FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Depth perception

Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. It is a trait common to many higher animals. Depth perception allows the beholder to accurately gauge the distance to an object. This does not cite any references or sources. ... 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ... “Animalia” redirects here. ...


In modern terminology, stereopsis is depth perception from binocular vision through exploitation of parallax. Depth perception does indeed rely primarily on binocular vision, but it also uses many other monocular cues to form the final integrated perception. There are monocular cues that would be significant to a "one-eyed" person, and more complex inferred cues, that require both eyes to be perceiving stereo while the monocular cues are noted. This "third" group relies on processing within the brain of the person, as they see a full field of view with both eyes. Stereopsis (from stereo meaning solidity, and opsis meaning vision or sight) is the process in visual perception leading to perception of stereoscopic depth. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Depth cues

Depth perception combines several types of depth cues grouped into two main categories: monocular cues (cues available from the input of just one eye) and binocular cues (cues that require input from both eyes), as well as the synthetic integration cues of the "third kind", noted above. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ...


Monocular cues

  • Motion parallax - When an observer moves, the apparent relative motion of several stationary objects against a background gives hints about their relative distance. This effect can be seen clearly when driving in a car nearby things pass quickly, while far off objects appear stationary. Some animals that lack binocular vision due to wide placement of the eyes employ parallax more explicitly than humans for depth cueing (e.g. some types of birds, which bob their heads to achieve motion parallax, and squirrels, which move in lines orthogonal to an object of interest to do the same).1
  • Depth from motion - A form of depth from motion, kinetic depth perception, is determined by dynamically changing object size. As objects in motion become smaller, they appear to recede into the distance or move farther away; objects in motion that appear to be getting larger seem to be coming closer. This a form of kinetic depth perception. Using kinetic depth perception enables the brain to calculate time to crash distance (TTC) at a particular velocity. When driving, we are constantly judging the dynamically changing headway (TTC) by kinetic depth perception.
  • Color vision - Correct interpretation of color, and especially lighting cues, allows the beholder to determine the shape of objects, and thus their arrangement in space. The color of distant objects is also shifted towards the blue end of the spectrum. (e.g. distant mountains.) Painters, notably Cezanne, employ "warm" pigments (red, yellow and orange) to bring features forward towards the viewer, and "cool" ones (blue, violet, and blue-green) to indicate the part of a form that curves away from the picture plane.
  • Perspective - The property of parallel lines converging at infinity allows us to reconstruct the relative distance of two parts of an object, or of landscape features.
  • Relative size - An automobile that is close to us looks larger than one that is far away; our visual system exploits the relative size of similar (or familiar) objects to judge distance.
  • Distance fog - Due to light scattering by the atmosphere, objects that are a great distance away look hazier. In painting, this is called "atmospheric perspective". The foreground is sharply defined; the background is relatively blurred.
  • Depth from Focus - The lens of the eye can change its shape to bring objects at different distances into focus. Knowing at what distance the lens is focused when viewing an object means knowing the approximate distance to that object.
  • Occlusion - Occlusion (blocking the sight) of objects by others is also a clue which provides information about relative distance. However, this information only allows the observer to create a "ranking" of relative nearness.
  • Peripheral vision - At the outer extremes of the visual field, parallel lines become curved, as in a photo taken through a fish-eye lens. This effect, although it's usually elimated from both art and photos by the cropping or framing of a picture, greatly enhances the viewer's sense of being positioned within a real, three dimensional space. (Classical perspective has no use for this so-called "distortion", although in fact the "distortions" strictly obey optical laws and provide perfectly valid visual information, just as classical perspective does for the part of the field of vision that falls within its frame.)
  • Texture gradient - Suppose you are standing on a gravel road. The gravel near you can be clearly seen in terms of shape, size and colour. As your vision shifts towards the distant road the texture cannot be clearly differentiated.

This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... In mathematics, orthogonal is synonymous with perpendicular when used as a simple adjective that is not part of any longer phrase with a standard definition. ... Color vision is the capacity of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect or emit. ... In most modern usages of the word spectrum, there is a unifying theme of between extremes at either end. ... Categories: 1839 births | 1906 deaths | French painters | Post-impressionism | Artist stubs ... A picture plane is the imaginary flat surface which is usually located between the station point and the object being viewed and is ordinarily a vertical plane perpendicular to the horizontal projection of the line of sight to the objects order of interest. ... Perspective when used in the context of vision and visual perception refers to the way in which objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes or dimension and the position of the eye relative to the objects. ... Distance fog is a technique used in 3D computer graphics to enhance the perception of distance. ... Aerial perspective or atmospheric perspective is the effect on the appearance of an object by air between it and a viewer. ... // A human eye. ... A term indicating that the state of something, which is normally open, is now totally closed. ... Peripheral vision is a part of vision that occurs outside the very center of gaze. ... The term visual field is sometimes used as a synonym to field of view, though they do not designate the same thing. ... Fisheye 15 mm (type: equisolid angle), 35 mm-film, cropped by slide-frame. ...

