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Encyclopedia > Dentistry
A Dentist and Dental Assistant perform surgery on a patient.
A Dentist and Dental Assistant perform surgery on a patient.

Dentistry is the "evaluation, diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment (nonsurgical, surgical or related procedures) of diseases, disorders and/or conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and/or the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body".[1] Those in the practice of dentistry are known as dentists. Other people aiding in oral health service include dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and dental therapists. Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ... A dental officer and his assistant remove the wisdom tooth of a crew member of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS (CVN-69) Dental surgery is any of a number of medical procedures which involve artificially modifying the dentition. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1880x2810, 1796 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dentistry Dental surgery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1880x2810, 1796 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dentistry Dental surgery ... A dental auxiliary is any of the dentists supporting team who helps with dental treatment. ... Dental assistants help the dental operator (Dentist or other treating Dental auxiliary) provide more efficient dental treatment. ... A Dental hygienist attends to a patient A dental hygienist is a licensed dental auxiliary who specializes in preventive dental care, typically but not limited to focusing on techniques in oral hygiene . ... A dental technician is a member of the dental team who manufactures dental appliances such as removable prothesis, including dentures, and fixed prostheses, such as crowns and bridges. ... A dental therapist is a licensed dental auxiliary in some countries, who specializes in treating childrens teeth and oral hygiene. ...


A dentist is a healthcare professional qualified to practice dentistry after graduating with a degree of either Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS), Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD), Bachelor of Dentistry (BDent), Bachelor of Dental Science (BDSc), or Bachelor of Dental Surgery/Chirurgiae (BDS) or (BChD) or equivalent. In most western countries, to become a qualified dentist one must usually complete at least 4 years of postgraduate study[citation needed]. Generally, 2 years of clinical experience working with patients in an educational setting are required.[citation needed]. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Doctor of Dental Medicine. ... The DMD degree, referring to Doctor of Dental Medicine denotes one of a few degrees that are awarded for dentists, the others being Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS), Bachelor of Dentistry (BDent), or Bachelor of Dental Surgery/Chirurgiae (BDS) or (BChD), all of which are equivalent degrees for the practice... The DMD degree, referring to Doctor of Dental Medicine denotes one of a few degrees that are awarded for dentists, the others being Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS), Bachelor of Dentistry (BDent), or Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) or (B.Ch. ... The DDS degree, referring to Doctor of Dental Surgery, denotes one of a few degrees that are awarded to dentists, the others being Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD), Bachelor of Dentistry (BDent), or Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) or (B.Ch. ... BDS is a three-letter acronym that can stand for multiple things: Bachelor of Dental Surgery, the British degree awarded to dental surgeons (dentists) upon their graduation from dental school the alias of Andreas Thorstensson, the owner of SK Gaming Baby Duck Syndrome Belgrano Day School, a school in Buenos... The DDS degree, referring to Doctor of Dental Surgery, denotes one of a few degrees that are awarded to dentists, the others being Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD), Bachelor of Dentistry (BDent), or Bachelor of Dental Surgery/Chirurgiae (BDS) or (BChD), all of which are equivalent degrees for the practice...

Contents

History

Farmer at the dentist, Johann Liss, c. 1616-17.
Farmer at the dentist, Johann Liss, c. 1616-17.

Evidence of dentistry has been found in teeth dating from around 5500 BC to 7000 BC.[2][3] The teeth, showing evidence of holes from dental drills, were found in people of the Indus Valley Civilization.[4] A Sumerian text from 5000 BC describes a "tooth worm" as the cause of dental caries.[5] Evidence of this belief has also been found in India, Egypt, Japan, and China.[6] Download high resolution version (1000x1365, 146 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1000x1365, 146 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A game of mora, c. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ...


