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Encyclopedia > Demosthenes
Demosthenes
Bust of Demosthenes
Louvre, Paris, France
Born 384 BC
Athens
Died 322 BC
Island of Calauria, modern Poros

Demosthenes (384322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, Dēmosthénēs) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of ancient Athenian intellectual prowess and provide a thorough insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators. He delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of twenty, in which he argued effectively to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer (logographer) and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x800, 151 KB) Suject : Bust of the Greek orator Demosthenes ; Origin : Roman, inspired from a bronze sculpture of the 3rd century B.C.; Found : Italy ; Material : Marble ; Height : 0. ... Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... The Louvre Museum (French: Musée du Louvre) in Paris, France, is one of the largest, oldest, most important and famous art galleries and museums in the world. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... Evzones Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Greece. ... Poros (Greek: Πόρος) is a small Greek island-pair in the southern part of the Saronic Gulf, at a distance about 48 km (32 miles) south from Piraeus and separated from the Peloponnese by a 200-metre wide sea channel. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC Years: 389 BC 388 BC 387 BC 386 BC 385 BC - 384 BC - 383 BC 382 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC - 322 BC - 321 BC 320 BC 319... The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Orator is a Latin word for speaker (from the Latin verb oro, meaning I speak or I pray). In ancient Rome, the art of speaking in public (Ars Oratoria) was a professional competence especially cultivated by politicians and lawyers. ... A view of the Acropolis of Athens during the Ottoman period, showing the buildings which were removed at the time of independence The History of Athens is the longest of any city in Europe: Athens has been continuously inhabited for at least 3,000 years. ... Oratory is the art of eloquent speech. ... Politics is the process by which individuals or relatively small groups attempt to exert influence over the actions of an organization. ... The Ancient Greek world, circa 550 BC Ancient Greece is the period in Greek history which lasted for around one thousand years and ended with the rise of Christianity. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 4th century BC started on January 1, 400 BC and ended on December 31, 301 BC. // Overview Events Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... Rhetoric (from Greek ρήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is the art or technique of persuasion, usually through the use of language. ... Look up Speech in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The title of logographer (from the Ancient Greek λογογράφος, logographos, a compound of λόγος, logos, word, and γράφω, grapho, write) was applied to professional authors of judicial discourse in Ancient Greece. ... Ancient Greek law is a branch of comparative jurisprudence relating to the laws and legal institutions of Ancient Greece. ... A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in which the party commencing the action, the plaintiff, seeks a legal remedy. ...


Demosthenes grew interested in politics during his time as a logographer, and in 354 BC he gave his first public political speeches. He went on to devote the most productive years of his life to opposing Macedon's expansion. He idealized his city and strove throughout his life to restore Athens' supremacy and motivate his compatriots against Philip II of Macedon. He sought to preserve his city's freedom and to establish an alliance against Macedon, in an unsuccessful attempt to impede Philip's plans to expand his influence southwards by conquering all the Greek states. After Philip's death, Demosthenes played a leading part in his city's uprising against the new King of Macedon, Alexander the Great. However, his efforts failed and the revolt was met with a harsh Macedonian reaction. To prevent a similar revolt against his own rule, Alexander's successor, Antipater, sent his men to track Demosthenes down. Demosthenes took his own life, in order to avoid being arrested by Archias, Antipater's confidant. Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordering the kingdom of Epirus on the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Antipater (Greek: Αντίπατρος Antipatros; c. ...


