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Encyclopedia > Depleted uranium
Depleted uranium storage yard.
Depleted uranium storage yard.

Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium that has a reduced proportion of the isotope Uranium-235. It is mostly made up of Uranium-238. The names Q-metal, depletalloy, and D-38, which once applied to depleted uranium, have fallen into disuse. Image File history File links DUF6_storage_yard_far. ... Image File history File links DUF6_storage_yard_far. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... There are two objects with this name: Unterseeboot 238 Uranium-238, the most common isotope of uranium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Its high strength and density have made it a valued component in some technical applications, specifically in military projectiles. Such uses remain controversial, as U-238 is still radioactive. A projectile is any object sent through the air by the application of some force. ...

Contents

Sources

Depleted uranium is a byproduct of the enriching of natural uranium for use in nuclear reactors. When most of the fissile radioactive isotopes of uranium are removed from natural uranium, the residue is called depleted uranium. A less common source of the material is reprocessed spent reactor fuel. The origin can be distinguished by the content of uranium-236,[1] produced by neutron capture from uranium-235 in nuclear reactors. Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant An induced nuclear fission event. ... Isotopes are atoms of a chemical element whose nuclei have the same atomic number, Z, but different atomic weights, A. The word isotope, meaning at the same place, comes from the fact that isotopes are located at the same place on the periodic table. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... Isotopes of uranium - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The process of neutron capture can proceed in two ways - as a rapid process (an r-process) or a slow process (an s-process). ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


As a toxic and radioactive waste product that requires long term storage as low level nuclear waste, depleted uranium is costly to keep but relatively inexpensive to obtain. Generally the only real costs are those associated with conversion of UF6 to metal. It is extremely dense, 67% denser than lead, only slightly less than tungsten and gold, and just 16% less dense than osmium or iridium, the densest naturally occurring substances known. Its low cost makes it attractive for a variety of uses. However, the material is prone to corrosion and small particles are pyrophoric. [2] The skull and crossbones is a common symbol for toxicity. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per volume. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Atomic mass 190. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iridium, Ir, 77 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 6, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 192. ... Corrosion is deterioration of intrinsic properties in a material due to reactions with its environment. ... A pyrophoric substance is a substance that ignites spontaneously, that is, its autoignition temperature is below room temperature. ...


History

Depleted uranium was first stored in stockpiles in the 1940s when the U.S. and USSR began their nuclear weapons and nuclear power programs. While it is possible to design civilian power reactors with unenriched fuel, only about 10% of reactors ever built utilize that technology, and both nuclear weapons production and naval reactors require the concentrated isotope. Originally, DU was conserved in the hope that more efficient enrichment techniques would allow further extraction of the fissile isotope; however, those hopes have not materialized. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A nuclear power station. ... A pressurised heavy water reactor is a nuclear power reactor that uses unenriched natural uranium as its fuel and heavy water as a moderator (deuterium oxide D2O). ... Nuclear marine propulsion is propulsion of a Merchant ship powered by a nuclear reactor. ...


In the 1970s, The Pentagon reported that the Soviet military had developed armor plating for Warsaw Pact tanks that NATO ammunition couldn't penetrate. The Pentagon began searching for material to make denser bullets. After testing various metals, ordnance researchers settled on depleted uranium. DU was useful in ammunition not only because of its unique physical properties and effectiveness, but also because it was cheap and readily available. Tungsten, the only other candidate, had to be sourced from China. With DU stockpiles estimated to be more than 500,000 tons, the financial burden of housing this amount of low-level radioactive waste was very apparent. It was therefore more economical to use depleted uranium rather than storing it. Thus, from the late 1970s, the U.S., the Soviet Union, Britain and France, began converting their stockpiles of depleted uranium into kinetic energy penetrators. The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located at 48 N. Rotary Road, Arlington, Virginia 22211 (Map). ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per volume. ... Ordnance is a general term for a quantity of military equipment, usually specifying the ammunition for artillery, bombs, or other large weapons. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ...


Photographic evidence of destroyed equipment suggests that DU was first used during the 1973 Arab-Israeli war. Various written reports cite information that was obtained as a consequence of that use.[1] ...


However, while clearing the decades-old Hawaii Stryker firing range, workers have found chemical weapons from World War I era and depleted uranium ammunition from the 1960s [3].


The U.S. military used DU shells in the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 Iraq War (Associated Press, August 12, 2006, free archived copy at: http://www.commondreams.org/headlines06/0812-06.htm most recently visited November 1, 2006). (Redirected from 1991 Gulf War) See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq without the explicit backing of the United...


