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Encyclopedia > Dentate gyrus
Brain: Dentate gyrus
Diagram of hippocampal regions. DG: Dentate gyrus.
[[Image:|250px|center|]]
Latin gyrus dentatus
Gray's subject #189 827
Part of
Components
Artery
Vein
BrainInfo/UW hier-161
MeSH A08.186.211.577.405.200

The dentate gyrus is part of the hippocampal formation. It contains granule cells, which project to the pyramidal cells and interneurons of subfield CA3 of the hippocampus. The granule cells, principal excitatory neurons in the dentate gyrus, receive inputs from areas in the neocortex. Most of these inputs are provided by the perforant path, the axons of spiny stellate cells at the entorhinal cortex. The perforant path is divided in the medial perforant path and the lateral perforant path generated respectively at the medial and lateral portions of the entorhinal cortex. The medial perforant path synapses onto the proximal dendritic area of the granule cells, while the lateral perforant path does it onto the distal dendrites of these same cells. Image File history File links Diagram of hippocampal regions. ... The location of the hippocampus in the human brain. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a major public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The location of the hippocampus in the human brain. ... In neuroscience, granule cells are tiny cells found within the granular layer of the cerebellum. ... A pyramidal cell is a multipolar neuron located in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. ... Interneuron: noun An interneuron is a neuron that communicates only to other neurons. ... In neuroscience, granule cells are tiny cells found within the granular layer of the cerebellum. ... In the anatomy of animals, the neopallium or neocortex is a part of the telencephalon in the brain. ... The entorhinal cortex (EC) is an important memory center in the brain. ... The entorhinal cortex (EC) is an important memory center in the brain. ... In neuroscience, granule cells are tiny cells found within the granular layer of the cerebellum. ...


The dentate gyrus is also one of the few regions of the brain where neurogenesis takes place. Neurogenesis is thought to play a role in the formation of new memories. It has also been found to be increased in response to both antidepressants and physical exercise. This implies that neurogenesis may improve symptoms of depression. Neurogenesis literally means birth of neurons. Neurogenesis is most prevalent during pre-natal development and is the process by which neurons are created to populate the growing brain. ... Memory is the ability of the brain to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... An antidepressant is a medication designed to treat or alleviate the symptoms of clinical depression. ... (for options, see option exercise) U.S. marine emerges from the water upon completing the swimming portion of the triathlon. ... Clinical depression is a state of sadness or melancholia that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ...


External links


Prosencephalon (forebrain)

DIENCEPHALON: third ventricle, interventricular foramina, optic chiasm In the anatomy of vertebrates, the prosencephalon is a part of encephalon, or brain. ... The diencephalon is the region of the brain that includes the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. ... The third ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... The interventricular foramen (aka the foramen of Monro) joins the lateral ventricles of the brain with the anterior third ventricle. ... Visual pathway with optic chiasm circled The optic chiasm (from the Greek χλαζειν to mark with an X, after the letter Χ chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross, those parts of the right eye which see things on the right side being connected to the...


epithalamus: pineal body, habenula, habenular nuclei The epithalamus is a dorsal posterior segment of the diencephalon (a segment in the middle of the brain also containing the hypothalamus and the thalamus) which includes the habenula, the stria medullaris and the pineal body. ... The pineal gland (pronunciation: pI-nE-&l, pI-), or epiphysis, is a small endocrine gland located near the middle of the brain. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... The habenular nuclei are a group of small nuclei which are part of the diencephalon. ...


hypothalamus: anterior (paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus), intermediate (pituitary gland, anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary, infundibulum, median eminence, arcuate nucleus, ventromedial nucleus), posterior (posterior nucleus, mammillary body) In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... The paraventricular nucleus is a nucleus of mostly magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus, their axons extend into posterior pituitary. ... In biology, the supraoptic nucleus is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus, their axons extend into posterior pituitary. ... The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus and is so named because it resides immediately above the optic chaism (OX). ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... An infundibulum is the latin for funnel and is a funnel-shaped cavity or organ. ... Median Eminence The median eminence is part of the inferior boundary for the hypothalamus. ... The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. ... The ventromedial hypothalamus has two parts; The superior and anterior parts. ... The posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus is one of the many nuclei that make up the hypothalamic region of the brain. ... The mammillary bodies (Latin: corpus mamillare) are a pair of small round bodies in the brain forming part of the limbic system. ...


subthalamus: zona incerta, subthalamic nucleus The subthalamus, or ventral thalamus, is part of the diencephalon. ... The zona incerta is a small region of gray matter that is part of the subthalamus. ... The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus of the basal ganglia. ...


thalamus: pulvinar, medial geniculate nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, thalamic reticular nucleus MRI cross-section of human brain, with thalamus marked. ... The pulvinar is the caudal-most nucleus of the thalamus that is conventionally divided into oral, inferior, lateral, and medial subnuclei. ... The medial geniculate nucleus is a nucleus of the thalamus that acts as a relay for auditory information. ... The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus is a part of the brain, which is the primary processor of visual information, received from the retina, in the CNS. Schematic diagram of the primate lateral geniculate nucleus. ... The thalamic reticular nucleus is part of the ventral thalamus that forms a capsule around the thalamus laterally. ...