Binocular and occulomotor cues

  • Stereopsis - Animals that have their eyes placed frontally can also use information derived from the different projection of objects onto each retina to judge depth. By using two images of the same scene obtained from slightly different angles, it is possible to triangulate the distance to an object with a high degree of accuracy. If an object is far away, the disparity of that image falling on both retinas will be small. If the object is close or near, the disparity will be large. It is stereopsis that tricks people into thinking they perceive depth when viewing Magic Eyes, Autostereograms, 3D movies and stereoscopic photos.
  • Accommodation - This is an oculomotor cue for depth perception. When we try to focus on far away objects, the ciliary muscles stretches the eye lens, making it thinner. The kinesthetic sensations of the contracting and relaxing ciliary muscles (intraocular muscles) is sent to the visual cortex where it is used for interpreting distance/depth.
  • Convergence - This is also an oculomotor cue for distance/depth perception. By virtue of stereopsis the two eye balls focus on the same object. In doing so they converge. The convergence will stretch the extraocular muscles. Kinesthetic sensations from these extraocular muscles also help in depth/distance perception. The angle of convergence is larger when the eye is fixating on far away objects.

Of these various cues, only convergence, focus and familiar size provide absolute distance information. All other cues are relative (ie, they can only be used to tell which objects are closer relative to others). Stereopsis is merely relative because a greater or lesser disparity for nearby objects could either mean that those objects differ more or less substantially in relative depth or that the foveated object is nearer or further away (the further away a scene is, the smaller is the retinal disparity indicating the same depth difference). Stereopsis (from stereo meaning solidity, and opsis meaning vision or sight) is the process in visual perception leading to perception of stereoscopic depth. ... “Animalia” redirects here. ... // A human eye. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Triangulation can be used to find the distance from the shore to the ship. ... Magic Eye is a series of books published by N.E. Thing Enterprises (Renamed in 1996 to Magic Eye Inc. ... A random dot autostereogram encodes a 3D scene which can be seen with proper viewing technique. ... Stereo card image modified for crossed eye viewing. ... Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens. ... The ciliary muscle is a smooth muscle that affects zonular fibers in the eye (fibers that suspend the lens in position during accommodation), enabling changes in lens shape for light focusing. ... // A human eye. ... The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control the movements of the eye. ...


Binocular cues can be directly perceived far more easily and eloquently than they can be described in words. Try looking around at the room you're in with just one eye open. Then look with just the other eye; the difference you notice will probably be negligible. After that, open both eyes, and see what happens. Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ...


Inferred cues

It would be over-simplification to ignore the mental processes at work as a person sees with two normal eyes. The fact that binocular stereopsis is occurring, enables the brain to infer and perceive certain additional depth in the form of a mental construct. Closing one eye shuts down this stereo construct. Recent work toward improving digital display of stereoscopic images has re-vitalized the field, as practical applications often do. Those working in the field, have identified several processes of interpolation, previously ignored or considered irrelevant. These provide a linkage in the mental construct of objects visible to only one eye, while viewing with both eyes in a forward direction. Recent literature has addressed the relationship between the stereo viewing area and the periphery. Recent analysis has demonstrated that objects just outside the angle of double visual coverage, are, in fact, integrated by the mind into the stereo construct by a process of inference. Briefly stated, " all objects, in even moderate focus, within the central viewing field of a single eye, are, an important part of the stereo construct". Their physical position is noted, and SEEN very accurately in the mental stereo visualization process, though visible to only one of the 2 eyes in use.


The geometry of binocular vision (versus classical perspective)

The neutrality or factuality of this article or section may be compromised by weasel words.
You can help Wikipedia by improving weasel-worded statements
.