Production and availability

Natural uranium metal contains about 0.71% U-235, 99.28% U-238, and about 0.0054% U-234. In order to produce enriched uranium, the process of isotope separation removes a substantial portion of the U-235 for use in nuclear power, weapons, or other uses. The remainder, depleted uranium, contains only 0.2% to 0.4% U-235. Because natural uranium begins with such a low percentage of U-235, the enrichment process produces large quantities of depleted uranium. For example, producing 1 kg of 5% enriched uranium requires 11.8 kg of natural uranium, and leaves about 10.8 kg of depleted uranium with only 0.3% U-235 remaining. Natural uranium (NU) refers to refined uranium with the same isotopic ratios as found in nature. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... There are two objects with this name: Unterseeboot 238 Uranium-238, the most common isotope of uranium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... U-234 is an isotope of uranium. ... // Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes, for example separating natural uranium into enriched uranium and depleted uranium. ...

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) defines depleted uranium as uranium with a percentage of the 235U isotope that is less than 0.711% by weight (See 10 CFR 40.4.) The military specifications designate that the DU used by DoD contain less than 0.3% 235U (AEPI, 1995). In actuality, DoD uses only DU that contains approximately 0.2% 235U (AEPI, 1995). NRC headquarters in Rockville, MD. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (or NRC) is a United States government agency that was established by the Energy Reorganization Act in 1974, and was first opened January 19, 1975. ... DOD is a three letter acronym which holds several meanings: The United States Department of Defense; Day of Defeat, a computer game, modification of Half-Life; Direct Outward Dial(ing), a telephone service used within a PBX; Drink or Die, a major and now defunct software cracking and warez trading...

World Depleted Uranium Inventory
Country Organization DU Stocks (in tonnes) Reported
United States USA DOE 480,000 2002
Russia FAEA 460,000 1996
France France COGEMA 190,000 2001
Israel BNFL 50,000 2001
United Kingdom UK BNFL 30,000 2001
Germany Germany URENCO 16,000 1999
Japan JNFL 10,000 2001
China CNNC 2,000 2000
South Korea KAERI 200 2002
South Africa South Africa NECSA 73 2001
TOTAL 1,188,273 2002
Source: WISE Uranium Project

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... The Ministry for Atomic Energy (Russian Federation) is the ministry of Russia responsible for all things nuclear. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Cogema (Compagnie générale des matières nucléaires), a French company created in 1976 as a wholly owned subsidiary of the AREVA group, is an industrial group active in uranium mining, conversion and enrichment through spent fuel reprocessing and recycling. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel_(bordered). ... BNFLs 18 UK sites BNFL, British Nuclear Fuels plc, is an international company, owned by the British government, concerned with nuclear power. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... BNFLs 18 UK sites BNFL, British Nuclear Fuels plc, is an international company, owned by the British government, concerned with nuclear power. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The Urenco Group operates uranium enrichment plants in Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom] and supplies nuclear power stations in about 15 countries in Europe and overseas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... The China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) was established on 16 September 1988 by a Government of China decree. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea_(bordered). ... Korea Atomic Energy Rearch Institute http://www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Necsa formerly the Nuclear Energy Corperation of South Africa, was established as a public company by the Union of South Africa Nuclear Energy Act in 1999 and is wholly-owned by the State. ...

Military applications

Approximate area and major clashes in which DU bullets and rounds were used in the Gulf War
Approximate area and major clashes in which DU bullets and rounds were used in the Gulf War

Depleted uranium is very dense; at 19050 kg/m³, it is 70% denser than lead. Thus a given weight of it has a smaller diameter than an equivalent lead projectile, with less aerodynamic drag and deeper penetration due to a higher pressure at point of impact. DU projectile ordnance is often incendiary because of its pyrophoric property. Image File history File links GWI_DU_map. ... Image File history File links GWI_DU_map. ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Strength 660,000 360,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War (1990–1991) (also called the Persian Gulf War, Operation Desert Storm, or Second Gulf War) was a conflict between... Image File history File links 30mm_DU_slug. ... Image File history File links 30mm_DU_slug. ... In mathematics, the term dense has at least three different meanings. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... External ballistics is the part of ballistics tht refers to the behavior of a bullet after it exits the barrel and before it hits the target. ... Terminal ballistics, a sub-field of ballistics, is the study of the behavior of a projectile when it hits its target. ... A pyrophoric substance is a substance that ignites spontaneously, that is, its autoignition temperature is below room temperature. ...


Armor plate

Because of its high density, depleted uranium can also be used in tank armor, sandwiched between sheets of steel armor plate. For instance, some late-production M1A1HA and M1A2 Abrams tanks built after 1998 have DU reinforcement as part of its armor plating in the front of the hull and the front of the turret and there is a program to upgrade the rest. The M1 Abrams main battle tank is the principal combat tank of the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps, with three main versions being deployed starting in 1980: the M1, M1A1, and M1A2. ...


