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Encyclopedia > Deoxynucleotides
Nucleotide codes
Code Equivalence Complement
A A T or U
C C G
G G C
T or U T A
M A or C K
R A or G Y
W A or T W
S C or G S
Y C or T R
K G or T M
V A or C or G B
H A or C or T D
D A or G or T H
B C or G or T V
X or N A or C or G or T X

A nucleotide is a monomer or the structural unit of nucleotide chains forming nucleic acids as RNA and DNA. A nucleotide consists of a heterocyclic nucleobase, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. Nucleotides also play important roles in cellular energy transport and transformations (notably ATP and NAD+/NADH), and in enzyme regulation (see for example, protein kinase). Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, adenine (A) binds to thymine (T) to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... Guanine is one of the four main nucleobases found in nucleic acids (, DNA and RNA). ... Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ... Uracil is one of the four RNA nucleobases, replacing thymine as found in DNA. Just like thymine, uracil can form a base pair with adenine via two hydrogen bonds, but it lacks the methyl group present in thymine. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... A nucleic acid is a complex, high-molecular-weight biochemical macromolecule composed of nucleotide chains that convey genetic information. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid consisting of a string of covalently-bound nucleotides. ... DNA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Heterocyclic compounds are substances which contain a ring structure as found in benzene and the aromatic compounds, or aromatic hydrocarbons, but in which other atoms than carbon, such as sulfur, oxygen or nitrogen are found as part of the ring. ... Nucleobases are the parts of RNA and DNA that are involved in pairing up (see also base pairs). ... Pentose - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A sugar is a carbohydrate which is sweet to taste. ... In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. ... In ecology functional groups are collections of organisms based on morphological, physiological, behavioral, biochemical, or environmental responses or on trophic criteria. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the nucleotide known in biochemistry as the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) (Note that the adenonosyl sugar is of the wrong absolute configuration in the diagram: it should have the same configuration as the nicotinamide sugar. ... A protein kinase is an enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). ...


The nucleobase can be purines or pyrimidines, the sugar can be deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA, and the phosphate chain can be a monophosphate, diphosphate, or triphosphate. A nucleotide that lacks the phosphate group is called nucleoside. Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, which is similar to benzene and pyridine and that contains two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-membered ring. ... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose (more precisely 2-deoxyribose) is a five-carbon sugar (a pentose) derived from the pentose sugar ribose by the repacement of the hydroxyl group at the 2 position with hydrogen, leading to the net loss of an oxygen. ... Ribose Ribose is a five carbon sugar (pentose) that is critical to living creatures. ... Nucleosides are glycosylamines made by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose ring. ...

Contents


Nomenclature

Nucleotide names are abbreviated into standard four-letter codes. The first letter is lower case and indicates whether the nucleotide in question is a ribonucleotide (r) or deoxyribonucleotide (d). The second letter indicates the nucleobase: A ribonucleotide is a nucleotide in which a purine or pyrimidine base is linked to a ribose molecule. ...

G: Guanine
A: Adenine
T: Thymine
C: Cytosine
U: Uracil not present in DNA, but takes the place of Thymine in RNA

The third and fourth letters indicate the length of the attached phosphate chain (Mono-, Di-, Tri-) and the presence of a phosphate (P). Guanine is one of the four main nucleobases found in nucleic acids (, DNA and RNA). ... Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, adenine (A) binds to thymine (T) to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. ... Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... Uracil is one of the four RNA nucleobases, replacing thymine as found in DNA. Just like thymine, uracil can form a base pair with adenine via two hydrogen bonds, but it lacks the methyl group present in thymine. ...


For example, deoxy-cytosine-triphosphate is abbreviated as dCTP.


Chemical structures

Nucleotides

Chemical structure of adenosine monophosphate
Adenosine monophosphate
AMP
Chemical structure of adenosine diphosphate
Adenosine diphosphate
ADP
Chemical structure of adenosine triphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate
ATP
Chemical structure of guanosine monophosphate
Guanosine monophosphate
GMP
Chemical structure of guanosine diphosphate
Guanosine diphosphate
GDP
Chemical structure of guanosine triphosphate
Guanosine triphosphate
GTP
Chemical structure of thymidine monophosphate
Thymidine monophosphate
TMP
Chemical structure of thymidine diphosphate
Thymidine diphosphate
TDP
Chemical structure of thymidine triphosphate
Thymidine triphosphate
TTP
Chemical structure of uridine monophosphate
Uridine monophosphate
UMP
Chemical structure of uridine diphosphate
Uridine diphosphate
UDP
Chemical structure of uridine triphosphate
Uridine triphosphate
UTP
Chemical structure of cytidine monophosphate
Cytidine monophosphate
CMP
Chemical structure of cytidine diphosphate
Cytidine diphosphate
CDP
Chemical structure of cytidine triphosphate
Cytidine triphosphate
CTP