The Alexandrian Canon compiled by Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace recognized Demosthenes as one of the 10 greatest Attic orators and logographers. According to Longinus, Demosthenes "perfected to the utmost the tone of lofty speech, living passions, copiousness, readiness, speed".[1] Cicero acclaimed him as "the perfect orator" who lacked nothing, while Quintilian extolled him as "lex orandi" ("the standard of oratory") and underscored that "inter omnes unus excellat" ("he stands alone among all the orators").[2][3] Aristophanes of Byzantium, Gr. ... Aristarchus of Samothrace, Gr. ... The ten Attic orators were considered the greatest orators and logographers of the classical era (5th century BC–4th century BC). ... Longinus (Λογγινος) is a conventional name applied to a Greek teacher of rhetoric or a literary critic who may have lived in the first or third century CE. Longinus is known only for his treatise On the Sublime (Περι υψους), a work which focuses on the effect of good writing (Russell xlii). ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ; Classical pronunciation:  ; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, lawyer and philosopher of Ancient Rome. ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ...

Contents

Early years (384 BC–355 BC)

Family, education and personal life

Bust of Demosthenes (Musei Capitolini, Rome), Roman copy of a Greek original sculpted by Polyeuktos
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Bust of Demosthenes (Musei Capitolini, Rome), Roman copy of a Greek original sculpted by Polyeuktos

Demosthenes was born in 384 BC, during the last year of the 98th Olympiad or the first year of the 99th Olympiad.[4] His father—also named Demosthenes—who belonged to the local tribe, Pandionis, and lived in the deme of Paeania[5] in the Athenian countryside, was a wealthy sword-maker.[6] Aeschines, Demosthenes' greatest political rival, maintained that his mother Kleoboule was a Scythian by blood,[7] an allegation which is disputed by some modern scholars.[a] Demosthenes was orphaned at the age of seven. Although his father provided well for him, his legal guardians, Aphobus, Demophon and Therippides, mishandled his inheritance.[8] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2240x1680, 1292 KB) Summary This bust of Demosthenes is a Roman copy of a Greek Original sculpted by Polyeuktos which was erected in the Athenian market Place in 280 BC, The knitted brow and compression of the lips suggest the inner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2240x1680, 1292 KB) Summary This bust of Demosthenes is a Roman copy of a Greek Original sculpted by Polyeuktos which was erected in the Athenian market Place in 280 BC, The knitted brow and compression of the lips suggest the inner... Michelangelos design for Capitoline Hill, now home to the Capitoline Museums. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC Years: 389 BC 388 BC 387 BC 386 BC 385 BC - 384 BC - 383 BC 382 BC... An Olympiad is a period of four years, associated with the Olympic Games. ... http://www. ... In biology, a deme (rhymes with team) is another word for a local population of organisms of one species that actively interbreed with one another and share a distinct gene pool. ... Paiania, also, rarely, Paeania or Peania (Greek: Παιανία), is a town in Greece east of the Hymettus and Athens and is a suburb of Athens. ... Aeschines (389 - 314 BC), Greek statesman and one of the ten Attic orators, was born at Athens. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


As soon as Demosthenes came of age in 366 BC, he demanded that they render an account of their management. According to the orator, the account revealed the misappropriation of his property. Although his father left an estate of nearly fourteen talents,[9] (somewhat over 3,150 golden pounds or 400,000 United States dollars)[10] Demosthenes asserted that the guardians had left nothing "except the house, and fourteen slaves and thirty silver minae (30 minae = ½ talent)".[11] At the age of 20, Demosthenes sued his trustees in order to recover his patrimony and delivered five orations himself: three Against Aphobus during 363 BC and 362 BC and two Against Ontenor during 362 BC and 361 BC. The courts fixed Demosthenes' damages at ten talents.[12] When all the trials came to an end,[b] however, the orator succeeded in retrieving only a portion of his inheritance.[10] The Attic talent was a unit of weight and a denomination of money equal to 6,000 drachmae or 60 minae. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 3. ...