Like gravity and electromagnetism, monocular "classical perspective" obeys the inverse square law. A doubling of distance from the viewer's eye reduces the apparent size of an object to one-quarter its previous dimensions. Conversely, halving the distance quadruples its apparent size; two squared makes four. One-third the distance increases apparent size by nine times, or three squared. (The height and width of the object will each be increased by two or three when distance is reduced to a half or a third. But the object's area is what determines its apparent size, and the area results from multiplying its height by its width: 2x2=4, 3x3=9.) Each of your eyes, like a camera lens, sees the world in "correct" classical perspective. Since binocular vision takes our perception of space to a stage beyond what we can see with just one eye, it follows that it operates by exaggerating and enhancing perspective in generating a single new "3-D" image out of the two "2-D" images the brain receives and transforms. Binocular depth perception might be described mathematically through some kind of non-Euclidian geometry. Binocular vision may make use of the fact that the "parallel" lines that converge at the vanishing point are actually curved, rather than straight, although this rarely noticed except in fish-eye lens photography. The curving is almost imperceptible near the focal point at the center of the visual field, but it may be greatly enhanced even there by the brain's synthesizing the eyes' two separate views. (See also parallax article.) Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... Perspective when used in the context of vision and visual perception refers to the way in which objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes or dimension and the position of the eye relative to the objects. ... In physics, an inverse-square law is any physical law stating that some quantity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from a point. ... The space we live in is three-dimensional space. ... The term non-Euclidean geometry (also spelled: non-Euclidian geometry) describes both hyperbolic and elliptic geometry, which are contrasted with Euclidean geometry. ... Vanishing Point is a 1971 road movie starring Barry Newman, Cleavon Little, Dean Jagger, and an Alpine White 1970 Dodge Challenger R/T with the 440/375 HP engine. ... Fisheye 15 mm (type: equisolid angle), 35 mm-film, cropped by slide-frame. ... Child – 5:16 All I Need – 3:55 Drifting – 6:43 Hold On – 4:40 Open Me – 3:35 Beautiful – 5:44 Look In – 4:14 Without You – 4:55 Live It – 7:23 Dont Walk Away – 3:04 Lead Me On – 5:34 Rest – 5:06 Child [Piano... The term visual field is sometimes used as a synonym to field of view, though they do not designate the same thing. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


As often happens in science, practical applications go beyond our theoretical understanding of the underlying principles involved in the phenomenon. Artists employ subtle exaggerations and enhancements of classical perspective to suggest depth perception, to give the viewer a sense of subjective involvement in the picture's visual drama. Excellent examples of this can be found in Michelangelo's drawings with their anatomical "distortions", and in the best superhero comics. As explained in the book, How to Draw Comics the Marvel Way, a fist or a sword coming at the viewer won't have much gut-level visual impact unless it seems to be flying off the page into the viewer's face. This only happens when it's drawn as if the viewer's eye were just inches away from the closest part of it, even if the panel's overall composition suggests a more remote point of view. Thus the fist, or the tip of the sword, will be drawn significantly larger than indicated by correct (monocular) perspective; its exact dimensions will depend on the artist's intuitive judgment. Similarly, the convergence of parallel lines at their various vanishing points throughout a scene will be subtly exaggerated to create a more convincing sense of spacial depth than "correct" (monocular or classical) perspective can offer. In classical perspective, all vanishing points are exiled at a hypothetical ideal "infinity"; with binocular depth perception, vanishing points are brought into the realm of real space we all inhabit. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564), commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. ... For the Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode, see Super Hero (Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode). ... Vanishing Point is a 1971 road movie starring Barry Newman, Cleavon Little, Dean Jagger, and an Alpine White 1970 Dodge Challenger R/T with the 440/375 HP engine. ...


Evolution

Most herbivores, especially hoofed grazers, lack depth perception. Instead, they have their eyes on the side of the head, providing a panoramic, almost 360º, view of the horizon - enabling them to notice the approach of predators from any direction. However both avian and mammalian predators have frontal eyes, allowing them to precisely judge distances when they pounce, or swoop down, onto their prey. The evolutionary line leading to human depth perception would be a bit different. Several hypotheses have been proposed to account for stereoscopic vision in the primate line. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


The Arboreal Hypothesis suggests that when the ancestors of primates e.g. lemurs, monkeys ascended into the trees, their survival would have implicitly depended upon judging distances from one branch to another. Natural selection would have done its relentless work through the deaths of these or other arboreal proto-primates, with any ineptitude in relation to depth perception (or anything else which may worsen their climbing ability for that matter) leading to many falling to the ground, dying or being injured before they reached sexual maturity, leaving specimens with more frontal vision up in the treetops, able to reproduce and pass on their increasing depth perception. Superfamilies and Families Cheirogaleoidea Cheirogaleidae Lemuroidea Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae Lemurs make up the infraorder Lemuriformes and are members of a class of primates known as prosimians . ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


