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Encyclopedia > Dengue fever
Dengue virus
A TEM micrograph showing dengue virus.
A TEM micrograph showing dengue virus.
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Flaviviridae
Genus: Flavivirus
Species: Dengue virus
Dengue fever
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 A90.
ICD-9 061
DiseasesDB 3564
MedlinePlus 001374
eMedicine med/528 
MeSH C02.782.417.214

Dengue fever (IPA: /ˈdɛŋgeɪ/) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics and Africa, with a geographical spread similar to malaria.[1] One major difference, however, is that malaria is often eradicated in major cities, whereas dengue is often found in urban areas of developed tropical nations, including Singapore, Taiwan or Brazil. Caused by one of four closely related virus serotypes of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, each serotype is sufficiently different that there is no cross-protection and epidemics caused by multiple serotypes (hyperendemicity) can occur. Dengue is transmitted to humans by the Aedes aegypti (rarely Aedes albopictus) mosquito, which feeds during the day.[2] Dengue Fever is a six-member band from Los Angeles that combines Cambodian pop music and lyrics with psychedelic rock. ... dengue virus File links The following pages link to this file: Dengue fever Categories: National Institutes of Health images ... A section of a cell of Bacillus subtilis, taken with a Tecnai T-12 TEM. The scale bar is 200nm. ... A micrograph is a photograph or similar image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Flavivirus Pestivirus Hepacivirus The Flaviviridae are a family of viruses that infect mammals. ... Species see text Flavivirus is a genus of the family Flaviviridae. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... This article is about the medical term. ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Serotypes refer to a group of related microorganisms or viruses distinguished by responses to different antigens. ... Species see text Flavivirus is a genus of the family Flaviviridae. ... Genera Flavivirus Pestivirus Hepacivirus The Flaviviridae are a family of viruses that infect mammals. ... joyce This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Binomial name Aedes albopictus Skuse, 1895 Aedes albopictus (Family Culicidae), the Asian Tiger Mosquito or Forest Day Mosquito, is characterized by its black and white striped legs and small, black and white body. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Signs and symptoms

This infectious disease is manifested by a sudden onset of fever, with severe headache, muscle and joint pains (myalgias and arthralgias - severe pain gives it the name break-bone fever or bonecrusher disease) and rashes. The dengue rash is characteristically bright red petechia and usually appears first on the lower limbs and the chest - in some patients, it spreads to cover most of the body. There may also be gastritis with some combination of associated abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A rash is a change in skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. ... minor Petechia A petechia (IPA pronunciation: ), plural petechiae (IPA pronunciation: ) is a small red or purple spot on the body, caused by a minor hemorrhage (broken capillary blood vessels). ... Gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Emesis redirects here. ... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths...


Some cases develop much milder symptoms which can, when no rash is present, be misdiagnosed as influenza or other viral infection. Thus travelers from tropical areas may inadvertently pass on dengue in their home countries, having not been properly diagnosed at the height of their illness. Patients with dengue can only pass on the infection through mosquitoes or blood products while they are still febrile. Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ...


The classic dengue fever lasts about six to seven days, with a smaller peak of fever at the trailing end of the disease (the so-called "biphasic pattern"). Clinically, the platelet count will drop until the patient's temperature is normal. A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...


Cases of DHF also show higher fever, haemorrhagic phenomena, thrombocytopenia, and haemoconcentration. A small proportion of cases lead to dengue shock syndrome (DSS) which has a high mortality rate. Thrombocytopenia (or -paenia, or thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. ...


Diagnosis

The diagnosis of dengue is usually made clinically. The classic picture is high fever with no localising source of infection, a petechial rash with thrombocytopenia and relative leukopenia. Thrombocytopenia (or -paenia, or thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. ... Leukopenia or leukocytopenia refers to a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells (leukocytes) in the blood. ...


The WHO definition of dengue haemorrhagic fever has been in use since 1975; all four criteria must be fulfilled: For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ...

  1. Fever
  2. Haemorrhagic tendency (positive tourniquet test, spontaneous bruising, bleeding from mucosa, gingiva, injection sites, etc.; vomiting blood, or bloody diarrhea)
  3. Thrombocytopaenia (<100,000 platelets per mm³ or estimated as less than 3 platelets per high power field)
  4. Evidence of plasma leakage (hematocrit more than 20% higher than expected, or drop in haematocrit of 20% or more from baseline following IV fluid, pleural effusion, ascites, hypoproteinaemia)

Dengue shock syndrome is defined as dengue haemorrhagic fever plus: An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... For other uses, see Bleeding (disambiguation). ... A tourniquet test determines capillary fragility. ... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths... Thrombocytopenia (or -paenia, or thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. ... The hematocrit (Ht or HCT) and packed cell volume (PCV) are measures of the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells. ... Pleural effusion Chest x-ray of a pleural effusion. ...

