FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Deprogramming" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Deprogramming
Part of a series on
Cults

Definitions
Cult
Cults and governments
Cult apologist
Cult of personality
Cult-watching group
Cult suicide
In literature, popular culture
Destructive cult
Groups referred to as cults
Political cult This article does not discuss cult in its original sense of religious practice; for that usage see Cult (religious practice). ... In many countries there exists a separation of church and state and freedom of religion. ... A cult apologist is a term to describe a scholar of cults and/or new religious movements perceived as responding to the movements they study with advocacy instead of with neutral scholarship. ... Billboard of Joseph Stalin. ... A cult-watching group (CWG) is an organized or grass-roots assemblage of people who observe and comment on the largely marginal, often unpopular new religious movements which are often labeled cults. These groups generally fall into the following categories: anti-cult (movement) - Accuses NRMs of using mind control to... Cult suicide is that phenomenon by which some religious groups, in this context often referred to as cults, have led to their membership committing suicide. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A destructive cult is a group (often called cult) with strange beliefs (especially religious ones) and which exploits or destroys its own members or others. ... This list indexes a diverse set of groups and organizations indicated in the popular press and elsewhere as a cult or a sect. Inclusion is based on a single reference: as a cult directly in North American English, a sect in British English or any equivalent foreign language word; as... The word cult is almost never used in regard to political parties, even if they were to share many or most other characteristics associated with religious cults. ...

Individuals
Authors opposing cults
Cult and NRM researchers
Politicians opposing cults Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Steven Hassan Flo Conway Janja Lalich Michael Langone Thomas Lardeur[1] Jim Siegelman Margaret Singer Madeleine Landau Tobias Cult Education... This list includes academic and government researchers and groups studying new religious movements and cults. ... These are politicians, and other government officials who have participated in drafting legislation pertaining to cults and new religious movements, and/or sat on cult government panels such as MIVILUDES. The list may also include politicians and government officials who have taken a prominent stance as either commentators or public...

Organizations
CESNUR
Cult Awareness Network
Fight Against Coercive Tactics
FREECOG
Int'l Cultic Studies Assoc.
MIVILUDES
Reachout Trust CESNUR is a center for studies on new religions, based in Turin, Italy. ... Cult Awareness Network - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Fight Against Coercive Tactics Network, or FACTNet, is a Colorado-based organization committed to educating and facilitating communication about destructive mind control. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The International Cultic Studies Association (ICSA) is: ... an interdisciplinary network of academicians, professionals, former group members, and families who study and educate the public about social-psychological influence and control, authoritarianism, and zealotry in cultic groups, alternative movements, and other environments. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Reachout Trust is an evangelical Christian organisation. ...

Opposition
Anti-Cult Movement
Christian countercult movement
Opposition to cults and NRMs It has been suggested that Opposition to cults and new religious movements be merged into this article or section. ... The Christian countercult movement, also known as discernment ministries is the collective designation for many mostly unrelated ministries and individual Christians who oppose non-mainstream Christian and non-Christian religious groups, which they often call cults. ... Opposition to cults and new religious movements (NRMs) comes from several sources with diverse concerns. ...

Theories / Methodologies
APA Task Force (DIMPAC)
Brainwashing
Cult checklists
Deprogramming
Exit counseling
Mind control
Post-cult trauma The APA Task Force on Deceptive and Indirect Techniques of Persuasion and Control (DIMPAC) was formed at the request of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1983. ... Brainwashing, also known as thought reform or re-education, is the application of persuasive techniques to change the beliefs or behavior of one or more people usually for political or religious purposes. ... A cult checklist is a group of factors proposed to identify objectively which groups, cults, or new religious movements are spurious, or likely to abuse or exploit or otherwise harm its members. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with deprogramming. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... This article is in need of attention. ...