Ammunition

Most military use of depleted uranium has been as 30 mm and smaller ordnance, primarily the 30 mm PGU-14/B armour-piercing incendiary round from the GAU-8 Avenger cannon of the A-10 Thunderbolt II [4] used by the U.S. Air Force. 25 mm DU rounds have been used in the M242 gun mounted on the U.S. Army's Bradley Fighting Vehicle and LAV-AT. The U.S. Marine Corps uses DU in the 25 mm PGU-20 round fired by the GAU-12 Equalizer cannon of the AV-8B Harrier, and also in the 20 mm M197 gun mounted on AH-1 helicopter gunships. The US Navy's Phalanx CIWS's M61 Vulcan gatling gun used 20 mm armor-piercing penetrator rounds with discarding plastic sabots which were made using depleted uranium, later changed to tungsten. Ordnance is a general term for a quantity of military equipment, usually specifying the ammunition for artillery, bombs, or other large weapons. ... The GAU-8 Avenger The General Electric GAU-8/A Avenger is a 30 mm, seven-barrel Gatling gun that is mounted on the United States Air Forces A-10 Thunderbolt II. It is the largest, heaviest and most powerful purpose-built aircraft cannon in the United States military. ... Primary user United States Air Force Number built 715 Unit cost US$9. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... Caliber: 25 mm NATO Firearm action: Chain gun Manufactured by: ATK Barrel Length: 85. ... The M2 Bradley IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) and M3 Bradley CFV (Cavalry Fighting Vehicle) are American infantry fighting vehicles manufactured by BAE Systems Land and Armaments, (formerly United Defense). ... This article is becoming very long. ... The General Electric GAU-12/U Equalizer is a 25 mm, five-barrel Gatling gun used by the United States and several other NATO nations. ... The Boeing/BAE Systems AV-8B Harrier II is a family of second-generation vertical/short takeoff and landing or V/STOL jet mullti-role aircraft of the late 20th century. ... The M197 electric cannon is a three-barreled electric Gatling gun developed primarily for use by US Army helicopter gunships. ... The Bell AH-1 Cobra, called the Huey Cobra, Cobra, Sea Cobra, Super Cobra, or Snake (depending on the model), is an attack helicopter, designed by Bell Helicopter Textron. ... Block 0 CIWS The Phalanx CIWS (Close-in weapon system, pronounced see-whizz) is an anti-missile system that was designed and manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division. ... Unmounted M61 Vulcan The 20 mm M61 Vulcan is a hydraulically or pneumatically driven, six-barreled, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style gun with an extremely high rate of fire. ... A 1865 Gatling gun. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ...


Another use of depleted uranium is in kinetic energy penetrators anti-armor role. Kinetic energy penetrator rounds consist of a long, relatively thin penetrator surrounded by discarding sabot. Two materials lend themselves to penetrator construction: tungsten and depleted uranium, the latter in designated alloys known as staballoys. Staballoys are metal alloys of depleted uranium with a very small proportion of other metals, usually titanium or molybdenum. One formulation has a composition of 99.25% by weight of depleted uranium and 0.75% by weight of titanium. Another variant can have 3.5% by weight of titanium. Staballoys are about twice as dense as lead and are designed for use in kinetic energy penetrator armor-piercing ammunition. The US Army uses DU in an alloy with around 3.5% titanium. French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... An APFSDS separating from its spindle sabot Anti-tank flechette round with its sabot A sabot refers to a device named for a shoe used in a firearm or cannon to fire a projectile or bullet that is smaller than the bore diameter. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ... Staballoys are metal alloys of a high proportion of depleted uranium with other metals, usually titanium or molybdenum, designed for use in kinetic energy penetrator armor-piercing munitions. ... Staballoys are metal alloys of a high proportion of depleted uranium with other metals, usually titanium or molybdenum, designed for use in kinetic energy penetrator armor-piercing munitions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass 47. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Atomic mass 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ... An Armour piercing shell is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armour. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... General Name, Symbol, Number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass 47. ...