  • Weak rapid pulse,
  • Narrow pulse pressure (less than 20 mm Hg)

or,

  • Cold, clammy skin and restlessness.

Serology and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) studies are available to confirm the diagnosis of dengue if clinically indicated. Serology is the scientific study of blood serum. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Treatment

The mainstay of treatment is supportive therapy. Increased oral fluid intake is recommended to prevent dehydration. Supplementation with intravenous fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and significant concentration of the blood if the patient is unable to maintain oral intake. A platelet transfusion is indicated in rare cases if the platelet level drops significantly (below 20,000) or if there is significant bleeding. An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ...


The presence of melena may indicate internal gastrointestinal bleeding requiring platelet and/or red blood cell transfusion.


It is very important to avoid aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications. These drugs are often used to treat pain and fever though in this case they may actually aggravate the bleeding tendency associated with some of these infections. Patients should receive instead acetaminophen preparations to deal with these symptoms[3] if dengue is suspected. This article is about the drug. ... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ...


Emerging treatments

Emerging evidence suggests that mycophenolic acid and ribavirin inhibit dengue replication. Initial experiments showed a fivefold increase in defective viral RNA production by cells treated with each drug.[1] In vivo studies, however, have not yet been done. Mycophenolic acid (INN) (IPA: ) or mycophenolate is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. ... Ribavirin (Copegus®; Rebetol®; Ribasphere®; Vilona®,Virazole®, also generics from Sandoz, Teva, Warrick) is an anti-viral drug which is active against a number of DNA and RNA viruses. ...


Epidemiology

World-wide dengue distribution, 2006. Red: Epidemic dengue. Blue: Aedes aegypti.
World-wide dengue distribution, 2006. Red: Epidemic dengue. Blue: Aedes aegypti.
World-wide dengue distribution, 2000
World-wide dengue distribution, 2000

The first epidemics occurred almost simultaneously in Asia, Africa, and North America in the 1780s. The disease was identified and named in 1779. A global pandemic began in Southeast Asia in the 1950s and by 1975 DHF had become a leading cause of death among children in many countries in that region. Epidemic dengue has become more common since the 1980s. By the late 1990s, dengue was the most important mosquito-borne disease affecting humans after malaria, there being around 40 million cases of dengue fever and several hundred thousand cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever each year. There was a serious outbreak in Rio de Janeiro in February, 2002 affecting around one million people and killing sixteen. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 435 pixelsFull resolution (1161 × 631 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map showing the distribution of dengue fever in the world, as of 2006. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 435 pixelsFull resolution (1161 × 631 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map showing the distribution of dengue fever in the world, as of 2006. ... A map showing the distribution of dengue in the world File links The following pages link to this file: Dengue fever Categories: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention images ... A map showing the distribution of dengue in the world File links The following pages link to this file: Dengue fever Categories: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention images ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Nothing much really happened in the 1780s only that Mary-Anne Tobin was hung in public for wearing a flase beard and voting. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about large epidemics. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ...


Significant outbreaks of dengue fever tend to occur every five or six years. There tends to remain large numbers of susceptible people in the population despite previous outbreaks because there are four different strains of the dengue virus and because of new susceptible individuals entering the target population, either through childbirth or immigration.


There is significant evidence, originally suggested by S.B. Halstead in the 1970s, that dengue hemorrhagic fever is more likely to occur in patients who have secondary infections by serotypes different from the primary infection. One model to explain this process is known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), which allows for increased uptake and virion replication during a secondary infection with a different strain. Through an immunological phenomenon, known as original antigenic sin, the immune system is not able to adequately respond to the stronger infection, and the secondary infection becomes far more serious.[4] This process is also known as superinfection (Nowak and May 1994; Levin and Pimentel 1981). The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Serotypes refer to a group of related microorganisms or viruses distinguished by responses to different antigens. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... Original antigenic sin (first described in 1960 by Thomas Francis, Jr. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...