Between his coming of age in 366 BC and the trials that took place in 364 BC, Demosthenes and his guardians negotiated acrimoniously, but were unable to reach an agreement, as neither side was willing to make concessions.[10] At the same time, Demosthenes prepared himself for the trials and improved his oratory skill. As an adolescent, his curiosity had been noticed by the orator Callistratus, who was then at the height of his reputation, having just won a case of considerable importance.[13] According to Friedrich Nietzsche, a German philologist and philosopher, and Constantine Paparregopoulus, a major Greek historian, Demosthenes was a student of Isocrates;[14][15] Cicero, Quintillian and the Roman biographer Hermippus maintain that Demosthenes was a student of Plato.[13] Lucian, a Roman-Syrian rhetorician and satirist, includes the philosophers Aristotle, Theophrastus and Xenocrates among his teachers.[16] These claims are nowadays disputed.[c] According to Plutarch, Demosthenes employed Isaeus as his master in Rhetoric, even though Isocrates was then teaching this subject, either because he could not pay Isocrates the prescribed fee or because Demosthenes believed Isaeus' style better suited a vigorous and astute orator such as himself .[13] Curtius, a German archaeologist and historian, likened the relation between Isaeus and Demosthenes to "an intellectual armed alliance".[17] Callistratus of Aphidnae (Greek: Καλλιστράτος Kallistratos; died 355 BC) was an Athenian orator and general in the 4th century BCE. For many years, as prostates, he supported Spartan interests at Athens, recognizing that Thebes posed a greater threat to Athens. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Constantine Paparregopoulus (1815-1891) was a nineteenth century Greek historian greatly influential in Greece and abroad for his original reasearch in Byzantine history as well as in other fields of Greek studies. ... A historian is someone who writes history, and history is a written accounting of the past. ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Lucian Lucian of Samosata (Greek, Λουκιανὸς Σαμοσατεύς, Latin, Lucianus; c. ... 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BCE – March 7, 322 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Xenocrates of Chalcedon (396 - 314 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scholarch or rector of the Academy from 339 to 314 BC. Removing to Athens in early youth, he became the pupil of the Socratic Aeschines, but presently joined himself to Plato, whom he attended to Sicily in 361. ... Isaeus (fl. ... You may be looking for Ernst Robert Curtius (1886–1956). ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...


It has also been said that Demosthenes paid Isaeus 10,000 drachmas (somewhat over 1½ talent) on the condition that the teacher should withdraw from a school of Rhetoric which he had opened, and should devote himself wholly to his new pupil.[17] Another version credits Isaeus with having taught Demosthenes without charge.[18] According to Sir Richard C. Jebb, a British classical scholar, "the intercourse between Isaeus and Demosthenes as teacher and learner can have been either very intimate or of very long duration".[17] Konstantinos Tsatsos, a Greek professor and academician, believes that Isaeus helped Demosthenes edit his initial judicial orations against his guardians.[19] Demosthenes is also said to have admired the historian Thucydides. In the Illiterate Book-Fancier, Lucian mentions eight beautiful copies of Thucydides made by Demosthenes, all in the orator's own handwriting.[20] These references hint at the orator's respect for a historian he must have assiduously studied.[21] Drachma, pl. ... Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb (August 27, 1841 - December 9, 1905) was a British classical scholar and politician. ... Classics, particularly within the Western University tradition, when used as a singular noun, means the study of the language, literature, history, art, and other aspects of Greek and Roman culture during the time frame known as classical antiquity. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... Konstantinos Tsatsos (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Τσάτσος). Greek diplomat and politician; President of Greece from 1975 to 1980. ... The title Academician denotes a Full Member of an art, literary, or scientific academy. ...


According to Pseudo-Plutarch, Demosthenes was married once. The only information about his wife, whose name is unknown, is that she was the daughter of Heliodorus, a prominent citizen.[22] Demosthenes had also a daughter, "the first and only one who ever called him father", according to Aeschines' trenchant comment.[23] The girl died young and unmarried a few days before Philip's death.[23] Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. ...


Career as logographer

"If you feel bound to act in the spirit of that dignity, whenever you come into court to give judgement on public causes, you must bethink yourselves that with his staff and his badge every one of you receives in trust the ancient pride of Athens."
Demosthenes (On the Crown, 210) - The orator's defense of the honor of the courts was in contrast to the improper actions of which Aeschines accused him.