Related
Apostasy
Atrocity story
Bigotry
Charismatic authority
Freedom of Expression
Freedom of religion
Groupthink
Int'l Religious Freedom Act 1998
Large Group Awareness Training
Minority religion
Occult
Project Megiddo
Religious intolerance
Religious persecution
Religious freedom by country
True-believer syndrome
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Witch hunt Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt , from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... An atrocity story as defined by the sociologists David G. Bromley and Anson D. Shupe is the symbolic presentation of action or events (real or imaginary) in such a context that they are made flagrantly to violate the (presumably) shared premises upon which a given set of social relationships should... A bigot is a prejudiced person who is intolerant of opinions, lifestyles, or identities differing from his or her own. ... Jesus is considered by historians such as Weber to be an example of a charismatic religious leader; The sociologist Max Weber defined charismatic authority as resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... It has been suggested that Religious toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Groupthink is any decision-making process in which group members go along with what they believe is the consensus. ... The International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (Public Law 106-55) was passed to promote religious freedom as a US Foreign policy and to advocate on the behalf of the individuals viewed as persecuted in foreign countries on the account of religion. ... Large Group Awareness Training or LGAT is a term popularized in the American Psychological Associations 1986 draft DIMPAC report and also by Margaret Singer in her 1996 book Cults in our Midst to describe intense commercial trainings by non-psychologists which from the outside may resemble group therapy. ... Minority religion is the religion held by a minority of the population of a country, state, or region. ... The word occult comes from the Latin occultus (clandestine, hidden, secret), referring to the knowledge of the secret or knowledge of the hidden and often popularly meaning knowledge of the supernatural, as opposed to knowledge of the visible or knowledge of the measurable, usually referred to as science. ... Project Megiddo was a report researched and written by the FBI under Louis Freehs leadership. ... Religious intolerance is intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs, generally against anothers religious beliefs. ... This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The status of religious freedom around the world varies from country to country. ... True-believer syndrome is a term coined by M. Lamar Keene in his 1976 book The Psychic Mafia referring to an irrational belief in paranormal events, even after direct confession or evidence that the events were fraudulently staged. ... Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ... A witch-hunt was traditionally a search for witches or evidence of witchcraft, which could lead to a witchcraft trial involving the accused person. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

Deprogramming refers to actions to persuade or force a person to abandon allegiance to a religious or political group.


Deprogramming is normally commissioned by concerned relatives of the follower, often parents of adult children, and is taken against his/her will, which has led to controversies over freedom of religion and civil rights. It has been suggested that Religious toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...


Supporters of deprogramming portray the practice as an antidote to deceptive religious conversion practices by cults, such as mind control, brainwashing, thought reform, or coercive persuasion. They describe it as a last resort for families who feel that their loved ones have been taken away from them. Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original sense of religious practice; for that usage see Cult (religious practice). ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Brainwashing, also known as thought reform or re-education, is the application of persuasive techniques to change the beliefs or behavior of one or more people usually for political or religious purposes. ... Thought reform is the alteration of a persons basic attitudes and beliefs by outside manipulation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Brainwashing. ...


The validity and legality of involuntary deprogramming has been attacked by members of new religious movements (NRM), by professor Eileen Barker, and other scholars. Their common argument asserts that it is dangerous and illegal to kidnap someone from any organization in which they voluntarily participate. Barker further argues that if the involuntary deprogramming fails then it will only widen the rift between the member of the NRM and his or her family. A new religious movement or NRM is a religious, ethical, or spiritual grouping of fairly recent origin which is not part of an established religion and has not yet become recognised as a standard denomination, church, or religious body. ... Eileen Barker is a professor in sociology and is an emeritus member of the London School of Economics, and a consultant to that institutions Centre for the Study of Human Rights at. ...


While during the 1970s and 1980s deprogramming was the main technique used to aid cults victims, if not the only available, in later years other types of interventions followed, such as exit counseling, that are less traumatic for the follower and don't use any coercion. Deprogramming has almost completely fallen into disuse with the emergence of less controversial methods[citation needed]. See: Intervention (counseling) - an orchestrated attempt by family and friends to get a family member to get help for addiction or other similar problem. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with deprogramming. ...