The Edwin Smith Papyrus, written in the 17th century BC but which may reflect previous manuscripts from as early as 3000 BC, includes the treatment of several dental ailments.[7][8] In the 18th century BC, the Code of Hammurabi referenced dental extraction twice as it related to punishment.[9] Examination of the remains of some ancient Egyptians and Greco-Romans reveals early attempts at dental prosthetics and surgery.[1] Plates vi & vii of the Edwin Smith Papyrus at the Rare Book Room, New York Academy of Medicine The Edwin Smith Papyrus is the only surviving copy of part of an Ancient Egyptian textbook on trauma surgery. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... Archaeological evidence indicates that a distinct culture was developing in the Nile valley from before 5000 BC. What is now called the Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3100 BC, when Egypt became a unified state, until its survival as an independent state ceased in 332 BC, with its conquest... The Greco-Roman period of history refers to the culture of the peoples who were incorporated into the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...

Medieval dentist extracting a tooth. London; c. 1360-75.
Medieval dentist extracting a tooth. London; c. 1360-75.

Historically, dental extractions have been used to treat a variety of illnesses. During the Middle Ages and throughout the 19th century, dentistry was not a profession in itself, and often dental procedures were performed by barbers or general physicians. Barbers usually limited their practice to extracting teeth, which not only resulted in the alleviation of pain, but often cured a variety of ailments linked to chronic tooth infection. Instruments used for dental extractions date back several centuries. In the 14th century, Guy de Chauliac invented the dental pelican[2] (resembling a pelican's beak) which was used up until the late 18th century. The pelican was replaced by the dental key[3] which, in turn, was replaced by modern forceps in the 20th century.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (656x764, 125 KB) Summary Miniature on a initial D with a scene representing teeth (dentes). A dentist with silver forceps and a necklace of large teeth, extracting the tooth of a seated man. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (656x764, 125 KB) Summary Miniature on a initial D with a scene representing teeth (dentes). A dentist with silver forceps and a necklace of large teeth, extracting the tooth of a seated man. ... X-rays can reveal if a person has cavities Dentistry is the practical application of knowledge of dental science (the science of placement, arrangement, function of teeth) to human beings. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... A boy visiting a barber A barber (from the Latin barba, beard) is someone whose occupation is to cut any type of hair, give shaves, and trim beards. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... A renowned French surgeon of the 14th century, Guy de Chauliac (1300-1368), was the physician for Pope Clement VI. In Avignon, France, he attended to the Pope and survived an infection of the Black Plague. ... For other uses, see Pelican (disambiguation). ... Collection of dental keys, circa 1825. ...


The first book focused solely on dentistry was the "Artzney Buchlein" in 1530, and the first dental textbook written in English was called "Operator for the Teeth" by Charles Allen in 1685.[10] It is said that the 17th century French physician Pierre Fauchard started dentistry science as we know it today, and he has been named "the father of modern dentistry". Among many of his developments were the extensive use of dental prosthesis, the introduction of dental fillings as a treatment for dental caries and the statement that sugar derivate acids such as tartaric acid are responsible for dental decay. Pierre Fauchard (born 1687 in Brittany; died March 22, 1761 in Paris) was a significant French dentist. ... Prosthodontics is one of the nine dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association (ADA) and requires 3-4 years of additional formal training in an ADA approved program. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into dental restoration. ... Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid. ...


The Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, the first dental school in the world, opened in Baltimore, Maryland in 1840, and in 1867 Harvard Dental School became the first dental school affiliated with a university. In England, the 1878 British Dentists Act and 1879 Dentists Register limited the title of "dentist" and "dental surgeon" to qualified and registered practitioners.[11][10] The practice of dentistry in the United Kingdom became fully regulated with the 1921 Dentists Act, which required the registration of anyone practicing dentistry.[12] The British Dental Association, formed in 1880 with Sir John Tomes as president, played a major role in prosecuting dentists practicing illegally.[11] Baltimore College of Dental Surgery The Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, founded February 1 1840 [1] , is the birthplace of the Doctor of Dental Surgery degree (D.D.S.), and is known as the first dental college in the world. ... Harvard School of Dental Medicine Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ...


General dentistry

General practitioners of dentistry prevent, evaluate, diagnose, and treat diseases of the oral cavity and associated structures (e.g. the temporomandibular joint), as well as maintain the functionality and esthetics of the teeth and associated tissues and structures. They can prescribe medication , x-rays, and devices for home or in-office use. Many oral diseases (such as bilateral odontogenic keratocysts) and abnormalities (such as several unerupted teeth) can indicate systemic, neural, or other diseases. A general practitioner may refer patients to their physician or a specialist for further evaluation, or vice versa for treatment. The temporomandibular joint (From the Latin for too much jaw) is a diarthrodial joint that connects the condyle of the mandible (lower jaw) to the temporal bone at the side of a skull. ... Bilateralism is a term referring to trade or political relations between two states. ... An odontogenic keratocyst is a benign but locally aggressive developmental odontogenic cyst. ...


