in 1904. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ... Map of countries with IKEA stores. ... MFI Retail Limited, usually referred to simply as MFI, is a national British furniture retailer. ...


Certain opera companies, such as the Seattle Opera, produce entirely new Ring cycles every 4 to 6 years. Seattle Opera's next cycle will be performed in August 2009. The Seattle Opera is an opera company located in Seattle, Washington. ...


The Lyric Opera of Chicago, under the direction of Sir Andrew Davis, performed three complete cycles of Der Ring des Nibelungen in the 2004–2005 season to mark the company's 50th anniversary. Exterior of the Civic Opera House Lyric Opera of Chicago is one of the leading opera companies in the United States. ... Sir Andrew Frank Davis CBE (born 2 February 1944) is a British conductor. ...


2004 saw the first full Australian production of the Ring Cycle, in Adelaide. The corresponding recordings are the first from the cycle to be released in the SACD format. For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the compact disc. ...


The Canadian Opera Company conducted its first complete Ring Cycle in 2006 upon the opening of the new Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts. This production is notable for the stage direction by Canadian film directors Atom Egoyan and François Girard. The Canadian Opera Company (COC), located in Toronto, Ontario, is the largest opera company in Canada and the sixth largest in North America. ... The Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts is the future home for both the Canadian Opera Company and the National Ballet of Canada. ... Atom Egoyan at the Third Golden Apricot Film Festival. ... François Girard (1963 - ) is a Canadian director and screenwriter particularly noted for his innovative film Thirty Two Short Films About Glenn Gould. ...


The Royal Danish Opera performed a complete Ring cycle in May 2006 in its new waterfront home, the Copenhagen Opera House. This version of the ring tells the story from the viewpoint of Brunhilde and has a distinct feminist angle. For example, in a key scene in Die Walkure, it is Sieglinde and not Siegmund who manages to pull the sword Notung out of a tree. At the end of the cycle, Brunhilde does not die, but instead gives birth to Siegfried's child. The Copenhagen Opera House 2005 The Copenhagen Opera House (in Danish usually called Operaen) is the national Opera house of Denmark, and among the most modern opera houses in the world. ...


The touring "Russian Ring," created at the Kirov Opera in Saint Petersburg in 2003, was brought to New York's Metropolitan Opera by principal guest conductor Valery Gergiev in July 2007. It has also been seen at Cardiff, Wales, and Costa Mesa, California. The Mariinsky Theatre, known as the Kirov Opera and Ballet Theatre in 1934-92, is a historic theatre of opera and ballet in St Petersburg. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Valery Gergiev Valery Abisalovich Gergiev, Russian: Вале́рий Абиса́лович Ге́ргиев (born 1953) is a Russian conductor and opera company director. ...


In the autumn of 2007, the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden staged a ring cycle in four subsequent weekly periods starting from early October. The music Director was Antonio Pappano. The role of Alberich was held by Peter Sidhom, of Wotan by John Tomlinson, and of Brunnhilde by Lisa Gasteen. Antonio Pappano (born 30 December 1959 in London, England) is a British conductor. ... John Tomlinson may refer to: John Tomlinson (educationalist) (1932-2005), British educationalist John Tomlinson (singer) (born 1946), English opera singer John Tomlinson (politician), Lord Tomlinson of Walsall (born 1939), former MP and MEP John Tomlinson (comics), a comics writer for 2000 AD John Tomlinson (teacher) born 1944 This human name... Lisa Gasteen (born in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia), is an internationally-acclaimed Australian opera singer. ...


In 2008, San Francisco Opera will be presenting an "American Ring" cycle in a co-production with the Washington National Opera, directed by Francesca Zambello. March 2006 saw the premiere of this cycle's production of Das Rheingold at the Kennedy Center in Washington, DC. The San Francisco War Memorial Opera House San Francisco Opera (SFO) is the second largest opera company in North America. ... The Washington National Opera is a world-class opera company in Washington, D.C., USA. Its general director is the Spanish tenor, Plácido Domingo. ... The Kennedy Center as seen from the Potomac River. ...