In order to make his living, Demosthenes became a professional litigant and logographer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits. He was so successful that he soon acquired wealthy and powerful clients. The Athenian logographer could remain anonymous, allowing him to serve personal interests, even if it prejudiced the client. Aeschines accused Demosthenes of unethically disclosing his clients' arguments to their opponents.[24] He attacked his political opponent, rhetorically querying: "And the born traitor--how shall we recognize him? Will he not imitate you, Demosthenes, in his treatment of those whom chance throws in his way and who have trusted him? Will he not take pay for writing speeches for them to deliver in the courts, and then reveal the contents of these speeches to their opponents?"[25] Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Law stubs | Legal terms ...


As an example, Aeschines accused Demosthenes of writing a speech for Phormion, a wealthy banker, and then communicating it to Apollodorus, who was bringing a capital charge against Phormion.[25] Plutarch supported this accusation, pointing out that Demosthenes "was thought to have acted dishonorably".[26] Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


Early politics (354 BC–350 BC)

Speech training

Demosthenes Practicing Oratory by Jean Lecomte du Nouÿ (1842–1923). Demosthenes used to study in an underground room he constructed himself. He also used to talk with pebbles in his mouth and recited verses while running. To strengthen his voice, he spoke on the seashore over the roar of the waves.
Demosthenes Practicing Oratory by Jean Lecomte du Nouÿ (1842–1923). Demosthenes used to study in an underground room he constructed himself. He also used to talk with pebbles in his mouth and recited verses while running. To strengthen his voice, he spoke on the seashore over the roar of the waves.

Even before he was 21 years of age in 363 BC, Demosthenes had already demonstrated an interest in politics.[10] Then, in 363 BC, 359 BC and 357 BC, he undertook the function of the trierarch, being responsible for the outfitting and maintenance of a trireme.[27] In 348 BC, he became a choregos, paying the costs of a theatrical production.[28] Image File history File links DemosthPracticing. ... Image File history File links DemosthPracticing. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354... A Greek trireme Triremes were ancient war galleys with three rows of oars on each side. ... A Greek trireme Triremes (Greek Τριήρεις) are several different types of ancient warships. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC - 348 BC - 347 BC 346 BC 345... In ancient Greece, choregos ( Greek: χορηγός) was a honorary title for the wealthy Athenian, who assumed the responsibility to finance and pay all the expenses of the prperation of the chorus and of the drama in all. ... ɾdrama are obscure. ...


Although Demosthenes contended that he never pleaded in a single private case, [29] it still remains unclear when and if Demosthenes abandoned the profitable but less prestigious profession of the logographer.[d] According to Plutarch, when he first addressed himself to the people, he was derided for his strange and uncouth style, "which was cumbered with long sentences and tortured with formal arguments to a most harsh and disagreeable excess".[30]


Nonetheless, some citizens discerned his talent. When he first left the ecclesia (the Athenian Assembly) disheartened, an old man named Eunomus encouraged him, saying that his diction was very much like that of Pericles.[30] Another time the ecclesia had refused to hear him and he was going home dejected, an actor named Satyrus followed him and entered into a familiar conversation with him.[31] The ecclesia or ekklesia (Greek έκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens. ... Pericles or Perikles (c. ...


As a boy Demosthenes had suffered from a speech impediment, an inarticulate and stammering pronunciation.[32] This caused Aeschines to taunt him and refer to him in his speeches with the nickname "Batalus",[e] ostensibly invented by his own pedagogues or by the little boys with whom he was playing.[33][34] According to Plutarch, he also had a weakness in his voice, "a perplexed and indistinct utterance and a shortness of breath, which, by breaking and disjointing his sentences much obscured the sense and meaning of what he spoke."[30] Demosthenes soon undertook a disciplined program to overcome these shortcomings and improve his locution. He worked on his diction, his voice and his gestures.[35] His zeal and perseverance have passed into a proverb. It is, however, unknown whether these vignettes are factual accounts of events in Demosthenes' life or merely anecdotes used to illustrate his perseverance and determination.[10] Speech disorders are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ...


