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Encyclopedia > Dental consonant
Places of articulation
Labial
Bilabial
Labial-velar
Labial-alveolar
Labiodental
Coronal
Linguolabial
Interdental
Dental
Alveolar
Apical
Laminal
Postalveolar
Alveolo-palatal
Retroflex
Dorsal
Palatal
Labial-palatal
Velar
Uvular
Radical
Pharyngeal
Epiglotto-pharyngeal
Epiglottal
Glottal
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Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. (The latter articulation is called alveolar.) In speech, consonants may have different places of articulation, generally with full or partial stoppage of the airstream. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... Labial-velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips. ... The Yelî Dnye language of Rossel Island, Papua New Guinea, appears to be unique in having labial-alveolar and labial-postalveolar places of articulation, as illustrated below. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ... Linguolabials are consonants articulated by putting the tongue tip or tongue blade against the upper lip. ... Interdental consonants are produced by placing the blade of the tongue against the upper incisors. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i. ... A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the flattened end of the tongue. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... In phonetics, alveolo-palatal are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge and the palate, but closer to the palate than for postalveolar consonants. ... retroflex plosive Retroflex consonants cover two points of articulation. ... Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue against either the hard palate, or the flexible velum just behind it, or even against the uvula. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... In phonetics, the labialised palatal approximant is a consonant with two constrictions in the vocal tract: with the tongue on the palate, and rounded at the lips. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Radical consonants are articulated with the root (base) of the tongue in the throat. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... An epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant is a newly reported type of consonant, articulated with the epiglottis against the back wall of the pharynx. ... An epiglottal consonant is a consonant that is articulated with the epiglottis against the back of the pharynx. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... The International Phonetic Alphabet. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ...


True dental consonants are relatively uncommon. French, Italian, and Spanish t, d, n, and l are often called dental. However, they are actually alveolar, or perhaps denti-alveolar; the difference between the Romance languages and English is not so much where the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth, as which part of the tongue makes the contact. In English it is the tip of the tongue (such sounds are termed apical), whereas in the Romance languages it is the flat of the tongue just above the tip (such sounds are called laminal). An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i. ... A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the flattened end of the tongue. ...


The confusion with dental articulation comes from looking at the tongue from outside the mouth: With laminal (denti-)alveolar consonants, the tip of the tongue can be seen touching the teeth. However, it is the rear-most point of contact that is most relevant, for this is what defines the acoustic space of the mouth and gives a consonant its characteristic sound. In the case of the Romance languages, the rear-most contact is alveolar or sometimes slightly pre-alveolar.


This laminal/apical difference is important. If an English speaker trying to speak French simply moves the tongue forward to make the contact dental, while maintaining an apical articulation, any surrounding front rounded vowels will be very difficult to pronounce. If, however, the speaker tucks the tip of the tongue out of the way (such as behind the lower teeth), and makes contact at the same place as in English, the consonants will sound better, and the vowels will be much easier to pronounce. Thus a good phonetic description of a language will specify whether coronal consonants are laminal or apical as well as whether they are dental or alveolar. Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ...


Nevertheless, apical dentals occur in some languages. In Albanian, there are two els, one apical alveolar, and one apical dental. However, the apical dental consonant also has retracted tongue root—that is, it is pharyngealized. In phonetics, retracted tongue root, abbreviated RTR or –ATR, is the retraction of the base of the tongue in the pharynx during the pronunciation of a vowel. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ...


The dental/denti-alveolar consonants as transcribed by the International Phonetic Alphabet are: The International Phonetic Alphabet. ...

IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning
image:IPA-dental_nasal.png dental nasal Spanish onda [od̪a] wave
image:IPA-voiceless_dental_plosive.png voiceless dental plosive Spanish toro [oɾo] bull
image:IPA-voiced_dental_plosive.png voiced dental plosive Spanish donde [on̪e] where
voiceless dental sibilant fricative Polish kosa [koa] scythe
voiced dental sibilant fricative Polish koza [koa] goat
image:Xsampa-T2.png voiceless dental nonsibilant fricative
(also often called "interdental")
English thing [θɪŋ] thing
image:Xsampa-D2.png voiced dental nonsibilant fricative
(also often called "interdental")
English this [ðɪs] this
image:IPA-voiced_dental_approximant.png voiced dental approximant Spanish codo [koð̞o] elbow
image:IPA-dental_lateral_approximant.png dental lateral approximant Albanian halla [hal̪ˤa] armpit
image:IPA-dental_flap.png dental flap
image:IPA-dental_trill.png dental trill Marshallese Ebadon [ebɑon̪] Ebadon
image:IPA-dental ejective.png dental ejective
image:IPA-voiced_dental_implosive.png voiced dental implosive
image:Xsampa-barslash.png dental click release Xhosa ukúcola [uk’úkǀola] to grind fine

Image File history File links IPA-dental_nasal. ... The dental nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Image File history File links IPA-voiceless_dental_plosive. ... The voiceless dental plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Image File history File links IPA-voiced_dental_plosive. ... The voiced dental plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless dental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced dental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Image File history File links IPA-voiced_dental_approximant. ... Image File history File links IPA-dental_lateral_approximant. ... Image File history File links IPA-dental_flap. ... Image File history File links IPA-dental_trill. ... Image File history File links IPA-dental_ejective. ... The dental ejective is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Image File history File links IPA-voiced_dental_implosive. ... The voiced dental implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-nonpulmonic. ... The dental click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Xhosa is one of the official languages of South Africa. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Dental consonant (1305 words)
Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English.
Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants).
Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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