Sometimes the word deprogramming is used in a wider sense, to mean the freeing of someone (often oneself) from any previously uncritically assimilated idea. An idea (Greek: ιδέα) is a specific thought which arises in the mind. ...

Contents

Deprogramming procedures

There has never been any "standard" deprogramming procedure and the descriptions vary greatly. There are many anecdotal reports and studies involving interviews of former deprogrammees. Steve Dubrow-Eichel did a professional study and analysis of the deprogramming of an ISKCON member which he accompanied and taped to a great part (with voluntary consent of all participants). The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) is a new religious movement based on Bengali, or more specifically Gaudiya, Vaishnavism founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, referred to by followers as His Divine Grace, in New York in 1966. ...


Deprogrammers generally operate on the assumption that the persons they are paid to extract from religious organizations are victims of mind control (or "brainwashing"). Books written by deprogrammers and exit counselors assert that the most essential part of "freeing the mind" of the person is to convince him that he had been under "control".[citation needed] Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Brainwashing, also known as thought reform or re-education, is the application of persuasive techniques to change the beliefs or behavior of one or more people usually for political or religious purposes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with deprogramming. ...


In practice, the vast majority of the time spent during deprogramming sessions is the marshalling of evidence aimed at proving that the "cult" deceived and manipulated the recruit into joining. Once the person accepts this premise, the remainder of the process is relatively easy.[citation needed]


Psychologist Steve Dubrow-Eichel found in published deprogramming accounts, besides a lot of variations, a number of common factors:

  • voluntary or involuntary removal from the cultic milieu
  • establishing a personal relationship
  • disputing cult information and imparting new information on the cult
  • interference with cult-supported attentional patterns used to block oneself from outside influences (chanting, self-induced trance states, etc.)
  • an overt or covert sign that the deprogrammee has renounced his or her allegiance to the cult

The deprogramming observed by Dubrow-Eichel did not stress emotion, but information and logical analysis of alleged contradictions between words and deeds of the ISKCON leaders.


Ted Patrick, one of the pioneers of deprogramming, used a confrontational method: Ted Patrick was considered the father of deprogramming. Patrick helped found the Citizens Freedom Foundation, which evolved into the Cult Awareness Network. ...

"When you deprogram people, you force them to think...But I keep them off balance and this forces them to begin questioning, to open their minds. When the mind gets to a certain point, they can see through all the lies that they've been programmed to believe. They realize that they've been duped and they come out of it. Their minds start working again."

Sylvia Buford, an associate of Ted Patrick who has assisted him on many deprogrammings, described five stages of deprogramming (Stoner, C., & Parke, J. (1977). All God's children: The cult experience - salvation or slavery? Radrior, PA: Chilton ):

  1. Discredit the figure of authority: the cult leader
  2. Present contradictions (ideology vs. reality): "How can he preach love when he exploits people?" is an example.
  3. The breaking point: When a subject begins to listen to the deprogrammer; when reality begins to take precedence over ideology.
  4. Self-expression: When the subject begins to open up and to voice some of his own gripes against the cult.
  5. Identification and transference: when the subject begins to identify with the deprogrammers, starts to think of himself as an opponent of the cult rather than a member of it.

Deprogramming and kidnapping

Deprogramming has often been associated with kidnapping, which has in some cases been part of the procedure. The percentage stated of cases involving kidnapping varies a lot, depending on the source. Joseph Szimhart, a former deprogrammer, says "until 1992, in a low percentage of my cases, included situations in which families elected to confine and sometimes abduct a 'cultist' to a deprogramming." (Kent & Szimhart, 2002). Former deprogrammer Rick Ross states that 90% of his deprogrammings since 1982 had been voluntary [1], other figures talk about 30% of the cases including kidnapping. 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Rick Alan Ross (born 1952 in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, as Ricky Allan Ross) is a private consultant and lecturer in the area of cults. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Deprogramming and violence

The deprogramming accounts vary a lot regarding the use of force, with the most dramatic accounts coming from deprogrammees who returned to the cult.