Increased political activity

See also: On the Navy, For the Megalopolitans and On the Liberty of the Rodians

Between 354 BC and 350 BC, Demosthenes continued practicing law privately, while, at the same time, he became increasingly interested in public affairs. He mainly remained a judicial orator, but started involving himself in the politics of the Athenian democracy. In 355 BC he wrote Against Androtion and a year later Against Leptines, two fierce attacks on individuals who attempted to repeal certain tax exemptions. The subject of Against Timocrates and Against Aristocrates is the need to crack down on corruption. Demosthenes denounced measures regarded as dishonest or unworthy of Athenian traditions.[36] All these speeches offer early glimpses of his general principles on foreign policy, such as the importance of the navy, of alliances and of national honor.[37] On the Navy ( Greek: ) is the first political oration of the prominent Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes. ... For the Megalopolitans ( Greek: ) is one of the first political orations of the prominent Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes. ... On the Liberty of the Rodians ( Greek: ) is one of the first political orations of the prominent Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC - 350 BC - 349 BC 348 BC 347... The speakers platform in the Pnyx, the meeting ground of the assembly where all the great political struggles of Athens were fought during the Golden Age. Here Athenian statesmen stood to speak, such as Pericles and Aristides in the 5th century BC and Demosthenes and Aeschines in the 4th... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352...

"While the vessel is safe, whether it be a large or a small one, then is the time for sailor and helmsman and everyone in his turn to show his zeal and to take care that it is not capsized by anyone's malice or inadvertence; but when the sea has overwhelmed it, zeal is useless."
Demosthenes (Third Philippic, 69) - The orator warned his countrymen of the disasters Athens would suffer, if they continued to remain idle and indifferent to the challenges of their times.

In 354 BC, Demosthenes delivered his first political oration, On the Navy. The orator espoused moderation and proposed the reform of "symmories"(boards) as a source of funding for the Athenian fleet.[36][38] In 352 BC, he delivered For the Megalopolitans and a year later On the Liberty of the Rodians. In both speeches, the orator opposed Eubulus, the most powerful Athenian statesman of the period 355 BC to 342 BC, who was against any intervention in the internal affairs of the other Greek cities.[39] Eubulus, or Euboulos (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC _ 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC...


Although none of his early orations were successful, Demosthenes established himself as an important political personality and broke with Eubulus' faction, a prominent member of which was Aeschines. He laid the foundations for his future political successes and for becoming the leader of his own party. His arguments revealed his desire to articulate Athens' needs and interests.[40]


In 351 BC, Demosthenes felt strong enough to express his view concerning the most important foreign policy issue facing Athens at that time: the stance his city should take towards Philip II of Macedon. According to Jacqueline de Romilly, a French philologist and member of the Académie française, the threat of Philip would give Demosthenes' stances a focus and a raison d'être.[37] From this point on, Demosthenes' career is virtually the history of Athenian foreign policy.[32] Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC 348... Jacqueline de Worms Romilly (born March 26, 1913) is a French philologist Biography Born in Chartres in 1913, she studied at lycée Molière where she was lauréate of the Concours général de latin and second prize in Greek in 1930, the first year when girls... The Académie française, or French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ...


Confronting Philip

First Philippic and the Olynthiacs (351 BC–349 BC)

For more details on this topic, see First Philippic and Olynthiacs
Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris). Demosthenes saw the King of Macedon as a menace to the autonomy of all Greek cities.
Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris). Demosthenes saw the King of Macedon as a menace to the autonomy of all Greek cities.