It is possible to perform The Ring with fewer resources than usual. In 1990, the City of Birmingham Touring Opera (now Birmingham Opera Company), presented a two-evening adaptation (by Jonathan Dove) for a limited number of solo singers, each doubling several roles, and 18 orchestral players. This version made its American premiere at the Opera Theater of Pittsburgh, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Subsequently, it was performed in full at Long Beach Opera in January 2006, and was performed in full with the Opera Theater of Pittsburgh in July 2006. Birmingham Opera Company is a professional opera company based in the Jewellery Quarter in Birmingham, England, that specialises in innovative and avant-garde productions of the operatic repertoire, often in unusual venues. ... Jonathan Dove (July 18, 1959 - ) is a British composer of opera and choral works and theatre, film, orchestral and chamber music. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Long Beach Opera is a Southern California opera company serving the greater Los Angeles and Orange County metroplex. ...


Recordings of the complete Ring Cycle

The complete Ring Cycle has been performed many times, but relatively few full commercial recordings exist, probably due to financial considerations. The four operas together take about 14 hours, which makes for a lot of records, tapes, or CDs, and a lot of studio time. For this reason, many full Ring recordings are the result of "unofficial" recording of live performances, particularly from Bayreuth where new productions are often broadcast by German radio. Live recordings, especially those in monaural, may have very variable sound but often preserve the excitement of a performance better than a studio recording. Bayreuth Festspielhaus, as seen in 1882 The annual Bayreuth Festival in Bayreuth, Germany is devoted principally (but not exclusively) to performances of operas by the 19th century German composer Richard Wagner. ... Label for 1. ...


Here are some of the best-known and most appreciated recordings of the complete Ring Cycle:

  • Wilhelm Furtwängler conducting the La Scala Opera Orchestra, 1950. Recorded live, mono sound. [Music & Arts]
  • Wilhelm Furtwängler conducting the Orchestra Sinfonica e Coro della Radio Italiana (RAI orchestra and chorus), 1953. Recorded live, mono sound. [EMI]
  • Clemens Krauss conducting the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra, 1953. Recorded live, mono sound. [Gala, Archipel]
  • Joseph Keilberth conducting the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra, 1955. Recorded live, stereo sound. [Testament]
  • Joseph Keilberth conducting the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra, 1952 and 1953. Recorded live, mono sound. Various labels.
  • Hans Knappertsbusch conducting the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra, 1956. Recorded live, mono sound. [Music & Arts]
  • Hans Knappertsbusch conducting the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra, 1958. Recorded live, mono sound. [Melodram]
  • Georg Solti conducting the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, 1958–1965. Recorded in the studio, stereo sound. [Decca/Polygram records]/
  • Herbert von Karajan conducting the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, 1966–1970. Recorded in the studio, stereo sound. [Deutsche Grammophon/Polygram]
  • Karl Böhm conducting the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra, 1967. Recorded live in stereo. [Philips]
  • Hans Swarowsky conducting the Großes Symphonieorchester, 1968. Recorded in the studio in stereo (Remastered in 1995). [Weltbild Verlag]
  • Reginald Goodall conducting the English National Opera Orchestra, 1975. Recorded live in stereo. Sung in English, using Andrew Porter's translation. [Chandos]
  • Pierre Boulez conducting the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra, 1980–1981. Recorded live in stereo. [Philips]
  • Marek Janowski conducting the Staatskapelle Dresden, 1980–1983. Recorded in the studio in stereo. [Eurodisc/BMG]
  • James Levine conducting the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, 1987–1989. Recorded in the studio in stereo. [Deutsche Grammophon]
  • Bernard Haitink conducting the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, 1988-1991. Recorded in the studio in stereo. [EMI Classics]
  • Wolfgang Sawallisch conducting the Bayerische Staatsoper, 1989. Recorded live in stereo. [EMI Classics]
  • Daniel Barenboim conducting the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra, 1991-1992. Recorded live in stereo. [Warner Classics]
  • Günter Neuhold conducting the Badische Staatskapelle, 1993–1995. Recorded live at the Badisches Staatstheater Karlsruhe in stereo. [Bella Musica, Documents]

