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Encyclopedia > Dendera zodiac

Coordinates: 26°8′30″N, 32°40′13″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Entrance to the Dendera Temple Complex

Dendera Temple complex, (Ancient Egyptian: Iunet or Tantere). located about 2.5 km south-east of Dendera, Egypt. It is one of the best, if not the best, preserved complex in all Egypt. The area was used as the sixth Nome of Upper Egypt, south of Abydos. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 368 KB)Entrance to the Dendera Temple Complex, Photograph 23rd December 2003, by Lasse Jensen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 368 KB)Entrance to the Dendera Temple Complex, Photograph 23rd December 2003, by Lasse Jensen. ... Demotic script on a replica of the Rosetta stone. ... Entrance to the Dendera Temple Complex, photographed 23rd December 2003 Dendera (also spelled Denderah), is a little town in Egypt. ... The nomes of Ancient Egypt A nome (Greek: district) is a subnational administrative division of Ancient Egypt. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Abydos may mean: Egyptian Mythology - The holy city of Osiris, who was buried there himself, as were many other pharaohs. ...

Contents

Description

The whole complex covers some 40,000 square meters and is surrounded by a hefty mud brick enclosed wall. Dendera was a site for chapels or shrines from the beginning of history of ancient Egypt. It seems that pharaoh Pepi I (ca. 2250 BC) built on this site and evidence exists of a temple in the eighteenth dynasty (ca 1500 BC). But the earliest extant building in the compound today is the Mammisi raised by Nectanebo II – last of the native pharaohs (360-343 BC). The features in the complex include Pepi I Meryre (reigned 2332 - 2283 BC) was the third king of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. ... The Eighteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (1550-1292 BCE) – often combined with the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties under the group title, New Kingdom – is perhaps the most famous of all the dynasties of ancient Egypt. ... Nectanebo II (ruled 360 - 343 BC), also known by the name Nakhthoreb, was the third and last king of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt and the last native ruler of the country. ... This article refers to the historical Pharaoh. ...

  • Hathor temple (the main temple),
  • Temple of the birth of Isis,
  • Sacred Lake,
  • Sanatorium,
  • Mammisi of Nectanebo II,
  • Christian Basilica,
  • Roman Mammisi,
  • a Bark shine,
  • Gateways of Domitian & Trajan and
  • the Roman Kiosk.

Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ...

Hathor temple

Temple of Hathor, Dendera

The all overshadowing building in the Complex is the main temple, namely Hathor temple (historically, called the Temple of Tentyra). The temple has been modified on the same site dating as far back as the Middle Kingdom, having modification done it up to the Roman emperor Trajan.[1] The temple construction date around estimated as beng around the 1st century BC. The existing structure was built no later than the late Ptolemaic period. The temple is one of the best, if not the best, preserved temple in all Egypt. The temple is dedicated to Hathor. Subsequent additions were added in the Roman times. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Main article: Ancient Egypt Archaeological evidence indicates that a distinct culture was developing in the Nile valley from before 5000 BC. What is now called the Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3100 BC, when Egypt became a unified state, until its survival as an independent state ceased in 332... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Layout elements of the Temple
  1. Large Hypostyle Hall
  2. Small Hypostyle Hall
  3. Laboratory
  4. Storage Magazine
  5. Offering Entry
  6. Treasury
  7. Exit to Well
  8. Access to Stairwell
  9. Offering Hall
  10. Hall of the Ennead
  11. Great Seat and Main Sanctuary
  12. Shrine of the Nome of Dendera
  13. Shrine of Isis
  14. Shrine of Sokar
  15. Shrine of Harsomtus
  16. Shrine of Hathor's Sistrum
  17. Shrine of Gods of Lower Egypt
  18. Shrine of Heathor
  19. Shrine of the Throne of Re
  20. Shrine of Re
  21. Shrine of Menat Collar
  22. Shrine of Ihy
  23. The Pure Place
  24. Court of the First Feast
  25. Passage
  26. Staircase to Roof