Most of Demosthenes' major orations were directed against the growing power of King Philip II of Macedon. Since 357 BC, when Philip seized Amphipolis and Pydna, Athens had been formally at war with the Macedonians.[41] In 352 BC, Demosthenes characterized Philip as the very worst enemy of his city; this speech presaged the fierce attacks that Demosthenes would launch against the Macedonian king over the ensuing years.[42] A year later he criticized those dismissing Philip as a person of no account and warned them that he was as dangerous as the King of Persia.[43] The first of the four Philippics was delivered by the Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes between 351 BC-350 BC. It constitutes the first speech of the prominent politician against Philip II of Macedon. ... The Olynthiacs were three political speeches, all delivered by the Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x950, 729 KB) Description en: Niketerion (victory) medallion bearing the effigy of king Philip II of Macedon, 2nd century AD, probably minted during the reign of Emperor Alexander Severus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x950, 729 KB) Description en: Niketerion (victory) medallion bearing the effigy of king Philip II of Macedon, 2nd century AD, probably minted during the reign of Emperor Alexander Severus. ... Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordering the kingdom of Epirus on the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Tarsus is a city in present day Turkey, located on the mouth of the Tarsus Cay (Cydnus) which empties into the Mediterranean. ... Gold 20-stater of Eucratides I (175-150 BCE), the largest gold coin ever minted in Antiquity. ... Macedon (also known as Macedonia) was an ancient kingdom in the present-day territory of northern Greece and a small part of the republic of Macedonia, inhabited by the Ancient Macedonians. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354... Localization of Amphipolis Amphipolis (in greek Ἀμφίπολις / Amphípolis) was an Ancient Greek city in the region once inhabited by the Edoni people in the present-day periphery of East Macedonia and Thrace. ... Pydna is also an rocket station of the American Army in Germany, see Pydna (rocket station) Pydna (in Greek: Πύδνα, older transliteration: Púdna), also Pidna was a Greek city in Ancient Macedonia, the most important in Pieria. ... Abdera passes to Macedon. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


In 352 BC, Athenian troops successfully opposed Philip at Thermopylae,[44] but the Macedonian victory over the Phocians at the Battle of Crocus Field shook the orator. The theme of the First Philippic (351 BC-350 BC) was preparedness and the reform of the theoric fund,[f] a mainstay of Eubulus' policy.[37] In his rousing call for resistance, Demosthenes asked his countrymen to take the necessary action and asserted that "for a free people there can be no greater compulsion than shame for their position".[45] Thermopylae - thurMAH-puh-ly, thuhr-MOP-uh-lee (Ancient & Katharevousa Greek Θερμοπύλαι, Demotic Θερμοπύλες) is a mountain pass in Greece. ... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -s, also Phokida, Phokis) is an ancient district of central Greece. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

"We need money, for sure, Athenians, and without money nothing can be done that ought to be done."
Demosthenes (First Olynthiac, 20) - The orator took great pains to convince his countrymen that the reform of the theoric fund was necessary to finance the city's military preparations.

From this moment until 341 BC, all of Demosthenes' speeches referred to the same issue, the struggle against Philip. In 349 BC, Philip attacked Olynthus, an ally of Athens. In the three Olynthiacs, Demosthenes criticized his compatriots for being idle and urged Athens to help Olynthus.[46][47] He also insulted Philip, calling him a "barbarian".[g] Despite Demosthenes' warnings, the Athenians engaged in a useless war in Euboea and offered no military support to Olynthus.[48] Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 346 BC 345 BC 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC - 349 BC - 348 BC 347 BC 346... Olynthus, an ancient city of Chalcidice, situated in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck of the peninsula of Pallene, at some little distance from the sea, and about 60 stadia (7 or 8 miles) from Potidaea. ... Euboea or Negropont (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Evia, Ancient Greek Εúβοια Eúboia; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ...


Case of Meidias (348 BC)

For more details on this topic, see Against Meidias.