Steven Hassan in his book Releasing the Bonds spoke decidedly against coercive deprogramming methods using force or threats. Steven Alan Hassan is an anti-cult activist and is the president and treasurer of the Freedom of Mind Resource Center, Inc. ...


The deprogramming case observed by Dubrow-Eichel did not include any violence.


Sociologist Eileen Barker wrote in Watching for Violence: Eileen Barker is a professor in sociology and is an emeritus member of the London School of Economics, and a consultant to that institutions Centre for the Study of Human Rights at. ...

"Although deprogramming has become less violent in the course of time ... Numerous testimonies by those who were subjected to a deprogramming describe how they were threatened with a gun, beaten, denied sleep and food and/or sexually assaulted. But one does not have to rely on the victims for stories of violence: Ted Patrick, one of the most notorious deprogrammers used by CAGs (who has spent several terms in prison for his exploits) openly boasts about some of the violence he employed; in November 1987, Cyril Vosper, a Committee member of the British cult-awareness group, FAIR, was convicted in Munich of "causing bodily harm" in the course of one of his many deprogramming attempts; and a number of similar convictions are on record for prominent members of CAGs elsewhere."

In Colombrito vs. Kelly, the Court accepted the definition of deprogramming by J. Le Moult published in 1978 in the Fordham Law Review: Ted Patrick was considered the father of deprogramming. Patrick helped found the Citizens Freedom Foundation, which evolved into the Cult Awareness Network. ... Cyril Ronald Vosper (7 June 1935 – 4 May 2004) was a Scientologist and later a critic of Scientology. ...

"Deprogrammers are people who, at the request of a parent or other close relative, will have a member of a religious sect seized, then hold him against his will and subject him to mental, emotional, and even physical pressures until he renounces his religious beliefs. Deprogrammers usually work for a fee, which may easily run as high as $25,000. The deprogramming process begins with abduction. Often strong men muscle the subject into a car and take him to a place where he is cut from everyone but his captors. He may be held against his will for upward of three weeks. Frequently, however, the initial deprogramming only last a few days. The subject's sleep is limited and he is told that he will not be released until his beliefs meet his captors' approval. Members of the deprogramming group, as well as members of the family, come into the room where the victim is held and barrage him with questions and denunciations until he recants his newly found religion "

Exit counselor Carol Giambalvo writes in From Deprogramming to Thought Reform Consultation

"It was believed that the hold of the brainwashing over the cognitive processes of a cult member needed to be broken – or "snapped" as some termed it – by means that would shock or frighten the cultist into thinking again. For that reason in some cases cult leader's pictures were burned or there were highly confrontational interactions between deprogrammers and cultist. What was often sought was an emotional response to the information, the shock, the fear, and the confrontation. There are horror stories – promoted most vehemently by the cults themselves – about restraint, beatings, and even rape. And we have to admit that we have met former members who have related to us their deprogramming experience – several of handcuffs, weapons wielded and sexual abuse. But thankfully, these are in the minority – and in our minds, never justified. Nevertheless, deprogramming helped to free many individuals held captive to destructive cults at a time when other alternatives did not seem viable. "

Since the success of the deprogramming determined the legality of the endeavor (successful=recovered cult victim, or unsuccessful=traumatized kidnap victim), progressively extreme measures were taken.


History

An American named Ted Patrick was one of the most prominent early proponents of deprogramming. Most of the deprogramming cases took place in the United States, with only sporadic cases in Western Europe. In Europe, attempts to justify deprogramming continue on the basis of opinions by psychiatrists and psychologists. [citation needed] In the United States such opinions have been successfully challenged in court and are not supported by the American Psychological Association (APA).[2] Ted Patrick was considered the father of deprogramming. Patrick helped found the Citizens Freedom Foundation, which evolved into the Cult Awareness Network. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...