Contrary to popular belief, most dentists do not regularly clean teeth, and instead delegate this task to other oral health providers (e.g. dental hygienists). Most general practitioners of dentistry perform restorative, prosthetic, routine endodontic therapy, routine periodontal therapy, and simple exodontia, as well as performing examinations. General practitioners can choose which cases to treat, and which will be referred to a specialist for further care. Many general practitioners are comfortable treating more complex cases, as well as placing implants and surgically extracting third molars (wisdom teeth). All dentists must achieve a certain degree of skill in various disciplines in order to graduate from dental school and earn licensure. Many complex procedures are frequently referred to specialists. A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ... Endodontics is a sub-specialty of dentistry, that deals with the tooth pulp or dentine complex. ... Periodontics is the study of clinical aspects of the supporting structures of the teeth, including the gingiva, alveolar (jaw) bone, root cementum, and the periodontal ligament in health and disease. ...


Specialities

In addition to general dentistry, there are 9 recognized dental specialties in the US, Canada, and Australia. To become a specialist requires one to train in a residency or advanced graduate training program. Once residency is completed, the doctor is granted a certificate of specialty training. Many specialty programs have optional or required advanced degrees such as (MD/MBBS specific to Maxillofacial Surgery), MS, or PhD.

  • Dental public health (study of dental epidemiology and social health policies),
  • Endodontics (root canal therapy and study of diseases of the dental pulp),
  • Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (study, diagnosis, and sometimes the treatment of oral and maxillofacial related diseases),
  • Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (study and radiologic interpretation of oral and maxillofacial diseases),
  • Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (extractions, implants, and facial surgery),
  • Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics (straightening of teeth and modification of midface and mandibular growth),
  • Anesthesiology study how to relieve pain through advanced use of local and general anesthesia techniques (not considered one of the nine recognized dental specialties yet. CODA is in the process of accrediting all dental anesthesiology programs however.)
  • Periodontics (study and treatment of diseases of the periodontium (non-surgical and surgical), and placement and maintenance of dental implants),
  • Pediatric Dentistry (i.e. dentistry for children, formerly known as "pedodontics"),
  • Prosthodontics (dentures, bridges and the restoration of implants. Some prosthodontists further their training in "oral and maxillofacial prosthodontics--a discipline concerned with the replacement of missing facial structures--such as ears, eyes, nose, etc.)

Specialists in these fields are designated registrable (U.S. "Board Eligible") and warrant exclusive titles such as orthodontist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, endodontist, pediatric dentist, periodontist, or prosthodontist upon satisfying certain local (U.S. "Board Certified"), (Australia/NZ: "FRACDS"), or (Canada: "FRCD(C)") registry requirements. Dental public health is a non-clinical speciality of Dentistry[1] Dental public health is involved in the assessment of dental health needs and improving the dental health of populations rather than individuals[2] There are a few training opportunities to obtain an MSc in Dental public health[3]. One... If decay progresses to the first stage, a small filling will be required. ... -1... Oral pathology, also known in the United States of America as oral and maxillofacial pathology is the specialty of dentistry and pathology which deals with the nature, identification, and management of diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. ... Categories: Medicine stubs | Dentistry ... Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. ... Surgical extraction of an impacted molar. ... X-Ray picture of two rectangular dental implants inserted into the jaw. ... Orthodontics (or orthodontia) is a specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions, which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both. ... Periodontics is the study of clinical aspects of the supporting structures of the teeth (i. ... PeBold textriodontium is a word of Medical terminology for the specialized tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. ... Prosthodontics is one of the nine dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association (ADA) and requires 3-4 years of additional formal training in an ADA approved program. ...