There are deptions of Cleopatra VI which appears on the walls of Dendera is a good specimen of the conventionality which pervades Ptolemaic Egyptian art.[2] There is also a work of Cleopatra and her Son, Caesarion.[3] On the rear of the temple exterior, the carving exists of Cleopatra VII Philopator and her son, Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, fathered by Julius Caesar. Scottish painter David Roberts visited the partially excavated temple in 1838. In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a flat ceiling which is supported by columns, as in the Hall of Columns at Karnak. ... The term treasury was first used in classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or the many buildings put up in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states, to impress each other during the Ancient Olympic Games. ... The Ennead (a word derived from Greek, meaning the nine) is a grouping of nine deities, most often used in the context of Egyptian mythology. ... Isis is a goddess in Egyptian mythology. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This page is about the Egyptian deity. ... -1... Re or bre (also in form more/mori and numerous variations thereof) is an interjection common to languages of Balkan linguistic union (Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Macedonian, Romanian, Serbian and Turkish). ... In Egyptian mythology, Ihy was a son of Hathor, worshipped in Dendera. ... Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Τρύφαινα) was an Egyptian Ptolemaic princess. ... A relief of Cleopatra and Caesarion at the temple of Dendera, Egypt Ptolemy XV[1] Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek: Πτολεμαίος ΙΕ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καίσαρ, Καισαρίων (June 23, 47 BC – August, 30 BC) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother, Cleopatra... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in classical antiquity. ... David Roberts (October 24, 1796 - November 25, 1864), Scottish painter, was born at Stockbridge, Edinburgh. ...


The Dendera zodiac

Unsolved problems in Egyptology: What is this relief at Dendera? Did Egyptians have some form of understanding of astronomy?

The sculptured Dendera zodiac (or Denderah zodiac) is a widely known Egyptian artefact, containing images of Taurus (the bull) and the Libra (the balance). The relief, which was on the ceiling of the pronaos (or portico) of Hathor temple, has been conjectured to be the basis on which later astronomy systems were based.[4] During the Napoleonic campaign in Egypt, Vivant Denon drew the circular zodiac, the more widely known one, and the rectangular zodiacs. In 1802, Denon distributed, after the Napoleonic expedition, pictures of the temple ceiling. There existed a controversy as to how old the zodiac was, ranging from tens of thousands to a thousand years to a few hundred, and if the zodiac was a planisphere or an astrological chart.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... Look up taurus, Taurus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up bull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Libra (Latin for scales or pound) may refer to: Libra (constellation), a star constellation in the sky Libra (astrology), an astrological sign Libra (2005 album), a 2005 album by Toni Braxton Libra (novel), a novel by Don DeLillo LIBRA, a political party in Croatia Libra (genus), a genus of butterflies... For other meanings of the word balance, see: propaganda equilibrium (disambiguation page) sense of balance weighing scale analytical balance (a precise weighing scale) balance beam in gymnastics Balance (song) homeostasis, the biological balance within a human or other animals body When the weights on the plates of this balance... A pronaos is the inner area of the portico of an ancient Greek or Roman temple, situated between the colonnade or walls of the portico and the entrance to the cella or shrine. ... Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Dominique Vivant, Baron de Denon (4 January 1747 - 27 April 1825) was a French artist and archaeologist. ... A planisphere consists of a circular star chart attached at the center of the starchart to an opaque overlay that has a clear roundish window (or cutout hole) that is free to rotate about the pivot point. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut. ...


In 1820, Sébastien-Louis Saulnier commissioned Jean Baptiste Leloraine, a master mason, with the job to remove the circular zodiac with saws, jacks, and scissors constructed for the job. The zodiac ceiling was moved in 1821 to Restoration Paris and, by 1822, was installed by Louis XVIII in the Royal Library. In 1919, the zodiac moved to the Louvre . The Second Restoration, or Seconde Restauration in French, was a period in the history of France which saw the return of the Bourbon dynasty to the throne of France following the Hundred Days (Cent-Jours) in which Napoleon Bonapart briefly returned to rule France from his exile in Elba. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. ... Royal Library can mean: Danish Royal Library - the national library of Denmark Swedish Royal Library - the national library of Sweden The former name of the Bibliothèque nationale de France - the national library of France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... This article is about the museum. ...


