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Encyclopedia > Denis Sassou Nguesso
Denis Sassou Nguesso
Time in Office 18 March 19773 April 1977 (part of the Military Committee of the Congolese Labour Party);
8 February 19793 August 1992 (first time);
25 October 1997
Predecessor Marien Ngouabi (as a part of the Military Committee of the CLP);
Jean-Pierre Thystère Tchicaya (first time);
Pascal Lissouba (second time)
Successor Joachim Yhombi-Opango
(as a part of the Military Committee of the CLP);
Pascal Lissouba (first time)
Date of Birth 1943
Place of Birth Edou, Oyo District
Denis Sassou Nguesso and Jacques Chirac
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Denis Sassou Nguesso and Jacques Chirac

Denis Sassou Nguesso (born 1943) is a general and the president of the Republic of the Congo from 1979 to 1992 and from 1997 to date. March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... The Congolese Labour Party (Parti congolais du Travail), founded in 1969 by Marien Ngouabi, is the ruling political party of the Republic of the Congo. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marien Ngouabi (or NGouabi; 1938 - March 18, 1977) was the military President of the Republic of the Congo from January 1, 1969 - March 18, 1977. ... Professor Pascal Lissouba (born November 15, 1931) was President of the Republic of the Congo from August 31, 1992 to October 15, 1997. ... Joachim Yhombi-Opango (born 1939) is a Brazzaville-Congolese general and political figure. ... Professor Pascal Lissouba (born November 15, 1931) was President of the Republic of the Congo from August 31, 1992 to October 15, 1997. ... Oyo (Ọyọ in Yoruba orthography, pronounced ) is the name for a Yoruba city in modern-day Nigeria and also the loose empire which that city controlled in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Image File history File links Sassou-Nguesso_et_Chirac. ... Image File history File links Sassou-Nguesso_et_Chirac. ... Jacques René Chirac (born November 29, 1932) is a French politician and the current President of the French Republic. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ...


He is a member of the Mbochi tribe, born in Edou in the Oyo district to the north of the country. He joined the army in 1960 just before the country was granted independence. He was marked for prominence and received military training in Algeria and at Saint Maixent, France before returning to join the elite paratroop regiment. The Mbochi are a central African ethnic group whose population is concentrated in the northern region of the Republic of the Congo. ...


He had socialist leanings and supported the opposition to Fulbert Youlou in Les Trois Glorieuses of August 1963. Despite this he was part of the military coup of 1968 that brought Marien Ngouabi to power and was an early member of the PCT (Parti Congolais du Travail) when it was founded in December 1969. Fulbert Abbe Youlou (1917 - 1972) was a Brazzaville-Congolese political figure. ... Marien Ngouabi (or NGouabi; 1938 - March 18, 1977) was the military President of the Republic of the Congo from January 1, 1969 - March 18, 1977. ... The Congolese Labour Party (Parti congolais du Travail), founded in 1969 by Marien Ngouabi, is the ruling political party of the Republic of the Congo. ...


In 1970 Sassou Nguesso was made Director of Security and a minister in the new presidential council. When Ngouabi was assassinated Nguesso played a key role in maintaining control, briefly heading the Military Committee of the Party (CMP, Comité Militaire du Parti) that controlled the state before the succession of Colonel Joachim Yhombi-Opango. Sassou Nguesso was rewarded with a promotion to colonel and the post of vice-president of the CMP. He remained there until February 5, 1979 when Yhomby-Opango was forced from power in a technical coup accused of corruption and political deviancy. On February 8 the CMP chose Nguesso as the new president and at the Third Extraordinary Congress of the PCT his position was rubber-stamped. Joachim Yhombi-Opango (born 1939) is a Brazzaville-Congolese general and political figure. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Sassou Nguesso surprised many observers who saw only a military strongman by revealing a strong commitment to Marxism as well as a streak of practical politics. He negotiated IMF loans and allowed foreign investors from France and the Americas to operate in the vital oil and mineral extraction operations. He also travelled to Moscow in 1981 to sign a twenty-year friendship pact with Leonid Brezhnev. Marxism is the philosophy, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German, Jewish, socialist philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: , Leonid Ilič Brežnev; December 19 [O.S. January 1 1907] 1906 – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. ...