Two other post-graduate formal advanced education programs: General Practice Residency (advanced clinical and didactic training with intense hospital experience) and Advanced Education in General Dentistry (advanced training in clinical dentistry) recognized by the ADA do not lead to specialization. A General Practice Residency (GPR) is a one or two year hospital based postgraduate training program for dentists seeking additional education. ...


Special category: Oral Biology - Research in Dental and Craniofacial Biology


Other dental education exists where no post-graduate formal university training is required: cosmetic dentistry, dental implant, temporo-mandibular joint therapy. These usually require the attendance of one or more continuing education courses that typically last for one to several days. There are restrictions on allowing these dentists to call themselves specialists in these fields. The specialist titles are registrable titles and controlled by the local dental licensing bodies. Cosmetic dentistry is a discipline within dentistry in which the primary focus is the modification of appearance of a patients oral cavity and surrounding structures, in conjunction with the prevention and treatment of organic, structural, or functional oral disease. ... X-Ray picture of two rectangular dental implants inserted into the jaw. ... Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD, TMJ or TMD), or TMJ syndrome, is an umbrella term covering acute or chronic inflammation of the temporomandibular joint, which connects the lower jaw to the skull. ... X-rays can reveal if a person has cavities Dentistry is the practical application of knowledge of dental science (the science of placement, arrangement, function of teeth) to human beings. ...


Forensic odontology consists of the gathering and use of dental evidence in law. This may be performed by any dentist with experience or training in this field. The function of the forensic dentist is primarily documentation and verification of identity. Forensic odontology (also called Forensic Dentistry) deals with the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be then presented in the interest of justice. ... X-rays can reveal if a person has cavities Dentistry is the practical application of knowledge of dental science (the science of placement, arrangement, function of teeth) to human beings. ...


Geriatric dentistry or geriodontics is the delivery of dental care to older adults involving the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of problems associated with normal ageing and age-related diseases as part of an interdisciplinary team with other health care professionals. Geriatric dentistry or gerodontics is the delivery of dental care to older adults involving the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of problems associated with normal aging and age-related diseases as part of an interdisciplinary team with other health care professionals. ...


Veterinary dentistry, a speciality of veterinary medicine, is the field of dentistry applied to the care of animals [4][5]. Veterinary dentistry is the field of dentistry applied to the care of animals. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ...


Dentistry throughout the world

Dentistry throughout the world is practiced differently, and training in dentistry varies as well. ...

Organizations

Main article: List of dental organizations

This is a list of dental organizations around the world // Albanian Dental Association Collegi d-Odontolegs I Estomatolegs The Angolan National Association of Stomatology Technicians Confederación Odontológica de la República Argentina [1] Armenian Dental Association [2] Australian Dental Association Inc. ...

See also

Dentistry Portal
Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Dentistry at:
Sagittal section of a tooth
Sagittal section of a tooth