Staballoys, along with lower raw material costs, have the advantage of being easy to melt and cast into shape; a difficult and expensive process for tungsten. Depleted uranium is favored for the penetrator because it is self-sharpening and pyrophoric. On impact with a hard target, such as an armoured vehicle, the nose of the rod fractures in such a way that it remains sharp. The impact and subsequent release of heat energy causes it to disintegrate to dust and burn when it reaches air because of its pyrophoric properties (compare to ferrocerium). After a disintegrated DU penetrator reaches the interior of an armored vehicle, it explodes, often igniting ammunition and fuel, incinerating the crew, and causing the vehicle to explode. DU is used by the U.S. Army in 120 mm or 105 mm cannons employed on the M1 Abrams and M60A3 tanks. The Russian military has used DU ammunition in tank main gun ammunition since the late 1970s, mostly for the 115 mm guns in the T-62 tank and the 125 mm guns in the T-64, T-72, T-80, and T-90 tanks. A pyrophoric substance is a substance that ignites spontaneously, that is, its autoignition temperature is below room temperature. ... A pyrophoric substance is a substance that ignites spontaneously, that is, its autoignition temperature is below room temperature. ... Ferrocerium is the flint in lighters, and its ability to give a large number of sparks when scraped against a rough surface (pyrophoricity) is used in many other applications, such as clockwork toys and strikers for welding torches. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The M1 Abrams main battle tank is the principal combat tank of the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps, with three main versions being deployed starting in 1980: the M1, M1A1, and M1A2. ... The M47, M48 and M60 Patton were the United States Armys principal tanks of the Korean and Vietnam Wars. ... The T-62 Soviet main battle tank is a further development of the T-54/55 series. ... The T-64, a Soviet main battle tank, was introduced in the late 1960s. ... The T-72, a Soviet main battle tank entered production in 1971. ... The T-80 is a Soviet/Russian/Ukrainian main battle tank. ... The T-90 is a main battle tank of Russian Federation Army. ...

1987 photo of Mark 149 Mod 2 20mm depleted uranium ammunition for the Phalanx CIWS aboard USS Missouri (BB-63).
1987 photo of Mark 149 Mod 2 20mm depleted uranium ammunition for the Phalanx CIWS aboard USS Missouri (BB-63).

The DU content in various ammunition is 180 g in 20 mm projectiles, 200 g in 25 mm ones, 280g in 30 mm, 3.5 kg in 105 mm, and 4.5 kg in 120 mm penetrators. It is used in the form of Staballoy. The US Navy used DU in its 20 mm Phalanx CIWS guns, but switched in the late 1990s to armor-piercing tungsten for this application, because of the fire risk associated with stray pyrophoric rounds. DU was used during the mid-1990s in the U.S. to make 9 mm and similar caliber armor piercing bullets, grenades, cluster bombs, and mines, but those applications have been discontinued, according to Alliant Techsystems. Whether or not other nations still make such use of DU is difficult to determine. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1830x2810, 3272 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Depleted uranium ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1830x2810, 3272 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Depleted uranium ... Block 0 CIWS The Phalanx CIWS (Close-in weapon system, pronounced see-whizz) is an anti-missile system that was designed and manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... Staballoys are metal alloys of a high proportion of depleted uranium with other metals, usually titanium or molybdenum, designed for use in kinetic energy penetrator armor-piercing munitions. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Block 0 CIWS The Phalanx CIWS (Close-in weapon system, pronounced see-whizz) is an anti-missile system that was designed and manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ... An Armour piercing shell is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armour. ... Honest John missile warhead cutaway, showing M139 Sarin bomblets (photo circa 1960) Cluster munitions are air-dropped or ground launched shells that eject multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ... Land Mine board near the end of a game This article is about the drinking game. ... Alliant Techsystems NYSE: ATK is a major US aerospace and defense contractor with sales of approximately USD $2. ...


It is thought that between 17 and 20 states have weapons incorporating depleted uranium in their arsenals. They include the USA, the UK, France, Russia, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Egypt, Kuwait, Pakistan, Thailand, Iraq and Taiwan. DU ammunition is manufactured in 18 countries. While only the US and the UK have acknowledged using DU weapons, its use by other states cannot be excluded[2].


Legal status in weapons

In 1996 the International Court of Justice (ICJ) gave an advisory opinion on the "legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons".[3] This made it clear, in paragraphs 54, 55 and 56, that international law on poisonous weapons, – the Second Hague Declaration of 29 July 1899, Hague Convention IV of 18 October 1907 and the Geneva Protocol of 17 June 1925 – did not cover nuclear weapons, because their prime or exclusive use was not to poison or asphyxiate. This ICJ opinion was about nuclear weapons, but the sentence "The terms have been understood, in the practice of States, in their ordinary sense as covering weapons whose prime, or even exclusive, effect is to poison or asphyxiate." also removes depleted uranium weaponry from coverage by the same treaties as their primary use is not to poison or asphyxiate, but to destroy materiel and kill soldiers through kinetic energy. Peace Palace, seat of the ICJ. The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: Cour internationale de justice) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ...


The Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the United Nations Human Rights Commission[4], passed two motions [5] the first in 1996[6] and the second in 1997[7]. They listed weapons of mass destruction, or weapons with indiscriminate effect, or of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering and urged all states to curb the production and the spread of such weapons. Included in the list was weaponry containing depleted uranium. The committee authorized a working paper, in the context of human rights and humanitarian norms, of the weapons. The requested UN working paper was delivered in 2002[8] by Y.K.J. Yeung Sik Yuen in accordance with Sub-Commission on Promotion and Protection of Human Rights resolution 2001/36. He argues that the use of DU in weapons, along with the other weapons listed by the Sub‑Commission, may breach one or more of the following treaties: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the Charter of the United Nations; the Genocide Convention; the United Nations Convention Against Torture; the Geneva Conventions including Protocol I; the Convention on Conventional Weapons of 1980; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Yeung Sik Yuen writes in Paragraph 133 under the title "Legal compliance of weapons containing DU as a new weapon": The Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights is the main subsidiary body of the Comission on Human Rights. ... The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, a commission supervised by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, is composed of representatives from 53 member states, and meets each year in regular session in March/April for six weeks in Geneva. ... United Nations Commission on Human Rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (also UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, December 10, 1948), outlining basic human rights. ... The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ... Development of the Geneva Conventions from 1864 to 1949. ... Protocol I: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. ... The United Nations Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or that have indiscriminate effects. ... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 at Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preperatory Commission Parties 170 The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and...

Annex II to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1980 (which became operative on 8 February 1997) classifies DU as a category II nuclear material. Storage and transport rules are set down for that category which indicates that DU is considered sufficiently “hot” and dangerous to warrant these protections. But since weapons containing DU are relatively new weapons no treaty exists yet to regulate, limit or prohibit its use. The legality or illegality of DU weapons must therefore be tested by recourse to the general rules governing the use of weapons under humanitarian and human rights law which have already been analysed in Part I of this paper, and more particularly at paragraph 35 which states that parties to Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 have an obligation to ascertain that new weapons do not violate the laws and customs of war or any other international law. As mentioned, the ICJ considers this rule binding customary humanitarian law.

In 2001, Carla del Ponte, the chief prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, said that NATO's use of depleted uranium in former Yugoslavia could be investigated as a possible war crime[9]. Louise Arbour, del Ponte's predecessor as chief prosecutor, had created a small, internal committee, made up of staff lawyers, to assess the allegation. Their findings, that were accepted and endorsed by del Ponte,[10] concluded that: February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Protocol I: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. ... Procureur (Prosecutor) of the ICTY Carla del Ponte Carla Del Ponte (born February 9, 1947 in Lugano, Switzerland) is currently a Chief UN War Crimes Prosecutor. ... The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), is a body of the United Nations (UN) established to... Louise Arbour Louise Arbour (born February 10, 1947 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada) is the current UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and a former Supreme Court of Canada judge. ...

There is no specific treaty ban on the use of DU projectiles. There is a developing scientific debate and concern expressed regarding the impact of the use of such projectiles and it is possible that, in future, there will be a consensus view in international legal circles that use of such projectiles violate general principles of the law applicable to use of weapons in armed conflict. No such consensus exists at present. (Emphasis added)[11]

Civilian applications

Civilian applications for depleted uranium are fairly limited and are typically unrelated to its radioactive properties. It primarily finds application as ballast because of its high density. Such applications include sailboat keels, as counterweights and sinker bars in oil drills, gyroscope rotors, and in other places where there is a need to place a weight that occupies as little space as possible. Other relatively minor consumer product uses have included: incorporation into dental porcelain used for false teeth to simulate the fluorescence of natural teeth; and in uranium-bearing reagents used in chemistry laboratories. Diagram of Sailboat, in this case a typical monohull sloop with a bermuda or marconi rig. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An oil well is a laymans term for any perforation through the Earths surface designed to find and release both petroleum oil and gas hydrocarbons. ... A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principle of conservation of angular momentum. ... Porcelain used by a dental technician to create lifelike crowns and bridges for the dentist. ... Upper jaw dentures Dentures, or, more accurately, removable complete dentures are full-mouth false teeth, which are used when a patient has no teeth left on either the mandibular arch, the maxillary arch, or both. ...


Uranium was widely used as a coloring matter for porcelain and glass in the 19th century. The practice was believed to be a matter of history, however in 1999 concentrations of 10% depleted uranium were found in "jaune no.17" a yellow enamel powder that was being produced in France by Cristallerie de Saint-Paul, a manufacturer of enamel pigments. The depleted uranium used in the powder was sold by Cogéma's Pierrelatte facility. Cogema has since confirmed that it has made a decision to stop the sale of depleted uranium to producers of enamel and glass. [5] // The Fiesta Name Although commonly referred to as Fiestaware, the actual name of the line of dinnerware glazed in differing solid colors designed by Frederick Hurten Rhead (1880-1942), while Art Director of the Homer Laughlin China company of Newell, West Virginia, and first marketed by them in 1936, is... Missing image A selection of uranium glasses Uranium farce, also known as vaseline farce, is a pale yellow or yellow-green glass made by the inclusion of uranium. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cogema (Compagnie générale des matières nucléaires), a French company created in 1976 as a wholly owned subsidiary of the AREVA group, is an industrial group active in uranium mining, conversion and enrichment through spent fuel reprocessing and recycling. ...