In Singapore, there are about 4,000-5,000 reported cases of dengue fever or dengue haemorrhagic fever every year. In the year 2003, there were 6 deaths from dengue shock syndrome.[citation needed] It is believed that the reported cases of dengue are an underrepresentation of all the cases of dengue as it would ignore subclinical cases and cases where the patient did not present for medical treatment. With proper medical treatment, the mortality rate for dengue can therefore be brought down to less than 1 in 1000. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Prevention

Vaccine development

There is no commercially available vaccine for the dengue flavivirus. However, one of the many ongoing vaccine development programs is the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative which was set up in 2003 with the aim of accelerating the development and introduction of dengue vaccine(s) that are affordable and accessible to poor children in endemic countries.[5] Thai researchers are testing a dengue fever vaccine on 3,000-5,000 human volunteers within the next three years after having successfully conducted tests on animals and a small group of human volunteers.[6] A number of other vaccine candidates are entering phase I or II testing.[7] A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Species see text Flavivirus is a genus of the family Flaviviridae. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mosquito control

A field technician looking for larvae in standing water containers during the 1965 Aedes aegypti eradication program in Miami, Florida. In the 1960s, a major effort was made to eradicate the principal urban vector mosquito of dengue and yellow fever viruses, A. aegypti, from southeast United States. Courtesy: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publich Health Image Library
A field technician looking for larvae in standing water containers during the 1965 Aedes aegypti eradication program in Miami, Florida. In the 1960s, a major effort was made to eradicate the principal urban vector mosquito of dengue and yellow fever viruses, A. aegypti, from southeast United States.
Courtesy: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publich Health Image Library

Primary prevention of dengue mainly resides in mosquito control, i.e. eliminating or reducing the mosquito vector for dengue. Public spraying for mosquitoes is the most important aspect of this vector. Application of larvicides such as Abate® to standing water is more effective in the long term control of mosquitoes. Initiatives to eradicate pools of standing water (such as in flowerpots) have proven useful in controlling mosquito-borne diseases. Promising new techniques have been recently reported from Oxford University on rendering the Aedes mosquito pest sterile.[citation needed] Image File history File links A_aegypti_eradication. ... Image File history File links A_aegypti_eradication. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... joyce This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Mosquito control is the task of managing the population of mosquitoes to reduce their damage to human health, economies, and enjoyment of mosquito-ridden areas. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ABATE is a loose network of motorcycle enthusiasts in the United States best known for their opposition to mandatory motorcycle helmet laws. ... Water stagnation occurs when water stops flowing. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


In 1998, scientists from the Queensland Institute of Research in Australia and Vietnam's Ministry of Health had introduced a scheme that encouraged children to place a water bug, a crustacean called Mesocyclops, in water tanks and discarded containers where the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, was known to thrive. It is viewed as being more cost-effective and more environmentally friendly than pesticides, though not as effective, and required the ongoing participation of the community. [8] Mesocyclops is a genus of crustacean in family Cyclopidae. ...


Recently, researchers at the Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Brazil, have developed a world-awarded new technology to monitor and control the mosquito, using traps, chemical attractants, handheld computers and GPS georeferenced maps. The MI Dengue system can show precisely where the mosquitoes are inside the urban area, in a very short period of time.


Personal protection

Personal prevention consists of the use of mosquito nets, repellents containing NNDB or DEET, covering exposed skin, use of DEET-impregnated bednets, and avoiding endemic areas. This is also important for malaria prevention. A bed covered by a mosquito net. ... Mosquito on a bottle of herbal mosquito repellent. ... NNDB, ostensibly standing for Notable Names Database, produced by Soylent Communications, is an online database of biographical details of notable people. ... N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, abbreviated DEET, is an insect repellent chemical. ... N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, abbreviated DEET, is an insect repellent chemical. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...


Potential antiviral approaches

In cell culture experiments[9] and mice [10] Morpholino antisense oligos have shown specific activity against Dengue virus. Segment of a Morpholino-RNA heteroduplex, 8-mer shown In molecular biology, a Morpholino is a kind of molecule used to modify gene expression. ...


The yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) is a related Flavivirus, thus the chimeric replacement of yellow fever vaccine with dengue has been often suggested but no full scale studies have been conducted to date.[2] A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Look up chimera, Chimaera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 2002 the Swiss pharmaceutical company Novartis and the Singapore Economic Development board created the Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases (NITD). NITD is a public-private partnership that researches neglected tropical diseases. The institute aims at discovering small-molecule drug candidates against three neglected diseases: Malaria, tuberculosis and dengue fever. The institute is the first to focus solely on drug-discovery for infectious diseases, using modern pharmaceutical research tools including high-throughput screening and drug design using x-ray crystallography or NMR. It also houses a biosafety level 3 laboratory for biological experiments. Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... High-throughput screening (HTS), is a method for scientific experimentation especially used in drug discovery and relevant to the fields of biology and chemistry. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... NMR may refer to: Nuclear magnetic resonance, a phenomenon involving the interaction of atomic nuclei and external magnetic fields Nielsen Media Research, a U.S. company which measures TV, radio and newspaper audiences This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Laws and practice of several countries specify four levels of biocontainment precautions for biological agents, Biosafety Levels 1 through 4. ...


The NITD dengue fever unit concentrates on the development of antiviral drugs, rather than vaccine development. Scientists at the institute are working in areas ranging from epidemiological studies to the determination of the three-dimensional structure of dengue virus proteins, an important step for structure-based drug discovery. A number of research papers reflect this research activity on dengue. Hand in hand with their drug development efforts, NITD have also organized coordinative and outreach activities, such as the dengueinfo website that is produced in collaboration with the Genome Institute of Singapore and contains information about dengue whole-genome sequences, aggregated news and other resources.

  • Publications by NITD indexed in MedLine

In 2006, a group of Argentine scientists directed by Andrea Gamarnik discovered the molecular replication mechanism of the virus, which could be attacked by disruption of the polymerase's work.[11] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 2007 the World Community Grid launched a project where by computer modeling of the Dengue Fever Virus (and related viruses) thousands of small molecules are screened for their potential anti-viral properties in fighting the Dengue Fever Virus. This project by use of computer simulations seeks out medicines to directly attack the virus once a person is infected. This is a distributed process project similar to [email protected] where the general public downloads the World Community Grid agent and the program (along with thousands of other users) screens thousands of molecules while their computer would be otherwise idle. If the user needs to use the computer the program sleeps. There are several different projects running, including a similar one screening for anti-AIDS drugs. The project covering the Dengue Fever virus is called "Discovering Dengue Drugs – Together." The software and information about the project can be found at: [email protected] logo [email protected] (SETI at home) is a distributed computing project using Internet-connected computers, hosted by the Space Sciences Laboratory, at the University of California, Berkeley, in the United States. ...

Recent outbreaks

A public service ad teaching people how to prevent dengue and yellow fever, in Encarnación, Paraguay (2007)
A public service ad teaching people how to prevent dengue and yellow fever, in Encarnación, Paraguay (2007)
2005 dengue outbreak (edit)
Country Cases Deaths Date of Information Sources
Cambodia - 38 Sep. [3]
Costa Rica 19,000 1 7 Sep. [4]
India, (West Bengal) 90,000 15,000 Sep. [5]
Indonesia 80,837 1,099 Jan. 2006 [6]
Malaysia 32,950 83 1 Nov. [7]
Martinique 6,000 2 26 Sep. [8]
Philippines 21,537 280 2 Oct. [9]
Singapore 12,700 19 22 Oct. [10]
Sri Lanka 3,000 - 16 Sep. [11]
Thailand 31,000 58 Sep. [12]
Vietnam 20,000 28 4 Oct. [13]
Pakistan 4,800 50 11 Dec 2006. [14]
Total 232,724 16,673
For listed countries only. World Health Organization estimates that there may be 50 million cases of dengue infection worldwide each year. [15]

During the first months of 2007 over 16,000 cases have been reported in Paraguay, of which around 100 have been detected as DHF cases. This new epidemic is expected to continue in Paraguay for several months, given the forecast of continuous rain all through the summer. Ten deaths have also been reported, including recently a high ranking member of the Ministry of Health. The epidemic has been the root of a scandal in the Paraguayan Department of Health, where one official has resigned because he had approved the use of expired batches of insecticide to control the mosquito vectors of dengue.[12][13] The disease has propagated to Argentina (where it is not considered endemic), in almost all cases by people who recently arrived from Paraguay.[14] In the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul, which borders on Paraguay, the number of cases in March 2007 is estimated to be more than 45,000.[13] Epidemics in the states of Ceará, Pará, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro have taken the Brazilian national tally of cases this year to over 70,000, with upwards of 20 deaths. The proportion of cases registered as DHF is reported to be higher than in previous years. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 448 pixelsFull resolution (2300 × 1287 pixel, file size: 429 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 448 pixelsFull resolution (2300 × 1287 pixel, file size: 429 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Encarnación is a city in southeastern Paraguay. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... WHO redirects here. ...