TELENCEPHALON: cerebral cortex, cerebral hemispheres, primary sensory areas, primary sulci (medial longitudinal fissure, lateral, central, cingulate) The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... Human brain viewed from above, showing cerebral hemispheres. ... The primary sensory areas are the main cerebral areas that receive sensory information from thalamic nerve projections. ... Sulcus (pl. ... The medial longitudinal fissure is the deep groove which separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain. ... Lateral sulcus The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent structures of the human brain. ... Central sulcus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ...


frontal lobe: superior frontal gyrus (6, 8), middle frontal gyrus (Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, 44, 45, 46), inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis, 11, 47), orbitofrontal cortex (9, 10), precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex, 4), precentral sulcus Lobes of the human brain (Frontal Lobe is shown in red) The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of vertebrates. ... Superior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... // Human Brodmann area 8, or BA8, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Middle frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... // Location and Function The prefrontal cortex is the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and associative areas. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... // Where is it? Brodmann area 46, or BA46, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Inferior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... The Pars Opercularis is part of the inferior frontal gyrus and is part of the mirror neurons. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Where is it? Brodmann area 47, or BA47, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... The orbitofrontal cortex is a region of association cortex the human brain involved in cognitive processes such as decision making. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The precentral gyrus (a. ... The primary motor area is a group of networked cells in mammalian brains that controls movements of specific body parts associated with cell groups in that area of the brain. ... Brodmann area 4 of human brain. ... Precentral sulcus of the human brain. ...


parietal lobe: postcentral gyrus (1, 2, 3), superior parietal lobule (5), inferior parietal lobule (39, 40), precuneus (7), postcentral sulcus The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... Brodmann area 5 is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The precuneus is a structure in the brain positioned above the cuneus and located in the parietal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Postcentral sulcus of the human brain. ...


occipital lobe: primary visual cortex (17), cuneus, 18, 19 The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The primary visual cortex (usually called V1) is the most well-studied visual area in the brain. ... Cuneus (Latin for wedge; plural, cunei), the architectural term applied to the wedge-shaped divisions of the Roman theatre separated by the scalae or stairways; see Vitruvius v. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Brodmann area 19 is shown in yellow in this image which also shows ares 17 (red) and 18 (orange) Brodmann area 19, or BA19, is part of the occipital lobe cortex in the human brain. ...


temporal lobe: superior temporal gyrus (38, 22-Wernicke's area, 41-42-primary auditory cortex), transverse temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus (21), inferior temporal gyrus (37), fusiform gyrus (20), The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... Superior temporal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... On the left side of the brain is an area called Brodmann’s area 22, that help generate and help the understanding of individual words, and on the right side of the brain it helps tell the difference between melody, pitch, and sound intensity. ... Wernickes area is a part of the human brain that forms part of the cortex, on the left posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus, posterior to the primary auditory cortex, on the temporo-parietal junction (part of the brain where the temporal lobe and parietal lobe meet). ... Brodmann areas 41 & 42 of the human brain. ... The transverse temporal gyri (also called Heschls gyri) are found in the area of primary auditory cortex in the superior temporal gyrus of the human brain. ... The location in the brain of the middle temporal gyrus Middle temporal gyrus is a gyrus in the brain on the Temporal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Function of Inferior Temporal Gyrus The Inferior Temporal Gyrus, also known as Brocas area, carries out many tasks, and is mainly responsible for its task in phoenetical analysis for reading. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Please observe: the above picture was copied from this fantastic brain atlas The Fusiform gyrus is part of the temporal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ...