The controversy around the zodiac, called the "Dendera Affair", involved people of the likes of Joseph Fourier (who estimated that the age was 2500 BC[6]), Thomas Young, Jean-François Champollion, and M. Biot.[7] Johann Karl Burckhardt and Jean-Baptiste Coraboeuf held that, after analysis of the zodiac, the ancient Egyptians understood the precession of the equinoxes. Champollion, among others, believed that it was a religious zodiac. Champollion deciphered the names of Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, and Domitian on the ceiling of Dendera's temple and placed the zodiac in the era of Rome's rule over Egypt.[8] Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (March 21, 1768 - May 16, 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist who is best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their application to problems of heat flow. ... Thomas Young, English scientist Thomas Young (June 13, 1773-May 10, 1829) was a English polymath, contributing to optics, physiology, and Egyptology, among other fields. ... now. ... Johann Karl Burckhardt (April 30, 1773–June 22, 1825) was a German-born astronomer and mathematician who later became a naturalized French citizen. ... Precession of a gyroscope Precession refers to a change in the direction of the axis of a rotating object. ... Illumination of the Earth by the Sun on the day of equinox, (ignoring twilight). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ...


Necropolis and crypts

The Dendera necropolis are series of mastaba tombs. The necropolis dates from the Early Dynastic Period of the Old Kingdom to the First Intermediate Period of Egypt.[9] The necropolis runs the eastern eadge of the western hill and over the northern plain. The subterranean Hathor temple tombs total 12 chambers. Some reliefs are dated to as late as Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos reign. The crypts reportedly were used for storing vessels and divine iconography. An opening in the "Flame Room" floor leads to a narrow chamber with representations on the walls of the objects which were kept in them. In the second chamber, a relief depicts Phiops of the Sixth Dynasty. He holds a statuette of the Ihi to four images of Hathor. In the crypt reached from the "Throne room", Ptolemy XII has jewelry and offerings for the gods. A mastaba was a flat-roofed, mud brick, rectangular building with sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypts ancient period. ... A tomb is a small building (or vault) for the remains of the dead, with walls, a roof, and (if it is to be used for more than one corpse) a door. ... For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from 2920 BC, following the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, until 2575 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the... The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ... Crypt is also a commonly used name of water trumpets, aquatic plants. ... The Sixth Dynasty of Egypt is considered by many authorities as the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, although The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. ... Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (117 BCE - 51 BCE) was son of Ptolemy IX Soter II. His mother is unknown. ...


The Dendera light

Dendera light, showing the single representation on the left wall of the right wing in one of the crypts

Hathor Temple has a relief sometimes known as the Dendera light, for a controversial thesis about its nature. The Dendera light images comprises three stone reliefs (one single and a double representation) in the Hathor temple at the Dendera Temple complex located in Egypt. The view of orthodox Egyptologists is that the relief is a mythological depiction of a lotus flower, spawning a snake within, representing aspects of Egyptian mythology.[10][11] It has been stated that, Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 867 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 867 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Look up mainstream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An Egyptologist is any archaeologist, historian, linguist, or art historian who specializes in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ... Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ... Binomial name Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ... Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ...

[...the] splendid but enigmatic reliefs of the crypt are cosmogonical and depict the serpent (dualizing principle underlying all creation: In Genesis the separation of heaven and earth) borne aloft by the lotus, the symbol of creation as a manifestation of consciousness.[12]

Unsolved problems in Egyptology: What is this relief at Dendera? Did Egyptians have some form of understanding of electricity?

In contrast to this interpretation, there is an alternative theory that departs significantly from orthodox Egyptology theories in which researchers believe it is a representation of an Ancient Egyptian lightbulb.[13][14][15] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Fringe science is a phrase used to describe scientific inquiry in an established field that departs significantly from mainstream or orthodox theories. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... Ancient Egyptian technology is a set of artifacts and customs that lasted for thousands of years. ...


Tourism

The Dendera complex has long been one of the most tourist-explorable ancient Egyptian places of Worship. It used to be possible to visit virtually every part of the complex, from the crypts to the top most roof of Hathor temple, to every other monument located in the complex. This has changed in recent years. The top most part of the roof of Hathor temple has been closed for some years now. The last time it was open default was in 2003. The second stage of the roof was closed in November 2004, after a tourist got too close to the edge and fell to her death on the bedrock below. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Gallery

Hathor temple

Dendera Zodiac

Dendera Light

See also

Tourist bazaar The Egyptian city of Esna (known in antiquity as Iunyt, Ta-senet, and Latopolis) is located on the west bank of the River Nile, some 55 km south of Luxor. ... The Baghdad Battery is the common name for a number of artifacts apparently discovered in the village of Khuyut Rabboua (near Baghdad, Iraq) in 1936. ... The Antikythera mechanism (main fragment). ... Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ... Map of Ancient Egypt List of Ancient Egyptian sites, throughout all of Egypt and Nubia Sites are listed with their classical name whenever possible, else their modern name and last if no other available their ancient name. ...