Recent outbreak in Bangalore(India)


Bangalore is no longer a safe place to do business. Many Dengue cases reported in Bangalore. Many children under 12 months died. Government is not doing anything about this. Though Indian Government is getting huge money from IT from this city. Any Ministers will open their eyes and take action?


http://www.hindu.com/2007/11/26/stories/2007112656650100.htm


Few Hospitals like Manipal are said to have the facility to treat these patients. But the truth is no Doctor has adequate knowledege to treat this disease. In India there is no value for life. Straight death only for those who affected.


Americas

Recent outbreak in Bangalore(India)


Bangalore is no longer a safe place to do business. Many Dengue cases reported in Bangalore. Many children under 12 months died. Government is not doing anything about this. Though Indian Government is getting huge money from IT from this city. Any Ministers will open their eyes and take action?


http://www.hindu.com/2007/11/26/stories/2007112656650100.htm


Asia Pacific

As of October 2007 there is a serious problem in Monterrey Nuevo Leon Mexico almost reaching epidemic proportions Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cairns redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiá¹­r), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


History

Etymology of "dengue"

The origins of the word are not clear, but one theory is that it is derived from the Swahili phrase "Ka-dinga pepo", which describes the disease as being caused by an evil spirit.[26] The Swahili word "dinga" may possibly have its origin in the Spanish word "dengue" (fastidious or careful), describing the gait of a person suffering dengue fever,[27] or, alternatively, the Spanish word may derive from the Swahili.[28] Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ... This article is about the paranormal. ...


History of the Disease

Outbreaks resembling dengue fever have been reported throughout history.[29] The first definitive case report dates from 1789 and is attributed to Benjamin Rush, who coined the term "breakbone fever" (because of the symptoms of myalgia and arthralgia). The viral etiology and the transmission by mosquitoes were only deciphered in the 20th century. Population movements during World War II spread the disease globally. Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Dr. Benjamin Rush, painted by Charles Willson Peale, c. ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the medical term. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