The Solti recording was the first stereo studio recording of the complete cycle, and it remains popular. First-time buyers looking for a Ring recording are often recommended the Solti CDs, and in a poll on the BBC's long running radio programme "CD Review", this set was voted as the greatest recording of the 20th century.[5] Although Solti's was the first studio stereo recording, the cycle had previously been recorded live in stereo by Decca engineers at the Bayreuth Festival in 1955 under the baton of Joseph Keilberth. Although unavailable for over 50 years, this cycle has now been issued on CD and vinyl by Testament. Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... Label for 1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Clemens Krauss (born in Vienna, March 31, 1893 – buried at Mexico City, May 16, 1954) was an Austrian conductor famed for his interpretations of the music of Richard Strauss, Richard Wagner and other German composers. ... Joseph Keilberth ( born April 19, 1908 - July 20, 1968) was a German conductor. ... This article is about the spacecraft and the mission. ... Hans Knappertsbusch (March 12, 1888 - October 25, 1965) German conductor born in Elberfeld (present-day Wuppertal), best known for his performances of the music of Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss. ... Sir Georg Solti, KBE (pronounced IPA: ) (21 October 1912 – 5 September 1997) was a world-renowned Hungarian-British orchestral and operatic conductor. ... The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... The Berlin Philharmonic rehearsing in the Berliner Philharmonie. ... Karl Böhm (August 28, 1894 – August 14, 1981) was a prominent Austrian conductor. ... Hans Swarowsky (September 16, 1899, Budapest, Hungary - September 10, 1975, Salzburg, Austria) was a Hungarian conductor. ... Sir Reginald Goodall (July 13, 1901 - May 5, 1990) was a British conductor. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlɛz/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Marek Janowski (born 18 February 1939 in Warsaw) is a Polish-born conductor who grew up in Germany and spent much of his career in France. ... The Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden (Engl: Saxon State Orchestra Dresden) is an orchestra based in Dresden, Germany. ... James Levine (born June 23, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American orchestral pianist and conductor and most well known as the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... ... The Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra in Munich was founded in 1949 by Eugen Jochum, he was also principal conductor until 1960. ... Wolfgang Sawallisch (born August 26, 1923) is a German conductor and pianist. ... Categories: Stub | Opera companies ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Badische Staatskapelle is a symphony orchestra based in Karlsruhe, Germany. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Decca Music Group be merged into this article or section. ... Joseph Keilberth ( born April 19, 1908 - July 20, 1968) was a German conductor. ...


The Ring cycle is also available in a number of video or DVD presentations. These include:

The first three of these are also available as audio recordings. Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... James Levine (born June 23, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American orchestral pianist and conductor and most well known as the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Logo Deutsche Grammophon is a German record label. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Bertrand de Billy, (born 1965 in Paris) is a French conductor. ... The façade of the Liceu, as viewed from the Ramblas The Gran Teatre del Liceu (or simply Liceu; in Spanish: Liceo) is an opera house on Las Ramblas in Barcelona. ...


The Ring in popular culture

Der Ring des Nibelungen, because of its size and seriousness, lends itself well to parody. One well-known parody is Looney Tunes' What's Opera, Doc? in which Bugs Bunny plays Brünnhilde and Elmer Fudd plays Siegfried. (A lesser known 1943 Looney Tunes cartoon, "Herr meets Hare," which was never re-released after the war, stars an unlikely pairing of Hermann Goering playing Siegfried and Bugs playing, again, Brünnhilde, in an almost identical sequence as 'What's Opera, Doc?', including Bugs on an absurdly fat horse.) In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Looney Tunes opening title Looney Tunes is a Warner Brothers animated cartoon series which ran in many movie theatres from 1930 to 1969. ... Bugs loses his headgear in Whats Opera, Doc? Whats Opera, Doc? is a short animated cartoon directed by Chuck Jones in which Elmer Fudd chases Bugs Bunny through a six-minute operatic parody of Wagners operas, particularly Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung). ... Bugs Bunny is an animated rabbit who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... Elmer J. Fudd is a fictional cartoon character and one of the most famous Looney Tunes/Merrie Melodies characters. ...


Anna Russell's "The Ring of the Nibelungs (An Analysis)" is not really a parody, since it follows Wagner's story and actually discusses many of the Ring's leitmotifs as academically as she makes them entertaining. However, Russell draws attention to some of the more unusual elements in the plot that people often miss, to the delight of her audience. Anna Claudia Russell-Brown (born 27 December 1911 in London) is an English singer and comedian. ...


Anthony Burgess's version of the Ring Cycle is the 1961 novel The Worm and the Ring, which transposes the action to an Oxfordshire grammar school. Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... 1961 Heinemann edition The Worm and the Ring is a 1961 novel by English novelist Anthony Burgess, drawing on his time as a teacher at Banbury Grammar School, Oxfordshire, England, in the early 1950s. ...