Controversy and related issues

One of the points which fired deprogramming controversies was the fact that they were in the majority of cases successful.


One of main objections raised to deprogramming (as well as to exit counseling) is the contention that they begin with a false premise.[citation needed] Lawyers for some groups who have lost members due to deprogramming, as well as some civil libertarians, sociologists and psychologists, argue that it is not the religious groups but rather the deprogrammers who are the ones who deceive and manipulate people.[citation needed] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with deprogramming. ... A civil libertarian is one who is actively concerned with the protection of individual civil liberties and civil rights. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... A psychologist is a scientist and/or clinician who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior and cognition. ...


Public support for deprogramming hinges on the degree to which people agree or disagree with the mind control model. In the United States, from the mid-1970s and throughout the 1980s mind control was widely accepted, and the vast majority of newspaper and magazine accounts of deprogrammings assumed that recruits' relatives were well justified to seek conservatorships and to hire deprogrammers. It took nearly 20 years for public opinion to shift. Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ... Categories: Templates for deletion | Articles which may be biased | Law stubs ...


One aspect that gradually became disturbing from a civil rights point of view, was that relatives would use deception, or legal dealings or even kidnapping to get the recruit into deprogrammers' hands, without allowing the person any recourse to a lawyer or psychiatrist of their own choosing. Previously, there would be a sanity hearing first, and only then a commitment to an asylum or involuntary therapy. But with deprogramming, judges routinely granted parents legal authority over their adult children without a hearing.


After 10 or 15 years of this, some of these adult children began suing their parents or deprogrammers. Since that time, involuntary deprogramming has been virtually unknown in the United States.


Also, in the mid-1980s, psychologist Margaret Singer stopped being accepted as an expert witness after the APA declined to endorse the DIMPAC report.[citation needed] See also Brainwashing controversy in new religious movements. Margaret Thaler Singer (1921 - 2003) was a clinical psychologist and emeritus professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, USA. Dr. Singer was born in Denver and received her bachelors, masters and doctoral degrees from the University of Denver. ... An expert witness is a witness, who by virtue of education, or profession, or experience, is believed to have special knowledge of his subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially (and legally) rely upon his opinion. ... The APA Task Force on Deceptive and Indirect Techniques of Persuasion and Control (DIMPAC) was formed at the request of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1983. ... Brainwashing, also known as thought reform or re-education, is the application of persuasive techniques to change the beliefs or behavior of one or more people usually for political or religious purposes. ...


Deprogrammers claim that the voluntary participation is due to "mind control," a controversial theory that a person's thought processes can be changed by outside forces. They justify this intervention or "therapy" as necessary to bring the person out from under the influence of the group's "mind control." The existence of mind control is widely disputed. Modern behavorist psychology, however, can do much to explain the ability of external forces to control actions even if it has studied little regarding the internal thought processes associated with them (although relational framing and other theoretical constructs hedge into such territory). Present-day psychological principles suggest that traditional deprogramming approaches would almost certainly be inferior to other forms of intervention. Even supposing mind control is possible, it would be extremely difficult to prove to a legal standard that any individual person's mind has been controlled. In light of the legal and psychological issues, less intrusive and more patient-oriented interventions will likely replace this practice completely. Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Behaviorism is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behaviour can be studied and explained scientifically without recourse to internal mental states. ...


Involuntary deprogramming has fallen into disfavor because of its controversial aspects. A number of prominent anti-cult groups and persons have distanced themselves from the practice, noting that a less intrusive form of intervention called exit counseling has been shown to be more effective, less harmful, and less likely to lead to legal action. Organizations often referred to as cults, such as the Church of Scientology, insist that the practice is still commonplace, and they often make statements that their critics and opponents are "deprogrammers." It has been suggested that Opposition to cults and new religious movements be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with deprogramming. ... Scientology is a system of beliefs and practices created by American pulp fiction[1][2] and science fiction [3] author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as a self-help philosophy. ...