DU is also used for shielding for radiation sources used in medical and industrial radiography. Radiography is the creation of images by exposing a photographic film or other image receptor to X-rays. ...


U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations at 10 CFR 40.25 establish mandatory licensing for the use of depleted uranium contained in industrial products or devices for mass-volume applications. Other jurisdictions have similar regulations


Trim weights in aircraft

Aircraft may also contain depleted uranium trim weights (a Boeing 747-100 may contain 400 to 1,500 kg). This application of DU is controversial. If an aircraft crashes there is concern that the uranium would enter the environment: the metal can oxidize to a fine powder in a fire. While arguably other hazardous materials released from a burning commercial aircraft overshadow the contributions made by DU, its use has been phased out in many newer aircraft, Both Boeing and McDonnell-Douglas discontinued using DU counterweights in the 1980s. The Boeing 747, commonly called a Jumbo Jet, is one of the most recognizable of all jet airliners and is the largest airliner currently in service. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 ) is an aerospace and defense corporation headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. ...


Uranium hexafluoride

About 95% of the depleted uranium produced is stored as uranium hexafluoride, (D)UF6, in steel cylinders in open air yards close to enrichment plants. Each cylinder contains up to 12.7 tonnes (or 14 US tons) of UF6. In the U.S. alone, 560,000 tonnes of depleted UF6 had accumulated by 1993. In 2005, 686,500 tonnes in 57,122 storage cylinders were located near Portsmouth, Ohio, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Paducah, Kentucky. [6], [7] The long-term storage of DUF6 presents environmental, health, and safety risks because of its chemical instability. When UF6 is exposed to moist air, it reacts with the water in the air to produce UO2F2 (uranyl fluoride) and HF (hydrogen fluoride) both of which are highly soluble and toxic. Storage cylinders must be regularly inspected for signs of corrosion and leaks. The estimated life time of the steel cylinders is measured in decades. [8] Uranium hexafluoride, or UF6, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) a compound of uranium ,is an intermediate in the conversion of uranium hexafluoride UF6 to an uranium oxide or metal form and is a direct product of the reaction of UO2F2 with moisture in the air. ... Flash point -37. ...

Hexafluoride tank leaking.
Hexafluoride tank leaking.

There have been several accidents involving uranium hexafluoride in the United States. [9] The U.S. government has been converting DUF6 to solid uranium oxides for disposal. [10] Such disposal of the entire DUF6 inventory could cost anywhere from 15 to 450 million dollars. [11] Image File history File links DUF6_cylinder_leak. ... Image File history File links DUF6_cylinder_leak. ...


Health considerations

The radiological dangers of pure depleted uranium are relatively low, lower (60%) than those of naturally-occurring uranium due to the removal of the more radioactive isotopes, as well as due to its long half-life (4.46 billion years). Depleted uranium differs from natural uranium in its isotopic composition, but its biochemistry is for the most part the same. Radiology is the branch of medical science dealing with the medical use of x-ray machines or other such radiation devices. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of stable or unstable isotopes of particular elements found in an investigated material. ...

For further details see Actinides in the environment.

Health effects of DU are determined by factors such as the extent of exposure and whether it was internal or external. Three main pathways exist by which internalization of uranium may occur: inhalation, ingestion, and embedded fragments or shrapnel contamination. Properties such as phase (e.g. particulate or gaseous), oxidation state (e.g. metallic or ceramic), and the solubility of uranium and its compounds influence their absorption, distribution, translocation, elimination and the resulting toxicity. For example, metallic uranium is relatively non-toxic compared to hexavalent uranium(VI) compounds such as uranyl nitrate. (See «Gmelin Handbuch der anorganischen Chemiek» 8th edition, English translation, Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. U-A7 (1982) pp. 300-322.) This article about actinides in the environment is about the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in the environment. ... In general terms, eating (formally, ingestion) is the process of consuming something edible, i. ... A sectioned Shrapnel shell displayed at the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa Shrapnel is the term used to describe the spherical shot or musket balls dispersed when a shrapnel shell bursts. ... Look up absorption in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Distribution in pharmacology is a branch of pharmacokinetics describing reversible transfer of drug from one location to another within the body. ... In medicine, the clearance, also renal clearance or renal plasma clearance (when referring to the function of the kidney), of a substance is the inverse of the time constant that describes its removal rate from the body divided by its volume of distribution (or total body water). ...