See also

Tropical diseases are infectious diseases that either occur uniquely in tropical and subtropical regions (which is rare) or, more commonly, are either more widespread in the tropics or more difficult to prevent or control. ... Aedes aegypti In the 2006 dengue outbreak in Pakistan, a significant rise in the number of dengue fever cases was reported in Pakistan, becoming the countrys worst health crisis, there are signs that the infectious disease is still spreading to different parts ofd the country. ... Aedes aegypti In the 2005 dengue outbreak in Singapore, a significant rise in the number of dengue cases is reported in Singapore, becoming the countrys worst health crisis since the 2003 SARS epidemic. ... Aedes aegypti Cases of dengue fever were reported first from New Delhi in early September and by end of September other states in India also started to report deaths due to dengue fever. ... Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus (Tiger mosquito). ... Colonel Joseph Franklin Siler, MD (1875-1960) was a U.S. Army physician noted for investigations of mosquito transmission of dengue fever in the Philippines. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ CDC - Yellow Book: [4 Dengue Fever - CDC Traveler's Health]. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  2. ^ "Dengue Fever – Information Sheet" - World Health Organization
  3. ^ Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: Information for Health Care Practitioners Center for Disease Control. October 22, 2007.
  4. ^ Rothman, Alan L. Dengue: defining protective versus pathologic immunity. (Full text-html) J Clin Invest. 2004 April 1; 113(7): 946–951
  5. ^ Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative website.
  6. ^ Thailand to test Mahidol-developed dengue vaccine prototype. People's Daily Online (2005-09-05). Retrieved on 2006-10-08.
  7. ^ Edelman R (2007). "Dengue vaccines approach the finish line". Clin Infect Dis 45 (S1): S56–S60. doi:10.1086/518148. 
  8. ^ BBC News
  9. ^ Inhibition of dsdengue virus serotypes 1 to 4 in vero cell cultures with morpholino oligomers. Kinney RM et al, PMID: 15795296. Retrieved 8 October 2006.
  10. ^ Antiviral effects of antisense morpholino oligomers in murine coronavirus infection models. Burrer R et al., PMID: 17344287. Retrieved 2 April 2007.
  11. ^ Claudia V. Filomatori, Maria F. Lodeiro, Diego E. Alvarez, Marcelo M. Samsa, Lía Pietrasanta, and Andrea V. Gamarnik. A 5' RNA element promotes dengue virus RNA synthesis on a circular genome. Genes & Development, August 2006.
  12. ^ Dengue sparks Paraguay emergency. BBC News (2 March 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  13. ^ a b Paraguay dengue official sacked. BBC News (6 March 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  14. ^ Clarín, 22 February 2007. Hay 93 casos de dengue.
  15. ^ "Dengue fever surging in Puerto Rico", MSNBC, Telemundo, Aug. 08, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-26-09. (English) 
  16. ^ Batista, L.; A Santiago Díaz. "Más de 4,968 afectados por dengue.", Diario Libre. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. (Spanish) 
  17. ^ "Protecting the Revolution", Strategypage.com, September 17, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-07. 
  18. ^ Acosta, Dalia. "War on Mosquitoes Continues During Global Summit", Inter Press Service, 2006-09-12. Retrieved on 2006-10-07. 
  19. ^ "Cuba wages war on tiny enemy", Independent Online, South Africa, September 25, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-07. 
  20. ^ "Cuba waging war against dengue fever", Miami Herald, October 7, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-07. 
  21. ^ China, Dengue Fever Cases Jump, Taipei Times, 29 August, 2006.
  22. ^ "460 people in Cook Islands affected by Dengue Fever outbreak", Radio New Zealand International, 15 January, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-01-15. 
  23. ^ http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2006/10/02/asia/AS_GEN_India_Dengue_Outbreak.php International Herald Tribune, Associated Press News, Published: October 2, 2006 & Accessed on: October 2, 2006]
  24. ^ India says dengue outbreak serious as death toll rises Pratap Chakravarty, news.yahoo.com, 7 October 2006. Retrieved 8 October 2006.
  25. ^ Santos, Tina. "DOH names dengue-hit areas in metropolis", Philippine Daily Inquirer, September 10, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-07. 
  26. ^ Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents
  27. ^ Etymonline entry
  28. ^ (2006) "etomologia: dengue". Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 893. 
  29. ^ Gubler D (1998). "Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever". Clin Microbiol Rev 11 (3): 480-96. PMID 9665979. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WHO redirects here. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Taipei Times is one of the three English-language newspapers in Taiwan, the other two being the Taiwan News and the China Post. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Manson's Tropical Diseases
  • Mandell's Principles and Practices of Infection Diseases
  • Cecil Textbook of Medicine
  • The Oxford Textbook of Medicine
  • Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
  • Theiler, Max and Downs, W. G. 1973. The Arthropod-Borne Viruses of Vertebrates: An Account of The Rockefeller Foundation Virus Program 1951-1970. Yale University Press.
  • Downs, Wilbur H., et al. 1965. Virus diseases in the West Indies. Special edition of the Caribbean Medical Journal, Vol. XXVI, Nos. 1-4, 1965.
  • Earle, k. Vigors. 1965. "Notes on the Dengue epidemic at Point Fortin." The Caribbean Medical Journal, Vol. XXVI, Nos. 1-4, pp. 157-164.
  • Hill, A. Edward. 1965. "Isolation of Dengue Virus from a Human Being in Trinidad." Virus diseases in the West Indies. The Caribbean Medical Journal, Vol. XXVI, Nos. 1-4, pp. 83-84; "Dengue and Related Fevers in Trinidad and Tobago." Ibid, pp. 91-96.

External links

  • CDC site on Dengue Fever.
  • Dengueinfo.org - Resources & depository of Dengue Virus genomic sequences for biomedical researchers.
  • M.I. Dengue - Brazilian world awarded system to monitor and control the Dengue Mosquito

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dengue Fever (398 words)
Dengue fever is a disease caused by a virus spread by the bite of an infected mosquito, uncommon in Wisconsin.
Dengue fever is characterized by the rapid development of a fever that may last from three to seven days, intense headache, joint and muscle pain, loss of appetite, diarrhea and a rash.
Since cases of dengue fever appearing in Wisconsin are imported, control measures are limited to advising travelers to affected areas of the risk of exposure to infected mosquitoes.
Dengue Fever (289 words)
Dengue fever may occur in people of all ages who are exposed to infected mosquitoes.
Dengue fever is spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes.
Dengue fever is characterized by the rapid development of a fever that may last from five to seven days with intense headache, joint and muscle pain and a rash.
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