The American Civil Liberties Union published a statement in 1977 in which they position deprogramming as a violation of constitutional freedoms: The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a major American non-profit organization with headquarters in New York City, whose stated mission is to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States.[1] It...

"ACLU opposes the use of mental incompetency proceedings, temporary conservatorship, or denial of government protection as a method of depriving people of the free exercise of religion, at least with respect to people who have reached the age of majority. Mode of religious proselytizing or persuasion for a continued adherence that do not employ physical coercion or threat of same are protected by the free exercise of religion clause of the First Amendment against action of state laws or by state officials. The claim of free exercise may not be overcome by the contention that 'brainwashing' or 'mind control' has been used, in the absence of evidence that the above standards have been violated."

In the 1980s in the United States, namely in New York (Deprogramming Bill, 1981), Kansas (Deprogramming Bill, 1982), and Nebraska (conservatorship legislation for 1985), lawmakers unsuccessfully attempted to legalize involuntary deprogramming. NY redirects here. ... Official language(s) none Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ...


Rev. Sun Myung Moon, founder of the Unification Church (many of whose members were targets of deprogramming) issued this statement in 1983: Sun Myung Moon in 2005. ... The Unification Church is a new religious movement started by Sun Myung Moon in Korea in the 1940s. ...

The methods involved in "deprogramming" are like those used in Communist concentration camps. Using parents and relatives to entrap members, "deprogrammers" commit grown adults to mental hospitals with the supposed "illness" of holding of a minority religious belief. Other typical deprogramming techniques include kidnapping, illegal detention, violence, psychological harassment, sleep deprivation, inducement to use alcohol and drugs, sexual seduction and rape. By such threats, harassment and manipulation professional "deprogrammers" force members to renounce their faith. Many people are injured physically and psychologically because of this criminal activity. [3]

Sleep deprivation is a general lack of the necessary amount of sleep. ...

People and Places

During the 1990s, Rick Ross, a noted cult intervention advocate who allegedly took part in a number of deprogramming sessions, was sued by Jason Scott, a former member of a group called the Life Tabernacle Church, after an attempt at intervention after an abduction was unsuccessful. The jury awarded Scott $875,000 in compensatory damages and $1,000,000 in punitive damages against the Cult Awareness Network, and $2,500,000 against Ross, which were later settled for $5,000 and 200 hours of services "as an expert consultant and intervention specialist" (Scott vs. Ross, Workman, Simpson, Cult Awareness Network). The judgement was used to force CAN into bankruptcy, and its name and assets were purchased by a representative of the Church of Scientology, which had been frequently criticized by CAN, shortly afterwards. This case was seen as effectively closing the door on the practice of involuntary deprogramming. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Cult Awareness Network - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. ...


Ted Patrick was found guilty of kidnapping Roberta McElfish, a 25-year old woman of Tucson, Ariz., in order to "deprogram" her in 1980 from a group known as the Wesley Thomas Family.


In the case of Kathy Crampton, she went back to the group Love Israel several days after the apparently successful deprogramming. Patrick was charged for kidnapping, but he was acquitted with the reasoning:

"[w]here parents are, as here, of the reasonable and intelligent belief that they were not physically capable of recapturing their daughter from existing, imminent danger, then the defense of necessity transfers or transposes to the constituted agent, the person who acts upon their belief under such conditions. Here that agent is the Defendant [Ted Patrick] ((District Court of the United States 1974: 79; New York Times 1974).

Steve Hassan, author of the book Combatting Cult Mind Control, states that he took part in a number of deprogrammings in the late 1970s, and has spoken out against them since 1980 [1]. Hassan states that he has not participated in any deprogrammings since then, even though page 114 of Combatting, Hassan states that depogrammings can be kept as last resort if all other attempts fail. He is one of the major proponents of exit counseling as a form of intervention therapy, and he refers to his method as "strategic intervention therapy." Steve Hassan Steven Alan Hassan is a specialist researcher on organizations regarded as cults. ... Combatting Cult Mind Control: The #1 Best-selling Guide to Protection, Rescue, and Recovery from Destructive Cults is an non-fiction by Steven Hassan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with deprogramming. ...