J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings appears to borrow some elements from Der Ring des Nibelungen; however, Tolkien himself denied that he had been inspired by Wagner's work, saying that "Both rings were round, and there the resemblance ceases."[6] Any resemblance comes about because Tolkien and Wagner both drew upon the Völsunga saga and the Poetic Edda. J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Ramsund carving depicting the Saga of the Völsungs The Volsunga saga is a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the story of Sigurd and Brynhild, and the destruction of the Burgundians. ... Look up Poetic Edda in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Magee, Bryan (2001). The Tristan Chord: Wagner and Philosophy. Clearwater, Fla: Metropolitan Books, page 109. ISBN 0-8050-7189-X. 
  2. ^ Richard Wagner, Translated by William Ashton Ellis (1852). Opera and Drama, By Richard Wagner - Translated by William Ashton Ellis. The Wagner Library. Retrieved on October 28, 2007.
  3. ^ John Weinstock, Professor (2007). The Wagner Experience - Immortals Family Tree. Characters and Relationships. The University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved on October 28, 2007.
  4. ^ Christopher Fifield, Ibbs and Tillett: The Rise and Fall of a Musical Empire (Chapter 3, pp. 25-26). London: Ashgate Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-84014-290-1, ISBN 978-1840142907.
  5. ^ BBC Radio (2004). The Greatest Recordings as Voted by CD Review Listeners. BBC. Retrieved on October 28, 2007.
  6. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey and Tolkien, Christopher (eds.) (1981). The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #229. ISBN 0-395-31555-7.

The Tristan chord is a chord made up of the notes F, B, D# and G#. More generally, it can be any chord that consists of these same intervals, viz. ... Ibbs and Tillett, “one of the legendary names in classical music artist management,”[1] was a London-based classical music artist and concert management agency which flourished from 1906 through 1990 in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

References

  • Cooke, Derek, I Saw the World End: A Study of Wagner's Ring. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Di Gaetani, John Louis, Penetrating Wagner's Ring: An Anthology. New York: Da Capo Press, 1978.
  • Gregor-Dellin, Martin, (1983) Richard Wagner: His Life, His Work, His Century. Harcourt, ISBN 0-15-177151-0
  • Holman, J.K. Wagner's Ring: A Listener's Companion and Concordance. Portland OR: Amadeus Press, 2001.
  • Lee, M. Owen, (1994) Wagner's Ring: Turning the Sky Round. Amadeus Press, ISBN 978-0879101862
  • Magee, Bryan, (2001) The Tristan Chord: Wagner and Philosophy. Metropolitan Books, ISBN 0-8050-6788-4
  • Magee, Bryan, (1988) Aspects of Wagner. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-284012-6
  • Millington, Barry (editor)(2001) The Wagner Compendium. Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-500-28274-9
  • Sabor, Rudolph, (1997) Richard Wagner: Der Ring des Nibelungen: a companion volume. Phaidon Press, ISBN 0-7148-3650-8
  • Spotts, Frederick, (1999) Bayreuth: A History of the Wagner Festival. Yale University Press ISBN 0-7126-5277-9
  • Shaw, George Bernard (1883) The Perfect Wagnerite: A Commentary on the Nibelungen's Ring. [1]

The Tristan chord is a chord made up of the notes F, B, D# and G#. More generally, it can be any chord that consists of these same intervals, viz. ...

External links

Der Ring des Nibelungen
Das Rheingold | Die Walküre | Siegfried | Götterdämmerung

  Results from FactBites:
 
Der Ring des Nibelungen - Encyclopedia.com (739 words)
The Washington Post; 6/17/1990; Patricia Brennan; 861 words; Richard Wagner's "Der Ring des Nibelungen" is a formidable achievement...
Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen is obviously the...
stagings of the "Ring" cycle, as it is commonly...
Der Ring des Nibelungen - a guide (5224 words)
The Ring may be interpreted to start with the creation of the world and to end with the downfall of the world (or at least of the gods).
Alberich's Ring is both a symbol of and an instrument for the unreserved exercise of power, a power that is made possible by the renunciation of love.
In the Ring, it is not uncommon that a motif emerges so to speak in the background, and readily in a connection where we (at the first time of listening) cannot know anything about the meaning of the motif, not even that this is the anticipation of a new motif.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m