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The Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی devbandī) is a Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in South Asia and has more recently spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. Deobandis follow the fiqh of Abu Hanifa and are regarded as a part of the Ahlus Sunnah wal-Jamaa'h. They follow Abu Mansur Maturidi's thought in Aqeedah and Ilm ul Kalaam i.e refuting criticism of Islam made using Greek logic and Islamic logic. Deobandi purport to be characterised by a strict adherence to the Sunnah and an emphasis on Sharia. The Deobandis are associated with the Sufi Tariqahs of the Naqshbandi, the Chishti Order, Qadiriyyah and Suhrawardiyyah.[1] The name derives from Deoband, India, where the madrassa Darul Uloom Deoband is situated. Urdu ( , , trans. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man Al-Imam al-Azam Muhammad Nu’man bin Thabit bin Zuta bin Maah (), better known by his kunya as AbÅ« HÌ£anÄ«fah, () (699 — 767 CE / 80 — 148 AH) was the founder of the Hanafi school... Ahlus Sunnah wal-Jamaah: ( Arabic, أهل السنة والجماعة ) This Arabic phrase means the adherents to the Sunnah and the community. This is a term used by some Sunni Muslims to refer to themselves, especially the salafis. ... In Islam, one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidis theology, which is a close variant of Ashari school of thought. ... Aqidah is an Islamic creed. ... Kalam (علم الكلم) is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... The history of logic documents the development of logic as it occurs in various rival cultures and traditions in history. ... In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Tariqah ( transliteration: ; pl. ... Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Sufi orders (tariqa) of Islam. ... The Chishti Order (Persian: چشتی ) (tarika) is a Sufi order of Islam which was founded in Chisht, now Afghanistan, about 930 C.E. and continues to this day (2007). ... Qadiriyyah (Arabic: القادريه) (also transliterated Qadiri), is one of the oldest Sufi tariqas, derives its name from Abdul Qadir Jilani (also transliterated as Gilani) (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. ... Deoband (the Latinised name, from Devband or Devaband in Hindi and Urdu) is a small city located in Saharanpur district in the upper Doab region, in Uttar Pradesh. ... A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... The Darul Uloom, (dārul ulÅ«m devband in Hindi and Urdu) is an Islamic madrassa (seminary) famous for being the inception place of the Deobandi Islamic movement. ...

Contents

Tenets

Deobandi thought has five main principles, which are:

  1. Tawhid: (Monotheism) of God; no one shares His attributes.
  2. Sunna: Following the methodology of Muhammad.
  3. Ħubbus-Sahaba: Following the methodology of companions of Muhammad.
  4. Taqlid wal-Ittibā: Giving preference to the jurisprudence of one of the earliest jurists of Islam over that of later jurists.
  5. Jihād fī Sabīlil-Lāh: Doing Jihād

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sunna can refer to: Sunna, a female Viking name[]. A number of English place names are derived from this name including Sonning (historically spelled Sunning), Sonning Eye, Sunbury, Sunningdale, Sunninghill and Sunningwell, many close to the River Thames. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...

History

The Deobandi movement developed as a reaction to the British colonialism in India, whom they believed to be corrupting Islam. Fearing this, a group of Indians Ulama led by Maulana Qasim Nanautavi founded an Islamic seminary known as Darul Uloom Waqf Deoband. The Urdu word "Waqf" refers to a social trust. It is here that the Islamic revivalist and anti-British ideology of the Deobandis began to develop. Gradually, their influence, through organisations such as Jamiat Ulema-e Hind and Tableeghi Jamaat, began to spread and hundreds of Madrassas and Darul Ulooms affiliated to Deoband sprouted. Notable Deobandi seminaries include Nadwatu l-Ulama in Lucknow and Darul Uloom Karachi Karachi, Pakistan. Ulema, a community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ... Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind is one of the leading Islamic organizations in India. ... Tablighi Jamaat is a movement founded in the late 1920s by Muhammad Ilyas in the Mewat province of India. ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ... Darul uloom (Arabic: دار العلوم) also transliterated dar al-`ulum, darul ulumetc. ... // Darul-uloom Nadwatul Ulama is an Islamic institution at Lucknow, which draws large number of Muslim students from all over the country. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... Darul Uloom Karachi is an Islamic seminary located in Karachi, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: , Sindhi: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ...