Deprogramming and exit counseling

Deprogramming and exit counseling, sometimes seen as one and the same, are distinct approaches to helping a person to leave a "cult". Some people blur the distinctions on purpose: some practioners do so to avoid criticism; some opponents do so to intensify criticism.


Proponents of the distinction, however, state that deprogramming entails coercion and confinement. In exit counseling the cult member is free to leave at any time. Deprogramming typically costs $10,000 or more, mainly because of the expense of a security team. Exit counseling typically costs $2,000 to $4,000, including expenses, for a three-to-five day intervention, although cases requiring extensive research of little-known groups can cost much more. Deprogramming, especially when it fails, entails considerable legal and psychological risk (e.g., a permanent alienation of the cultist from his or her family). The psychological and legal risks in exit counseling are much smaller. Although deprogrammers prepare families for the process, exit counselors tend to work more closely with families and expect them to contribute more to the process; that is, exit counseling requires that families establish a reasonable and respectful level of communication with their loved one before the exit counseling proper can begin. Because they rely on coercion, which is illegal except in the case of conservatorship and is generally viewed as unethical, deprogrammers' critiques of the unethical practices of cults will tend to have less credibility with cult members than the critiques of exit counselors.[4]


Deprogramming in popular culture

The 70s was a TV miniseries about four friends in the 1970s. One of the friends, played by Amy Smart, suffering a series of failures which damaged her self-esteem. She joins an apparent spiritualist group and changes her name, but does not realize it is under control of Jim Jones. The other friends wish to get her away from the cult, but express concern that the deprogrammer hired seems militaristic and freaky. Another of the friends, played by Guy Torry does the deprogramming himself, showing her pictures and films of her childhood. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Amy Smart Amy L. Smart (born March 26, 1976) is an American actress. ... This article is about the cult leader; for other people named Jim Jones, see Jim Jones (disambiguation). ... Guy Torry Robert Guy Torry (born January 5, 1969) is an American actor and comedian. ...


A Bugs Bunny cartoon dealt with Elmer Fudd who apparently loses his mind when he thinks he is a rabbit, and gets committed to a mental institution. Bugs Bunny, in his naivete, allows Elmer Fudd to escape. He is then mistakenly deprogrammed into thinking he is Elmer Fudd, which then creates a hilarious situation as Elmer Fudd in a bunny costume is trying to escape from Bugs Bunny who is wearing a hunter's outfit, believing he is Elmer Fudd. Bugs Bunny is an Academy Award-winning street-smart anthropomorphic gray rabbit who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... Elmer Fudd The fictional cartoon character Elmer J. Fudd, now one of the most famous Looney Tunes/Merrie Melodies characters, also has one of the more convoluted and disputed origins in the Warner Brothers cartoon pantheon (second only to Bugs Bunny himself). ...


An episode of The Simpsons called Burns' Heir dealt with the family trying to steal Bart away from Mr. Burns, who they believe is taking over Bart's life and upbringing. A deprogrammer who works for an agency (which is owned by Mrs. Fields' Cookies) is hired. By mistake, the deprogrammer abducts Hans Moleman and gets him to believe Homer and Marge are his parents. Simpsons redirects here. ... Burns Heir is the eighteenth episode of The Simpsons fifth season, first aired on April 14, 1994. ... Hans Moleman is a fictional character of The Simpsons and is voiced by Dan Castellaneta. ...


