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Encyclopedia > Deoxyribose
Deoxyribose
Deoxyribose

Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. It is derived from the pentose sugar ribose by the replacement of the hydroxyl group at the 2 position with hydrogen, leading to the net loss of an oxygen atom, and has chemical formula C5H10O4. from rozeta File links The following pages link to this file: Deoxyribose Categories: GFDL images ... from rozeta File links The following pages link to this file: Deoxyribose Categories: GFDL images ... Aldopentose is a type of aldose which have five carbon atoms in their carbon chain. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Properties An atom (Greek άτομον from ά: non and τομον: divisible) is a submicroscopic structure found in all ordinary matter. ... An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group, or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. ... In ecology functional groups are collections of organisms based on morphological, physiological, behavioral, biochemical, or environmental responses or on trophic criteria. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ... Magnified view of refined sugar crystals. ... Ribose Ribose is a five carbon sugar (pentose) that is critical to living creatures. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ...


Ribose forms a five-member ring composed of four carbon atoms and one oxygen. Hydroxyl groups are attached to three of the carbons. The other carbon and a hydroxyl group are attached to one of the carbon atoms adjacent to the oxygen. In deoxyribose, the carbon furthest from the attached carbon is stripped of the oxygen atom in what would be a hydroxyl group in ribose. Ribose Ribose is a five carbon sugar (pentose) that is critical to living creatures. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ...


Biological importance of deoxyribose

Ribose and 2-deoxyribose derivatives have an important role in biology. Among the most important derivatives are those with phosphate groups attached at the 5 position. Mono-, di-, and triphosphate forms are important, as well as 3-5 cyclic monophosphates. There are also important diphosphate dimers called coenzymes that c purines and pyrimidines form an important class of compounds with ribose and deoxyribose. When these purine and pyrimidine devivatives are coupled to a ribose sugar, they are called nucleosides. In these compounds, the convention is to put a ′ (pronounced "prime") after the carbon numbers of the sugar, so that in nucleoside derivatives a name might include, for instance, the term "5′-monophosphate", meaning that the phosphate group is attached to the fifth carbon of the sugar, and not to the base. The bases are attached to the 1′ ribose carbon in the common nucleosides. Phosphorylated nucleosides are called nucleotides. Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. ... Nucleosides are glycosylamines made by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose ring. ... A nucleotide is a monomer or the structural unit of nucleotide chains forming nucleic acids as RNA and DNA. A nucleotide consists of a heterocyclic nucleobase, a pentose sugar (ribose or deoxiribose), and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. ...


One of the common bases is adenine (a purine derivative); coupled to ribose it is called adenosine; coupled to deoxyribose it is called deoxyadenosine. The 5′-triphosphate derivative of adenosine, commonly called ATP, for adenosine triphosphate, is an important energy transport molecule in cells. Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, adenine (A) binds to thymine (T) via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. ... The chemical structure of adenosine Adenosine is a nucleoside comprised of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... The chemical structure of adenosine Adenosine is a nucleoside formed when adenine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is the nucleotide known in biochemistry as the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells. ...


See Nucleic acid nomenclature for a diagram showing the numbered positions in a 5′-monophosphate nucleotide. Molecular biologists use several shorthands when referring to nucleic acid molecules such as DNA and RNA, collectively referred to as nucleic acid nomenclature. ...


2-Deoxyribose and ribose nucleotides are often found in unbranched 5′-3′ polymers. In these structures, the 3′carbon of one monomer unit is linked to a phosphate that is attached to the 5′carbon of the next unit, and so on. These polymer chains often contain many millions of monomer units. Since long polymers have physical properties distinctly different from those of small molecules, they are called macromolecules. The sugar-phosphate-sugar chain is called the backbone of the polymer. One end of the backbone has a free 5′phosphate, and the other end has a free 3′OH group. The backbone structure is independent of which particular bases are attached to the individual sugars. A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... A macromolecule is a molecule composed of a very large number of atoms. ...


Genetic material in earthly life often contains poly 5′-3′, 2′-deoxyribose nucleotides, in structures called chromosomes, where each monomer is one of the nucleotides deoxy- adenine, thymine, guanine or cytosine. This material is commonly called deoxyribonucleic acid, or simply DNA for short. This article is about the biological chromosome. ... Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, adenine (A) binds to thymine (T) via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. ... Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in nucleic acids (, DNA and RNA). ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and most viruses). ... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and most viruses). ...


DNA in chromosomes forms very long helical structures containing two molecules with the backbones running in opposite directions on the outside of the helix and held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotide bases lying between the helical backbones. The lack of the 2′ hydroxyl group in DNA appears to allows the backbone the flexibility to assume the full conformation of the long double-helix, which involves not only the basic helix, but additional coiling necessary to fit these very long molecules into the very small volume of a cell nucleus.


In contrast, very similar molecules, containing ribose instead of deoxyribose, and known generically as RNA, are known to form only relatively short double-helical complementary base paired structures. These are well known, for instance, in ribosomal RNA molecules and in transfer RNA (tRNA), where so-called hairpin structures form from palindromic sequences within one molecule. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of covalently bound nucleotides. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA) is a small RNA chain (74-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. ... A palindrome is a word, phrase, number or any other sequence of units (like a strand of DNA) which has the property of reading the same in either direction (the adjustment of spaces between letters is generally permitted). ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Deoxyribose - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (653 words)
Deoxyribose (more precisely 2-deoxyribose) is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group.
In deoxyribose, the carbon furthest from the attached carbon is stripped of the oxygen atom in what would be a hydroxyl group in ribose.
One of the common bases is adenine (a purine derivative), coupled to ribose it is called adenosine, coupled to deoxyribose it is called deoxyadenosine.
À La Mode Component Atlas Index (5613 words)
The constraints are that sugar is in the C2'-endo conformation and that the chi torsion angle is antiperiplanar.
The constraints are that sugar is in the C2'-endo conformation and that the chi torsion angle is synclinal.
The constraints are that sugar is in the C3'-endo conformation and that the chi torsion angle is antiperiplanar.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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