He was re-elected as president at the 1984 Congress of the PCT for a further five years and he was not slow to moderate the Marxist policies of the government as the situation demanded. He was president of the OAU from 1986-1987. In late 1987 he faced down a serious military revolt in the north of the country with French aid. Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ...


Following the 1989 Congress, Sassou Nguesso saw the collapse of the communist states of Eastern Europe and, under pressure from the French, began to prepare the process of bringing the country to democracy, in December 1989 he announced the end of government control of the economy and declared a partial amnesty for political prisoners. Into the following year he attempted to improve the failing economic situation and reduce the outrageous levels of corruption. From August 1990 political parties other than the PCT were allowed and Sassou Nguesso undertook a symbolic state visit to the USA, laying the grounds for a new series of conditional IMF loans later that year. In February 1991 the process towards democracy was decided and in June Sassou Nguesso stepped slightly aside and Andre Milongo was appointed interim president of the CSR until the scheduled elections of 1992. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Amnesty (from the Greek amnestia, oblivion) is an act of justice by which the supreme power in a state restores those who may have been guilty of any offence against it to the position of innocent persons. ...


In the elections of June-July 1992 the PCT won only 19 of 125 seats on the National Assembly, UPADS (Union panafricaine pour la démocratie sociale) was the largest party with the MCDDI (Mouvement Congolais pour la démocratie et le développement intégral) another strong force. In the presidential elections of August the contest was between Pascal Lissouba (UPADS) and Bernard Kolelas (MCDDI), Lissouba won in the second round with 61% of the vote, Sassou Nguesso was eliminated in the first round after polling only 17%. Professor Pascal Lissouba (born November 15, 1931) was President of the Republic of the Congo from August 31, 1992 to October 15, 1997. ...


Lissouba began his rule dogged with accusations of voting irregularities and he had to act with increasing repression to maintain his power. From November 1993 to the end of that year clashes between supporters of Kolelas and Lissouba left almost 1500 people dead. In 1994 Sassou Nguesso prudently left the country for Paris, not returning until 1997 in order to contend the presidential elections scheduled for July.


On June 5, 1997 Lissouba ordered the army to surround Sassou Nguesso's residence in Brazzaville, the militia of Sassou Nguesso resisted the army and a more widespread conflict began. Sassou Nguesso gained support from Angola and in October 11-14 his forces took Brazzaville and Lissouba fled. Sassou Nguesso was declared president on October 25. June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Image of Kinshasa and Brazzaville, taken by NASA. Brazzaville is the capital and largest city of the Republic of the Congo and is located on the Congo River. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years). ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ...


Sassou Nguesso was prepared to allow a return to democracy and began a three-year transition process in 1998 but renewed fighting with opposition groups led to the collapse of the endeavour. With the government forces in ascendency and following peace agreements in 1999 elections were re-scheduled for 2002, although not all rebel groups signed the accords. On March 10 Sassou Nguesso won with almost 90% of the vote, his two main rivals Lissouba and Kolelas were prevented from competing and the only remaining credible rival, Andre Milongo, advised his supporters to boycott the elections and then withdrew from the race. A new constitution was agreed in January 2002 which granted the president new powers and also extended his term to seven years as well as introducing a new bicameral assembly. A boycott is an action undertaken to abstain from using, buying, or dealing with someone or some organisation as an expression of protest or as a means of coercion. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ...


Having already served as the Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity in 1986 to 1987, he was elected Chairman of the African Union, the OAU's successor body, in January 2006. The AU Chairman is chosen by the Assembly, which consists of the heads of state of member countries, to serve a 1-year term. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... The AU Chairman is chosen by the Assembly, which consists of the heads of state of member countries, to serve a 1-year term. ... Anthem: Let us all unite and celebrate together Capital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Membership 53 member states Official languages The African languages, as well as Arabic, Swahili, English, French and Portuguese Formation - As OAU - As AU - May 25, 1963 - July 9, 2002 Chairman of the African Union Denis Sassou-Nguesso Chairman...

Preceded by:
Joachim Yhombi-Opango
President of the Republic of the Congo
1979–1992
Succeeded by:
Pascal Lissouba
Preceded by:
Pascal Lissouba
President of the Republic of the Congo
1997–present
Incumbent
Preceded by:
Olusegun Obasanjo
Chairman of the African Union
2006–present
Incumbent

 
 

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