Some of the early Deobandi scholars included Maulana Qasim Nanotwi, Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi, Maulana Husain Ahmed Madani, Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanawi, Allama Anwar Shah Kashmiri, Mufti Kifayat Ullah Dahlavi, Maulana Ilyas Khandhelawi and Mawlana Ubaidullah Sindhi, Maulana Muḥammad Zakarīyā al-Kandahlawī, as well as Maulana Rahmatullah Kairanvi, the famous polemicist who emigrated to Arabia after the 1857 war, who was also associated with Deoband. Hadhrat Moulana Muhammed Qasim Nanautavi was the founder of Darul Uloom Deoband. ... Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi (d. ... Born on 19 Shawal 1296 A.H. Shaykhul Islam Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani stepped into this temporal abode into a family notable for its piety and religious vigilance. ... Ashraf Ali Thanvi can be rightly said to be the Mujaddid (reviver of Islam) of the fourteenth century Hijri. ... Muhammad Ilyas was the founder of the Islamic movement Tablighi Jamaat of the South Asian subcontinent. ... Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi was an Indian Muslim religious and political leader, who was a student of Shaikhul Hind Maulana Mehmud Hasan. ... Shaikh-ul-Hadith Mawlānā Muhmmad ZakarÄ«yā al-KāndahlawÄ« (d. ... Combatants Indian Freedom Fighters, Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh and Jhansi, Indian civilians in some areas. ...


Controversy and Criticism

Thus Barelwi ,Shia and Salafi scholars among others, contend that the teachings of Deobandi Sect constitute as Kufr and Bidah.They argue that some of the Writings of the founders of Deobandi Sect amounts to Kufr.Barelwi is the main Movement in Indian Subcontinent who Chraged the Fatwas of Kufr on the Founders of Deoband Sect on the basis of their Writings . Shias also Cliamed that their teahings have Wahabi Influence.On the basis of some of these writings Barelwis Charged the Fatwas of Kufr on Deobandi Scholars. Barelvi (Hindi: बरेलवी, Urdu: بریلوی) is a movement of Sufism in South Asia that was founded by Ahmed Raza Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelvi). ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ... see kaffir lime for the condiment, kaffir for the derogatory Afrikaans term for native Africans. ... In the Arabic language, Bidah means innovation. ... Barelvi (Hindi: बरेलवी, Urdu: بریلوی) is a movement of Sufism in South Asia that was founded by Ahmed Raza Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelvi). ...

  • The Almighty Allah can speak a lie..[2]
  • Shaytaan has more education than our Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam).[3]
  • Prophets are not free from sins.[4]
  • The Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) is not the only Rahmatullil

Aalameen. [5]

  • The Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) has an education like that of children, lunatics and animals of every category.[6]
  • Almighty Allah Taãla is not always 'all knowing'. He finds out whenever necessary. [7]
  • The Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) will die and become sand one day. [8]
  • To think of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) in Salaat is worse than thinking of cows and donkeys. [9]

Present

Prominent Deobandi scholars today include Maulana Saalim Qasmi, Mufti Taqi Uthmani, Mufti Ebrahim Desai, Grand Mufti Muhammad Rafi Usmani of Pakistan, and Maulana Tariq Jamil. Muhammad Taqi Usmani (left) Justice (retd) Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani is a world renowned Islamic Scholar of Pakistan and has held a number of positions in boards of prestigious Islamic institutions. ... Mufti Ebrahim Desai is a prominent Islamic conservative scholar. ... The title of Grand Mufti (Arabic: ‎) refers to the highest official of religious law in a Sunni Muslim country. ... Muhammad Rafi Usmani is the Grand Mufti of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. ... Maulana Tariq Jamil is a well known Islamic Scholar from Pakistan. ...


The Taliban

The Taliban are said to follow the teachings of the Deoband school, although some journalists, such as Ahmed Rashid, claim they follow a simplistic version of the school's teachings.[10] The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the United States, United Kingdom and the Northern Alliance. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the United States, United Kingdom and the Northern Alliance. ... Ahmed Rashid (b. ...