Uranium is pyrophoric when finely divided. It will corrode under the influence of air and water producing insoluble uranium(IV) and soluble uranium(VI) salts. Soluble uranium salts are toxic. Uranium accumulates in several organs, such as the liver, spleen, and kidneys. The World Health Organization has established a daily "tolerated intake" of soluble uranium salts for the general public of 0.5 µg/kg body weight (or 35 µg for a 70 kg adult.) Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flag of World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


The chemical toxicity of uranium salts is greater than their radiological toxicity. Its radiological hazards are dependent on the purity of the uranium, and there has been some concern that depleted uranium produced as a by-product of nuclear reprocessing may be contaminated with more dangerous isotopes: this should not be a concern for depleted uranium produced as tailings from initial uranium enrichment. // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass. ... Tailings (also known as slickens[1]) are the waste left over[2] after removing the gangue from ore. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ...


Early scientific studies usually found no link between depleted uranium and cancer, and sometimes found no link with increases in the rate of birth defects, but newer studies have and offered explanation of birth defect links. There is no direct proof that uranium causes birth defects in humans, but it induces them in several other species of mammals, and human epidemiological evidence is consistent with increased risk of birth defects in the offspring of persons exposed to DU.[12]. Environmental groups and others have expressed concern about the health effects of depleted uranium[13], and there is significant debate over the matter. Some people have raised concerns about the use of this material, particularly in munitions, because of its proven mutagenicity [14], teratogenicity [15],[16] in mice, and neurotoxicity [17], and its suspected carcinogenic potential, because it remains radioactive for an exceedingly long time with a half-life of approximately 4.5 billion years; and because it is also toxic in a manner similar to lead and other heavy metals. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is an agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster-making, which derives from teratology, the study of the frequency, causation, and development of congenital malformations—misleadingly called birth defects. ... Neurotoxicity occurs when the exposure to natural or manmade toxic substances (neurotoxicants) alters the normal activity of the nervous system. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... The skull and crossbones is a common symbol for toxicity. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... The term heavy metal may have various more general or more specific meanings. ...


Early studies of depleted uranium aerosol exposure assumed that uranium combustion product particles would quickly settle out of the air[18] and thus could not affect populations more than a few kilometers from target areas[19], and that such particles, if inhaled, would remain undissolved in the lung for a great length of time and thus could be detected in urine[20]


By contrast, other studies have shown that DU ammunition has no measurable detrimental health effects, either in the short or long term. The International Atomic Energy Agency reported in 2003 that, "based on credible scientific evidence, there is no proven link between DU exposure and increases in human cancers or other significant health or environmental impacts," although "Like other heavy metals, DU is potentially poisonous. In sufficient amounts, if DU is ingested or inhaled it can be harmful because of its chemical toxicity. High concentration could cause kidney damage." [21] The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, internally often referred to as The Agency) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ...


In October, 1992, an El Al Boeing 747-F cargo aircraft crashed in a suburb of Amsterdam. After reports of local residents and rescue workers complaining of health issues related to the release of depleted uranium used as counterbalance in the plane, authorities began an epidemiological study in 2000 of those believed to be affected by the accident. The study concluded that because exposure levels were so low, it was highly improbable that exposure to depleted uranium was the cause of the reported health complaints. Categories: Airline stubs | Companies of Israel | Transportation in Israel | Airlines of Israel ... The Boeing 747, commonly called a Jumbo Jet, is one of the most recognizable of all jet airliners and is the largest airliner currently in service. ... Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 741,329 (1 August 2006) Demonym Amsterdammer Coordinates Website www. ...


Gulf War syndrome

Main article: Gulf War syndrome

Increased rates of immune system disorders and other wide-ranging symptoms have been reported in combat veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. It has not always been clear whether these were related to Gulf War service, but combustion products from depleted uranium munitions is still being considered as a potential cause by the Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, as DU was used in tank kinetic energy penetrator and machine-gun bullets on a large scale for the first time in the Gulf War. Figure 1. ... The immune system protects the body from infection by pathogenic organisms. ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Strength 660,000 360,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War (1990–1991) (also called the Persian Gulf War, Operation Desert Storm, or Second Gulf War) was a conflict between... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ...


Most experts in health physics consider it unlikely that depleted uranium has any connection with the Gulf War Syndrome if such an illness exists at all. A two year study headed by Sandia National Laboratories’ Al Marshall analyzed potential health effects associated with accidental exposure to depleted uranium during the 1991 Gulf War. Marshall’s study concluded that the reports of serious health risks from DU exposure are not supported by veteran medical statistics and were consistent with earlier studies from Los Alamos and the New England Journal of Medicine [12]. Health physics is the study of the risks of ionizing radiation to people and the environment. ... Sandia National Laboratories is a major United States Department of Energy research and development national laboratory with two locations, one in Albuquerque, New Mexico and the other in Livermore, California. ...