Matt Cartmill, a physical anthropologist & anatomist at Duke University Medical Center, has criticized this theory, citing other arboreal species which lack stereoscopic vision, such as squirrels and certain birds. Instead, he proposes a "Visual Predation Hypothesis," which argues that ancestral primates were insectivorous predators resembling tarsiers, subject to the same selection pressure for frontal vision as other predatory species. He also uses this hypothesis to account for the specialization of primate hands, which he suggests became adapted for grasping prey, somewhat like the way raptors employ their talons. link to PDF Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... Genera Several, see text Squirrel is the common name for rodents of the family Sciuridae. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Species Tarsius syrichta Tarsius bancanus Tarsius spectrum Tarsius dianae Tarsius pelengensis Tarsius sangirensis Tarsius pumilus Tarsiers (family Tarsiidae, genus Tarsius) are a genus of prosimian primates, previously classified as strepsirhines, but now classified as haplorhines, though still not considered to be monkeys. ... The term raptor can refer to: In zoology, a bird of prey. ... A claw is a curved pointed growth found at the end of a toe or finger, or in arthropods, of the tarsus. ...


Philosophical implications

Depth perception is (along with sexual reproduction), a convincing real-life example of the "thesis+antithesis>synthesis" model of progress developed by Hegel, Fichte, and Engels. Dialectics, including dialectical materialism, derives from the idea of a dialogue between people representing different points of view on a subject, who arrive through argument at a new way of seeing the subject that preserves whatever remains valid from both sides of the discussion (as in the Socratic dialogues of Plato). Binocular vision is a sort of argument between one eye (thesis) and the other (antithesis), each seeing the organism's environment from a slightly different perspective, which the brain resolves into a three-dimensional image containing contributions from both but transcending their limits. As in any good synthesis, depth perception is an almost magical leap to a higher level, embodying a "qualitative change" that could hardly have been imagined or predicted, by examining its component parts. Sexual reproduction is a union that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 - January 27, 1814) has significance in the history of Western philosophy as one of the progenitors of German idealism and as a follower of Kant. ... The term Engels could refer to more than one thing: Friedrich Engels, German socialist Engels, Russia, formerly known as Pokrovsk This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Broadly speaking, a dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a disagreement. ... It has been suggested that Marxist philosophy of nature be merged into this article or section. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... A thesis (from Greek position) is an intellectual proposition. ... Antithesis (Greek for setting opposite, from against + position) means a direct contrast or exact opposition to something. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ...


Depth perception in art

Photographs capturing perspective are two-dimensional images that often illustrate the illusion of depth. (This differs from a painting, which may use the physical matter of the paint to create a real presence of convex forms and spacial depth.) Stereoscopes and Viewmasters, as well as 3-D movies, employ binocular vision by forcing the viewer to see two images created from slightly different positions (points of view). By contrast, a telephoto lens — used in televised sports, for example, to zero in on members of a stadium audience — has the opposite effect. The viewer sees the size and detail of the scene as if it were close enough to touch, but the camera's perspective is still derived from its actual position a hundred meters away, so background faces and objects appear about the same size as those in the foreground. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... Pocket stereoskop WILD 1985 Old Zeiss pocket stereoscope with original test image Stereo card of a stereoscope in use. ... View-Master reels from a German Karl May-movie. ... The space we live in is three-dimensional space. ... In photography and cinematography, a telephoto lens is a lens whose focal length is significantly longer than the focal length of a normal lens. ...


Trained artists are keenly aware of the various methods for indicating spacial depth (color shading, distance fog, perspective and relative size), and take advantage of them to make their works appear "real". The viewer feels it would be possible to reach in and grab the nose of a Rembrandt portrait or an apple in a Cezanne still life — or step inside a landscape and walk around among its trees and rocks. Distance fog is a technique used in 3D computer graphics to enhance the perception of distance. ... Perspective when used in the context of vision and visual perception refers to the way in which objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes or dimension and the position of the eye relative to the objects. ... Kinship is a biological and/or familial relationship between two organisms. ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606– October 4, 1669) is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history. ... Categories: 1839 births | 1906 deaths | French painters | Post-impressionism | Artist stubs ...