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Image File history File links Tooth_Section. ... Image File history File links Tooth_Section. ... The anatomical planes The anatomical position is a schematic convention for describing the relative morphology of the human body. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A profile of a smile, exhibiting significant wear, especially on the maxillary incisors. ... Calculus (dark yellow colour) can be seen on almost all teeth near the gums In dentistry, calculus or tartar refers to hardened plaque on the teeth, formed by the presence of saliva, debris, and minerals. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Crown A crown, or full-coverage restoration (sometimes incorrectly called a cap) is a prosthetic tooth designed by a dentist and usually created by a lab technician (or more recently, a CAD-CAM machine). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into dental restoration. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Tooth decay, or dental caries, is a disease of the teeth resulting in damage to tooth structure. ... Dentists, in writing or speech, use several different Dental notation systems for associating information to a specific tooth. ... A Dental Spa is a dental facility supervised by a licensed dentist in which dental services are provided alongside spa treatments. ... Surgical extraction of an impacted molar. ... Parts of a tooth, including dentin Dentin (BE: dentine) is a calcified tissue of the body, and along with enamel, cementum, and pulp is one of the four major components of teeth. ... A dental restoration or dental filling is a dental restorative material used artificially to restore the function, integrity and morphology of missing tooth structure. ... Dental hygienist flossing a patients teeth Dental floss is either a bundle of thin nylon filaments or a plastic (teflon or polyethylene) ribbon used to remove food and dental plaque from teeth. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Fluoride therapy is the delivery of fluoride to the teeth topically or systemically, which is designed to prevent tooth decay (dental caries) which results in cavities. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Halitosis, oral malodor (scientific term), breath odor, foul breath, fetor oris, fetor ex ore, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odors exhaled in breathing – whether the smell is from an oral source or not. ... A dental implant is used in restorative dentistry. ... A dental laboratory is a light manufacturing facility for the production of dental restorations on the order of a dentist. ... For the Addie Cyr song see Mouthwash (song) For the ska-punk band, see Mouthwash (band) Mouthwash or mouth rinse is a product used for oral hygiene. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Procaine hydrochloride is a local anesthetic used primarily in dentistry. ... A local anesthetic is a drug that reversibly inhibits the propagation of signals along nerves. ... Occlusion is the relationship between the maxillary and mandibular teeth that exists when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or at rest. ... Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ... Orthodontics is a specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions (improper bites), which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both. ... Saint Apollonia was one of a group of virgin martyrs who suffered in Alexandria during a local uprising against the Christians prior to the persecution of Decius. ... Periodontitis, formerly known as Pyorrhea alveolaris, is the name of a collection of inflammatory diseases affecting the tissues that surround and support the teeth. ... Periodontology is the branch of dentistry concerned with the health of the tooth supporting structures, ie. ... Periodontics is the study of clinical aspects of the supporting structures of the teeth (i. ... Improper removal of plaque caused a build up of calculus (dark yellow colour) near the gums on almost all the teeth. ... Many Medical researchers believe that stem cell treatments have the potential to change the face of human disease and alleviate suffering. ... The use of information technology and telecommunications for dental primary care, consultation, education, and public awareness in the same manner as telehealth and telemedicine. ... Temporomandibular joint disorder is an acute or chronic inflammation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ; the joint connecting the lower jaw to the skull). ... Teeth redirects here. ... Three toothbrushes The toothbrush is an instrument used to clean teeth, consisting of a small brush on a handle. ... Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance and health of teeth. ... Xerostomia is the medical term for a dry mouth due to a lack of saliva. ... Dental phobia is a fear, or phobia, traditionally defined as an irrational and exaggerated fear of dentists and dental procedures. ...

Lists

References

  1. ^ Dentistry Definitions, hosted on the American Dental Association website. Page accessed December 11, 2007. This definition was adopted the association's House of Delegates in 1997.
  2. ^ Stone age man used dentist drill, hosted on the BBC News website. Last updated April 6, 2006. Page accessed December 11, 2007.
  3. ^ Dig uncovers ancient roots of dentistry: Tooth drilling goes back 9,000 years in Pakistan, scientists say, hosted on the MSNBC website. Page accessed on January 10, 2007.
  4. ^ Coppa, A. et al. 2006. "Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry: Flint tips were surprisingly effective for drilling tooth enamel in a prehistoric population." Nature. Volume 440. 6 April 2006.
  5. ^ History of Dentistry: Ancient Origins, hosted on the American Dental Association website. Page accessed January 9, 2007.
  6. ^ Suddick, Richard P. and Norman O. Harris. "Historical Perspectives of Oral Biology: A Series". Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 1(2), pages 135-151, 1990.
  7. ^ Arab, M. Sameh. Medicine in Ancient Egypt. Page accessed December 15, 2007.
  8. ^ Ancient Egyptian Dentistry, hosted on the University of Oklahoma website. Page accessed December 15, 2007.
  9. ^ Wilwerding, Terry. History of Dentistry, hosted on the Creighton University School of Dentistry website, page 4. Page accessed December 15, 2007.
  10. ^ a b The story of dentistry: Dental History Timeline, hosted on the British Dental Association website. Page accessed December 11, 2007.
  11. ^ a b Gelbier, Stanley. 125 Years of Developments in Dentistry. British Dental Journal (2005); 199, 470-473. Page accessed December 11, 2007. The 1879 register is referred to as the "Dental Register".
  12. ^ History of Dental Surgery in Edinburgh, hosted on the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh website. Page accessed December 11, 2007.

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External links


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