See also

theory of conversion exit tactics
brainwashing
coercive persuasion
love bombing
mind control
personality alteration
religious conversion
snapping
thought reform
deprogramming
exit counseling
intervention (counseling)
post-cult trauma
psychotherapy

Opposition to cults and new religious movements (NRMs) comes from several sources with diverse concerns. ... An intervention is an orchestrated attempt by one, or often many, people (usually family and friends) to get someone to seek professional help with an addiction or some kind of traumatic event or crisis. ... Brainwashing, also known as thought reform or re-education, is the application of persuasive techniques to change the beliefs or behavior of one or more people usually for political or religious purposes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Brainwashing. ... Love bombing is the deliberate show of affection or friendship by an individual or a group of people toward another individual. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Personality alteration is a theory often associated with cults. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ... Snapping is a term coined by Flo Conway and Jim Siegelman in the 1978 anti-cult book of the same name to describe the mental process by which a recruit is converted by a mind control cult and other religious movements. ... Thought reform is the alteration of a persons basic attitudes and beliefs by outside manipulation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with deprogramming. ... An intervention is an orchestrated attempt by one, or often many, people (usually family and friends) to get someone to seek professional help with an addiction or some kind of traumatic event or crisis. ... This article is in need of attention. ... // Psychotherapy is a range of techniques based on dialogue, communication and behavior change and which are designed to improve the mental health of a client or patient, or to improve group relationships (such as in a family). ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Refuting the Disinformation Attacks Put Forth by Destructive Cults and their Agents, by Steven Hassan

Bibliography

  • Conway, Flo & Jim Siegelman, Snapping (1978), excerpt ISBN 0-9647650-0-4
  • Colombrito v. Kelly, 764 F.2d 122 (2d Cir. 1985)
  • Dubrow-Eichel, Steve K., Ph.D.: Deprogramming: A Case Study, Cultic Studies Journal
  • Stephen A. Kent and Josef Szimhart: Exit Counseling and the Decline of Deprogramming., Cultic Studies Review 1 No.3, 2002
  • Langone, Michael: Deprogramming, Exit Counseling, and Ethics, Clarifying the Confusion, Christian Research Institute Journal, 1993 [5]
  • Melton, Gordon, J. "Brainwashing": Career of a Myth in the United States and Europe, . [6]
  • Le Moult J. (1978), Deprograrnming members of religious sects, Fordham Law Review, 46, pp. 599-640.
  • Ross, Rick: A brief history of cult intervention work, 1999 [7]
  • Szimhart, Joseph: Persistence of "Deprogramming" Stereotypes in Film, Cultic Studies Journal, 3/2 2004
  • Deprogramming, Exit Counseling, and Ethics: Clarifying the Confusion - by Michael D. Langone and Paul R. Martin, from the Viewpoint column of the Christian Research Journal, Winter 1993, page 46.

Stephen A. Kent, Ph. ... Michael Langone, Ph. ... Dr. John Gordon Melton is the founding director of the Institute for the Study of American Religion and is a research specialist with the Department of Religious Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. ... Michael D. Langone, Ph. ... Paul R. Martin, Ph. ...

Dramatization

  • Holy Smoke! 1999 movie based on the book with the same name

Holy Smoke! is a 1999 Australian film directed by Jane Campion, starring Kate Winslet, Harvey Keitel. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Talk:Deprogramming - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2208 words)
Proponents of deprogramming often have downplayed its coercive aspects, decribing the sessions as involving "counseling".
Opponents of deprogramming have collected 100s of sworn depositions from people who swore that they were captured by surprise and taken by force to undisclosed locations and prevented from contacting friends, lawyers or their own doctors.
The techniques of deprogramming and exit counseling are exactly the same, with the only difference being the degree of legal and physical compulsion used on the target.
From Deprogramming to Thought Reform Consultation (1550 words)
Deprogramming was controversial because it involved forcing a group member to listen to people relate information not available in the cults.
In deprogramming, group members were sometimes abducted from the street; although more commonly they were simply prevented from leaving their homes or a vacation cabin or motel.
Deprogramming often succeeded in extricating the family member from the cult; nevertheless it failed more often than many realized and sometimes lawsuits were filed against parents and deprogrammers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m