External articles and references

Citations and notes

  1. ^ Barbara Ann Kipfer, "Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology". Page 153
  2. ^ Sir John Pentland Mahaffy, "A History of Egypt Under the Ptolemaic Dynasty". Methuen & Co., 1899. 261 pages. Page 237 and 248.
  3. ^ Mahaffy, Page 251.
  4. ^ Zodiac of Dendera, epitome. (Exhib., Leic. square). J. haddon, 1825.
  5. ^ Zodiac of Dendera, epitome. (Exhib., Leic. square). J. haddon, 1825.
  6. ^ Francis Lister Hawks, "The Monuments of Egypt: Or, Egypt a Witness for the Bible". John Murray, 1850. 256 pages. Page 158.
  7. ^ M. Biot, "Recherches sur plusieurs points de 1'Astronomie Egyptienne, appliquees aux monumens astronomiques trouves en Egypte". Paris, 1893. 8 Volumes.
  8. ^ J. G. Honoré Greppo, "Essay on the Hieroglyphic System of M. Champollion, Jun., and on the Advantages which it Offers To Sacred Criticism". Saxton & Miles, 1842. 276 pages.
  9. ^ Barbara Ann Kipfer, "Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology".
  10. ^ Wolfgang Waitkus, Die Texte in den unteren Krypten des Hathortempels von Dendera: ihre Aussagen zur Funktion und Bedeutung dieser Räume, Mainz 1997 ISBN 3-8053-2322-0 (tr., The texts in the lower crypts of the Hathor tempels of Dendera: their statements for the function and meaning of these areas)
  11. ^ "Dendera Temple Crypt". iafrica.com.
  12. ^ John Anthony West, "The Traveler's Key to Ancient Egypt". New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989. Page 402.
  13. ^ J. Norman Lockyer, "Dawn of Astronomy".
  14. ^ Childress, D. H. (2000). Technology of the gods: the incredible sciences of the ancients. Kempton, Ill: Adventures Unlimited Press. ISBN 0932813739
  15. ^ Electricity in ancient times. WUFOC and NÄRKONTAKT.

General Information

  • Sicard, Charles Jacques Poncet, "Description de l'Égypte". Librairie d'éducation de Perisse frères, 1845. 378 pages
  • Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain), "Library of Useful Knowledge". G. & C. Carvill, 1834. Page 16.
  • "The Gentleman's Magazine". s.n., 1862. (Specifically, Page 135 to 136; ed., some vols. are reprints for Machell Stace, bookseller, 1806.)
  • Jed Z. Buchwald, "Egyptian Stars under Paris Skies". pr.caltech.edu.
  • R. A. Parker, "Ancient Egyptian Astronomy". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 276, No. 1257, The Place of Astronomy in the Ancient World (May 2, 1974), pp. 51-65
  • Anatoly Fomenko, "History: Fiction or Science? Chronology". Mithec. ISBN 2913621074
  • Marshall Clagett, "Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book". DIANE, 1989. ISBN 0871692147
  • William Henry and Davenport Adams "Egypt Past and Present: Described and Illustrated". T. Nelson and Sons, 1885. 380 pages. Page 218 - 226
  • The Dendera Reliefs, Catchpenny Mysteries.
  • Frank Dörnenburg, Electric lights in Egypt?. 2004. (ed. An analysis of how the Egyptians didn't have electricity).
  • Electricity in ancient times. WUFOC and NÄRKONTAKT.
  • Mariette, Auguste, Dendérah , Bookshop A. Franck, Paris, 1875.
  • Fischer, H.G., Dendera in the third millennium B.C. down to the theban domination of upper Egypt, J.J. Augustin publisher, New York, 1968.
  • David Hatcher Childress, "Technology of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients". Kempton, Ill. : Adventures Unlimited Press, 2000. ISBN 0932813739

Jed Z. Buchwald is Doris and Henry Dreyfuss Professor of History at Caltech. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... A statue of Auguste Mariette in his home city of Boulogne-sur-Mer. ...

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