Tablighi Jamaat

Some famous people who propagate Islam by joining the Tablighi Jamaat (a movement started by a student of the Islamic University, Deoband, Maulana Muhammad Ilyas) are Pakistani cricketers Shahid Afridi, Inzamam ul Haq, Mohammad Yousuf (a recent revert/convert), Saqlain Mushtaq and many others. Also, former Pakistani cricketers including Saeed Anwar and Salim Malik. A very famous pop star Junaid Jamshaid is also a visible personality, propagating Islam to the masses amongst many others. Tablighi Jamaat (Conveying[1] Group) (Arabic: جماعة التبليغ , also Tabliq) is a Muslim missionary and revival movement. ... Tablighi Jamaat (Conveying[1] Group) (Arabic: جماعة التبليغ , also Tabliq) is a Muslim missionary and revival movement. ... Muhammad Ilyas is the founder of the Tablighi Jamaat of South Asian subcontinent. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... Image:Http://usa. ... Inzamam-ul-Haq (Urdu: انضمام الحق) (born 3 March 1970 in Multan, Punjab Province) is a Pakistani cricketer and was captain of the Pakistani cricket team from 2003 until March 2007. ... Mohammad Yousuf (Urdu: محمد یوسف; formerly Yousuf Youhana, Urdu: یوسف یوحنا) (born 27 August 1974, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan) is a Pakistani cricketer who has been a member of the Pakistani national cricket team since 1998. ... Saqlain Mushtaq (Urdu: ثقلین مشتاق) (born December 29, 1976 in Lahore, Punjab) is a Pakistani cricketer, an off spin bowler. ... Saeed Anwar ([[]]: سعید انور) born. ... Salim Malik (born April 16, 1963) is a former Pakistani cricketer, who is now banned from cricket because of his involvement in betting and match-fixing. ... Junaid Jamshaid was one of the poineers of pop singing in Pakistan. ...


In the United Kingdom

According to The Times, about 600 of Britain's nearly 1,400 mosques are run by Deobandi-affiliated clerics, and 17 of the country's 26 Islamic seminaries follow Deobandi teachings, producing about 80 percent of all domestically trained Muslim clerics.[11] The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...


See also

Islam in India is the second-most practiced religion after Hinduism. ... Over 98% of 166 million peoples of Pakistan are Muslims and Islam is the State religion of Pakistan. ... Islam is the second largest religion in the United Kingdom with a total of 1,591,000, (or 2. ...

Notes

  1. ^ 'Ulama-e-Deoband ka Maslak, Fatawa Rahimiyyah, Vol. 1, pg, 9-10, 58; Islamic Book Printers, Feb. 1997 ed.
  2. ^ Fataawa Rashidiyya by Rashid Ahmed Gangohi, part 1 pg. 20
  3. ^ Barahine Qatia pg. 51 - Khalil Ahmad Ambhetwi
  4. ^ Tasfiyatul Aqaaid pg. 24,by Qasim Nanotwi
  5. ^ Fataawa Rashidiyya part 2 pg. 19
  6. ^ Hifzul Imaan pg. 7 by Ashraf Ali Thanvi
  7. ^ Taqwiyatul Imaan pg. 26
  8. ^ Taqwiyatul Imaan pg. 69
  9. ^ Siraate Mustaqeem pg. 150
  10. ^ Ahmed Rashid Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia (2001)
  11. ^ Times Online September 7, 2007

Ahmed Rashid (b. ...

References

  • Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691096805. 

The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

External links

Opposing views


  Results from FactBites:
 
Deobandi Movement, Ted Thornton, NMH, Northfield Mount Hermon (704 words)
Indian Deobandis project a much gentler demeanor, blaming Taliban excesses on the cultural aggressiveness of Pashtun culture, the tribal group from which the Taliban emerged.
However, the mix of Deobandi and Wahhabi influences in Pakistan has all but destroyed the mystical Sufi movement there and has made its mark throughout the nation's governmental as well as religious institutions.
Deobandi schools have sought to purify Islam, as practiced in India, of such popular practices borrowed from Hinduism as the veneration of idols and visits to shrines and graves of saints (the Wahhabis sought to do the same in the Arabian peninsula).
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