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Deoxynucleotides

Chemical structure of deoxyadenosine monophosphate
Deoxyadenosine monophosphate
dAMP
Chemical structure of deoxyadenosine diphosphate
Deoxyadenosine diphosphate
dADP
Chemical structure of deoxyadenosine triphosphate
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate
dATP
Chemical structure of deoxyguanosine monophosphate
Deoxyguanosine monophosphate
dGMP
Chemical structure of deoxyguanosine diphosphate
Deoxyguanosine diphosphate
dGDP
Chemical structure of deoxyguanosine triphosphate
Deoxyguanosine triphosphate
dGTP
Chemical structure of deoxythymidine monophosphate
Deoxythymidine monophosphate
dTMP
Chemical structure of deoxythymidine diphosphate
Deoxythymidine diphosphate
dTDP
Chemical structure of deoxythymidine triphosphate
Deoxythymidine triphosphate
dTTP
Chemical structure of deoxyuridine monophosphate
Deoxyuridine monophosphate
dUMP
Chemical structure of deoxyuridine diphosphate
Deoxyuridine diphosphate
dUDP
Chemical structure of deoxyuridine triphosphate
Deoxyuridine triphosphate
dUTP
Chemical structure of deoxycytidine monophosphate
Deoxycytidine monophosphate
dCMP
Chemical structure of deoxycytidine diphosphate
Deoxycytidine diphosphate
dCDP
Chemical structure of deoxycytidine triphosphate
Deoxycytidine triphosphate
dCTP

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See also

This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Figure 1: Chromosome. ...

External links

Nucleic acids edit
Nucleobases: Adenine - Thymine - Uracil - Guanine - Cytosine - Purine - Pyrimidine
Nucleosides: Adenosine - 5-Methyluridine - Uridine - Guanosine - Cytidine - Deoxyadenosine - Thymidine - Deoxyuridine - Deoxyguanosine - Deoxycytidine - Ribose - Deoxyribose
Nucleotides: AMP - m5UMP - UMP - GMP - CMP - ADP - m5UDP - UDP - GDP - CDP - ATP - m5UTP - UTP - GTP - CTP - cAMP - cGMP
Deoxynucleotides: dAMP - dTMP - dUMP - dGMP - dCMP - dADP - dTDP - dUDP - dGDP - dCDP - dATP - dTTP - dUTP - dGTP - dCTP
Nucleic acids: DNA - RNA - LNA - PNA - mRNA - ncRNA - miRNA - rRNA - shRNA - siRNA - tRNA - mtDNA - Oligonucleotide

  Results from FactBites:
 
Deoxynucleotides can replace dideoxynucleotides in minisequencing by arrayed primer extension | Archive | ... (241 words)
Scientific literature describing arrayed primer extension and other array-based minisequencing technologies consistently cite the requirement for four fluorescent dideoxynucleotides (with concomitant absence/inactivation of deoxynucleotides) to ensure single-base extension and thus sequence-specific intensity data that can be interpreted as a base call or genotype.
We present compelling evidence thatfluorescent deoxynucleotides can reliably be used in microarray minisequencing experiments, generating fluorescent sequence extension intensity profiles that are homologous to the single-base extensions obtained with terminator dideoxynucleotides.
Due to the almost 10-fold higher costs (and limited fluorophore choice) of many commercially available fluorescent dideoxynucleotides, compared to fluorescent deoxynucleotides, as well as other potentially constraining intellectual property and licensing issues, this hitherto dismissed microarray chemistry represents an important reevaluation in the field of array-based genotyping and related enzymology.
DNA sequencing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1646 words)
The oligonucleotide primer is extended using a DNA polymerase, an enzyme that replicates DNA.
Included with the primer and DNA polymerase are the four deoxynucleotide bases (DNA building blocks), along with a low concentration of a chain terminating nucleotide (most commonly a di-deoxynucleotide).
As the DNA strand is elongated the DNA polymerase catalyses the joining of deoxynucleotides to the corresponding bases.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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