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Encyclopedia > Deoxynivalenol

Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type B trichothecene, an epoxy-sesquiter-penoid. This mycotoxin occurs predominantly in grains such as wheat, barley, oats, rye, and maize, and less often in rice, sorghum, and triticale. The occurrence of deoxynivalenol is associated primarily with Fusarium graminearum (Gibberella zeae) and F. culmorum, both of which are important plant pathogens which cause Fusarium head blight in wheat and Gibberella ear rot in maize. A direct relationship between the incidence of Fusarium head blight and contamination of wheat with deoxynivalenol has been established. The incidence of Fusarium head blight is strongly associated with moisture at the time of flowering (anthesis), and the timing of rainfall, rather than the amount, is the most critical factor. Mycotoxin (from Gk. ... Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed on plants and in the soil. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ...


F. graminearum grows optimally at a temperature of 25 °C and at a water activity above 0.88. F. culmorum grows optimally at 21 °C and at a water activity above 0.87. The geographical distribution of the two species appears to be related to temperature, F. graminearum being the commoner species and occurring in warmer climates. Deoxynivalenol has been implicated in incidents of mycotoxicoses in both humans and farm animals.


DON is rather a mild toxin compared to other toxins which can form in grains and forages. Reduced feed intake, and the accompanying decrease in performance, are the only symptoms of DON toxicity livestock producers will likely encounter. This response to DON appears to occur through the central nervous system. DON belongs to a class of mycotoxins (tricothecenes) which are strong protein inhibitors. Inhibition of protein synthesis following exposure to DON causes the brain to increase its uptake of the amino acid tryptophan and, in turn, its synthesis of serotonin. Increased levels of serotonin are believed to be responsible for the anorexic effects of DON and other tricothecenes. Irritation of the gastrointestinal tract may also play a role in reducing feed intake... This fact may also partially explain the high incidence of pars esaughageal stomach ulcers observed in sows off feed during feed refusal. The venom of the black widow spider is a potent latrotoxin. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Mycotoxin is a toxin produced by a fungus under special conditions of moisture and temperature. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... HIV protease in a complex with the protease inhibitor ritonavir. ... Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ... The general structure of an α-amino acid molecule, with the amine group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right. ... Tryptophan is an amino acid and essential in human nutrition. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... Anorexia (deriving from the Greek word ανορεξία = without appetite (αν = without + όρεξη = appetite)) is the medical name for loss of appetite. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Peptic ulcer is a non-malignant ulcer of the stomach (called gastric ulcer) or duodenum (called duodenal ulcer). ...


Synonyms

  • DON,
  • Deoxynivalenol,
  • VOMITOXIN,

CAS Number 51481-10-8


Chemical Formula C15H20O6


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