limbic lobe/fornicate gyrus: parahippocampal gyrus (piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, 25, 27, 34, 35, 36), cingulate cortex/cingulate gyrus, anterior cingulate (24, 32, 33), posterior cingulate (23, 26, 29, 30, 31) The limbic system is a group of brain structures that are involved in various emotions such as aggression, fear, pleasure and also in the formation of memory. ... The Fornicate Gyrus is connected to the amydala, the mid region of the parietal region of the skull. ... The parahippocampal gyrus is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus. ... In anatomy of animals, the piriform cortex, or pyriform cortex is a region in the brain. ... The entorhinal cortex (EC) is an important memory center in the brain. ... // Human Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics. ... The term area 27 of Brodmann-1909 refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined cortical area that is a rostral part of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS of the guenon (Brodmann-1909). ... You have new messages. ... // Human This area is known as perirhinal area 35, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined hippocampal region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as ectorhinal area 36, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined temporal region of cerebral cortex. ... The cingulate cortex is part of the brain and situated roughly in the middle of the cortex. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ... Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex and includes Brodmanns area 24 (ventral ACC) and 32 (dorsal ACC). ... 24 - ventral anterior cingulate (area cingularis anterior ventralis). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This area is known as pregenual area 33, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... The Cingulum is a collection of nerve fibres following a long, arcuate course superior to and around to posterior to the Corpus callosum. ... Brodmann area 23 (BA23) is a region in the brain corresponding to some portion of the posterior cingulate cortex. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... This area is known as granular retrolimbic area 29, and it refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as agranular retrolimbic area 30, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ...


subcortical/insular cortex: rhinencephalon, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, septum pellucidum, ependyma, hippocampus (dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis, subiculum, alveus), basal ganglia (striatum, caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, claustrum, extreme capsule, amygdala, nucleus accumbens), internal capsule, corona radiata, external capsule The insular cortex (also often referred to as just the insula) is a structure of the human brain. ... In anatomy of animals, the rhinencephalon is a part of the brain involved with olfaction. ... Vesalius Fabrica, 1543. ... Grays FIG. 733– Corpus callosum from above. ... The ventricular system is a fluid conducting system within the brain. ... The septum pellucidum, also called the septum lucidum, is a thin, triangular, vertical membrane that separates the lateral ventricles of the brain. ... Ependyma is the thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricular system of the brain and the spinal cord canal Categories: Anatomy stubs | Physiology ... The location of the hippocampus in the human brain. ... Daigram of hippocampal regions. ... The subiculum (Latin: support) forms the most inferior portion of the hippocampus. ... The alveus of the hippocampus borders the wall of the lateral ventricle and is composed of white, myelinated fibers. ... The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei in the brain associated with motor and learning functions. ... The striatum is a subcortical part of the brain consisting of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. ... Grays Fig. ... The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus describes the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia. ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. ... The globus pallidus (Latin for pale body) is a sub-cortical structure in the brain. ... The claustrum is a thin layer of grey matter lying between the extreme capsule and external capsule in the brain. ... The extremem capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. ... Location of the amygdala in the human brain The amygdala (Latin, corpus amygdaloideum) is an almond-shaped set of neurons located deep in the brains medial temporal lobe. ... The nucleus accumbens (also known as the accumbens nucleus or nucleus accumbens septi) is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... The internal capsule is an area of white matter in the brain that separates the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the lenticular nucleus. ... The corona radiata surround an ovum or unfertilized egg cell, and consist of two or three strata (layers) of follicular cells. ... The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. ...


Other prosencephalon neural pathways: arcuate fasciculus, corticospinal tract, dopamine pathways (mesocortical, mesolimbic, nigrostriatal, tuberoinfundibular) A neural pathway is a neural tract connecting one part of the nervous system with another, usually consisting of bundles of elongated, myelin insultated neurons, known collectively as white matter. ... Figure one illustrates significant language areas of the brain. ... The corticospinal or pyramidal tract is a massive collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain, and the spinal cord. ... The mesocortical pathway is a neural pathway which connects the ventral tegmentum to the cortex, particularly the frontal lobes. ... The mesolimbic pathway is one of the neural pathways in the brain which links the ventral tegmentum area in the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens in the limbic system. ... The nigrostriatal pathway is a neural pathway which connects the substantia nigra with the striatum. ... The tuberoinfundibular pathway is a neural pathway which runs between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. ...


Some categorizations are approximations, and some Brodmann areas span gyri.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus of the Adult Tree Shrew Is Regulated by Psychosocial Stress and NMDA Receptor ... (5597 words)
are observed in the dentate gyrus, predominantly in the sgz.
BrdU in the dentate gyrus of the subordinate animal.
Kuhn HG, Dickinson-Anson H, Gage FH (1996) Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat: age-related decrease in neuronal progenitor population.
Dentate gyrus - Psychology Wiki - A Wikia wiki (595 words)
The granule cells, principal excitatory neurons in the dentate gyrus, receive inputs from areas in the neocortex.
The dentate gyrus is also one of the few regions of the brain where neurogenesis takes place.
parietal lobe: postcentral sulcus, postcentral gyrus (1, 2, 3, 43), superior parietal lobule (5), inferior parietal lobule (39-angular gyrus, 40), precuneus (7), intraparietal sulcus
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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