Soldier complaints

American soldiers are complaining of injuries that they attribute to depleted uranium. The correlation has not been confirmed and the hypothesis ignores the multitide of other exposures that soldiers in a war situation are likely to receive. Visit this article for more info http://www.wired.com/news/politics/0,71585-0.html


Further reading

Scientific bodies

United Nations

January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration of the Serbian province (as part of Serbia and Montenegro) called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), under the authority of the United Nations. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Scientific reports

  • [22] RAND review of scientific literature relating to depleted uranium as it pertains to Gulf War illnesses.
  • U.S. Center for Disease Control's Toxicological Profile for Uranium (includes discussion of teratogenic and immunotoxic effects)
  • Hindin, R. et al. (2005) "Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective," Environmental Health, vol. 4, pp. 17.
  • Domingo, J.L. (2001) "Reproductive and developmental toxicity of natural and depleted uranium: a review" Reproductive Toxicology, 15, 603-609.
  • Monleau, M. et al. (2005) "Bioaccumulation and behavioural effects of depleted uranium in rats exposed to repeated inhalations," Neuroscience Letters, vol. 390, pp. 31-6.
  • Lestaevel, P. et al. (2005) "The brain is a target organ after acute exposure to depleted uranium" Toxicology, 212, 219-226.
  • Depleted Uranium article from the Royal Society
  • An Analysis of Uranium Dispersal and Health Effects Using a Gulf War Case Study by Sandia National Laboratories
  • Depleted Uranium Human Health Fact Sheet by Argonne National Laboratory Environmental Assessment Division
  • Uranium Human Health Fact Sheet
  • Hindin R, Brugge D, Panikkar B., Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: a review from an epidemiological perspective, PMID 16124873
  • Lin RH, Wu LJ, Lee CH, Lin-Shiau SY, Cytogenetic toxicity of uranyl nitrate in Chinese hamster ovary cells, PMID 7694141
  • Miller AC, Bonait-Pellie C, Merlot RF, Michel J, Stewart M, Lison PD., Leukemic transformation of hematopoietic cells in mice internally exposed to depleted uranium, PMID 16283518
  • S.E. Mitchell, C.A. Caldwell, G. Gonzales, W.R. Gould and R. Arimoto, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part A- Current Issues, 2005, 68, 951-965. (Frogs)
  • M.L. Albina, M. Belles, M. Gomez, D.J. Sanchez and J.L Domingo, Experimental Biology and Medicine, 2003, 228, 1072-1077. (mice)
  • A.U. Arfsten, K.R. Still and G.D. Ritchie, Toxicology and industrial Health, 2001, 17, 180-191. (Review)

The premises of the Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ...

Other publications

The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a journal concerned with global security issues, especially related to the dangers posed nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lone Star Iconoclast is a weekly newspaper in Crawford, Texas, the hometown of George W. Bush. ...

Video

  • Depleted Uranium Hazard Awareness US Army training video (1995)

Footnotes

  1. ^ Doug Rokke Depleted Uranium: Uses and Hazards (PDF) an updated version of the paper presented in the British House of Commons on December 16, 1999
  2. ^ The International Legality of the Use of Depleted Uranium Weapons: A Precautionary Approach, Avril McDonald, Jann K. Kleffner and Brigit Toebes, eds. (TMC Asser Press Fall-2003)
  3. ^ legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons
  4. ^ Citizen Inspectors Foiled in Search for DU Weapons
  5. ^ Depleted Uranium UN Resolutions
  6. ^ Sub-Commission resolution 1996/16
  7. ^ Sub-Commission resolution 1997/36
  8. ^ E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/38 Human rights and weapons of mass destruction, or with indiscriminate effect, or of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering (backup) "In its decision 2001/36 of 16 August 2001, the Sub‑Commission, recalling its resolutions 1997/36 and 1997/37 of 28 August 1997, authorized Mr. Y.K.J. Yeung Sik Yuen to prepare, without financial implications, in the context of human rights and humanitarian norms, the working paper originally assigned to Ms. Forero Ucros."
  9. ^ The Associated Press & Reuters contributed to this report: Use of DU weapons could be war crime CNN January 14, 2001
  10. ^ Joe Sills et al Environmental Crimes in Military Actions and the International Criminal. Court(ICC)-United Nations Perspectives (PDF) (HTML) of American Council for the UN University, April 2002. Page 28
  11. ^ The Final Report to the Prosecutor by the Committee Established to Review the NATO Bombing Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: Use of Depleted Uranium Projectiles
  12. ^ An Analysis of Uranium Dispersal and Health Effects Using a Gulf War Case Study, Albert C. Marshall, Sandia National Laboratories
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Depleted uranium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3681 words)
Depleted uranium is a byproduct of the enriching of natural uranium for use in nuclear reactors.
Depleted uranium was first stored in stockpiles in the 1940s when the U.S. and USSR began their nuclear weapons and nuclear power programs.
Depleted uranium is favored for the penetrator because it is self-sharpening and pyrophoric.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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