Cubism was based on the idea of incorporating multiple points of view in a painted image, as if to simulate the visual experience of being physically in the presence of the subject, and seeing it from different angles. The radical "High Cubist" experiments of Braque and Picasso circa 1909 are interesting but more bizarre than convincing in visual terms. Slightly later paintings by their followers, such as Robert Delaunay's views of the Eiffel Tower, or John Marin's Manhattan cityscapes, borrow the explosive angularity of Cubism to exaggerate the traditional illusion of three-dimensional space. A century after the Cubist adventure, the verdict of art history is that the most subtle and successful use of multiple points of view can be found in the pioneering late work of Cezanne, which both anticipated and inspired the first actual Cubists. Cezanne's landscapes and still lifes powerfully suggest the artist's own highly-developed depth perception. At the same time, like the other Post-Impressionists, Cezanne had learned from Japanese prints the significance of respecting the flat (two-dimensional) rectangle of the picture itself; Hokusai and Hiroshige ignored or even reversed linear perspective and thereby remind the viewer that a the picture can only be "true" when it acknowledges the truth of its own flat surface. By contrast, European "academic" painting was devoted to a sort of Big Lie that the surface of the canvas is only an enchanted doorway to a "real" scene unfolding beyond, and that the artist's main task is to distract the viewer from any disenchanting awareness of the presence of the painted canvas. Cubism, and indeed most of modern art is a struggle to confront, if not resolve, the paradox of suggesting spacial depth on a flat surface, and explore that inherent contradiction through innovative ways of seeing, as well as new methods of drawing and painting. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... ] Categories: People stubs | Modern artists | French painters | French sculptors | 1882 births | 1963 deaths | Cubism ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Image:300px-Delaunay ChampDeMars. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris, France. ... John Marin (December 23, 1870 - October 2, 1953) was an early American modernist artist. ... Categories: 1839 births | 1906 deaths | French painters | Post-impressionism | Artist stubs ... Post-Impressionism is a term applied to a number of painters of the late 19th and early 20th centuries whose style developed out of or reacted against that of the Impressionists. ... Katsushika Hokusai, (葛飾北斎), (1760—1849[1]), was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period . ... Memorial portrait of Hiroshige by Kunisada. ... Big Lie is a propaganda technique, defined by Adolf Hitler in his 1925 autobiography Mein Kampf as a lie so colossal that no one would believe that someone could have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously.[page # needed] // It is often erroneously claimed or implied Hitler had advocated... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two...


Disorders affecting depth perception

  • Ocular conditions such as amblyopia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and strabismus may reduce the perception of depth.
  • Since (by definition), binocular depth perception requires two functioning eyes, a person with only one functioning eye has none.

It is typically felt that Depth perception must be learned in infancy using an unconscious inference. Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is a disorder of the eye. ... Optic nerve hypoplasia is a medical condition that results in underdevelopment of the optic nerves. ... For the protein Strabismus, see Strabismus (protein) Strabismus, also known as heterotropia, squint, crossed eye, cockeyed, wandering eye,weak eye or wall eyed, is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also

This does not cite any references or sources. ... Senses Senses are a UK based alternative rock band from Coventry. ... An optical illusion is always characterized by visually perceived images that, at least in common sense terms, are deceptive or misleading. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... // A human eye. ...

References

  • Palmer, S. E. (1999) Vision science: Photons to phenomenology. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books/MIT Press.
  • Pinker, S. (1997). The Mind’s Eye. In How the Mind Works (pp. 211–233) ISBN 0-393-31848-6
  • Purves D, Lotto B (2003) Why We See What We Do: An Empirical Theory of Vision. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  • Scott B. Steinman, Barbara A. Steinman and Ralph Philip Garzia. (2000). Foundations of Binocular Vision: A Clinical perspective. McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-8385-2670-5

Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... How the Mind Works is a book by American cognitive scientist Steven Pinker, published in 1996. ...

External links

  • A fascinating experiment in depth perception
  • Dale Purves Lab [1]
  • Depth perception and sensory substitution |[2]

Notes

1 The term 'parallax vision' is often used as a synonym for binocular vision, and should not be confused with motion parallax. The former allows far more accurate gauging of depth than the latter.Link title


  Results from FactBites:
 
Perception (psychology) - MSN Encarta (1260 words)
Depth perception also plays a major role in size constancy, the tendency to perceive objects as staying the same size despite changes in our distance from them.
Depth perception is the ability to see the world in three dimensions and to perceive distance.
The problem of encoding depth on the two-dimensional retina is quite similar to the problem faced by an artist who wishes to realistically portray depth on a two-dimensional canvas.
Depth perception - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2377 words)
Depth perception combines several types of depth cues grouped into two categories: monocular cues (cues available from the input of just one eye) and binocular cues (cues that require input from both eyes).
Accommodation - This is an oculomotor cue for depth perception.
Depth perception is (along with sexual reproduction), a convincing real-life example of the "thesis+antithesis>synthesis" model of progress developed by Hegel, Fichte, and Engels.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m