In 348 BC a peculiar event occurred: Meidias, a wealthy Athenian, publically slapped Demosthenes, who was at the time a choregos at the Greater Dionysia, a large religious festival in honour of the god Dionysus.[28] Meidias was a friend of Eubulus and supporter of the unsuccessful excursion in Euboea.[48] He also was an old enemy of the orator; in 361 BC he had broken violently into the house of Demosthenes, with his brother Thrasylochus, to take possession of it.[49] Against Meidias ( Greek: ) is one of the most famous judicial oration of the prominent Athenian stateman and orator Demosthenes. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC - 348 BC - 347 BC 346 BC 345... Meidias (in Greek Mειδιας; lived 4th century BC), an Athenian of considerable wealth and influence, was a violent and bitter enemy of Demosthenes, the orator. ... The Dionysia was a large religious festival in ancient Athens in honour of the god Dionysus, the central event of which was the performance of tragedies and comedies. ... Dionysus with a leopard, satyr and grapes on a vine, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) This article is about the ancient deity. ...

"Just think. The instant this court rises, each of you will walk home, one quicker, another more leisurely, not anxious, not glancing behind him, not fearing whether he is going to run up against a friend or an enemy, a big man or a little one, a strong man or a weak one, or anything of that sort. And why? Because in his heart he knows, and is confident, and has learned to trust the State, that no one shall seize or insult or strike him."
Demosthenes (Against Meidias, 221) - The orator asked the Athenians to defend their legal system, by making an example of the defendant for the instruction of others.[50]

Demosthenes decided to prosecute his wealthy opponent and wrote the judicial oration Against Meidias. This speech gives valuable information about Athenian law at the time and especially about the Greek concept of hybris (aggravated assault), which was regarded as a crime not only against the city but against society as a whole.[51] The orator underscored that a democratic state perishes, if the rule of law is undermined by wealthy and unscrupulous men, and asserted that the citizens acquire power and authority in all state affairs due "to the strength of the laws".[49] According to philologist Henri Weil, Demosthenes dropped his charges for political reasons and never delivered Against Meidias,[52] although Aeschines maintained that Demosthenes received money to drop the case.[53] Hubris or hybris (Greek ), according to its modern usage, is exaggerated self pride or self-confidence, often resulting in fatal retribution. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... Henri Weil (August 26, 1818, Frankfort-on-the-Main - December 17, 1868) was the German-born French Jewish philologist. ...


Peace of Philocrates (347 BC–345 BC)

For more details on this topic, see Peace of Philocrates.

In 348 BC, Philip conquered Olynthus and razed it to the ground.[54] In the wake of this Macedonian victory, which also included the conquest of the entire Chalcidice and all the states of the Chalcidic federation that Olynthus had once led, Athens sought to make peace with Macedon. Demosthenes was among those who orientated themselves towards a compromise. In 347 BC, an Athenian delegation, comprising Demosthenes, Aeschines and Philocrates, was officially sent to Pella to negotiate a peace treaty. In his first encounter with Philip, Demosthenes is said to have collapsed because of his fright.[55] Peace of Philocrates is the unofficial name of the peace treaty concluded in 346 BC between ancient Athens and the Kingdom of Macedon. ... Chalkidikí or Chalcidice (in Greek: Χαλκιδική, alternative romanizations Khalkidhikí) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344... For other places named Pella, see: Pella (disambiguation). ...


Philip imposed his own harsh terms that the ecclesia officially accepted. Nevertheless, when an Athenian delegation travelled to Pella to put Philip under oath for the final conclusion of the treaty, the King of Macedon was campaigning abroad.[56] He expected that he would hold safely any Athenian possessions which he might seize before the ratification.[57] Being very anxious about the delay, Demosthenes insisted that the embassy should travel to the place where they would find Philip and swear him in without delay.[57] Despite his suggestions, the Athenian envoys, including himself and Aeschines, remained in Pella, until Philip successfully concluded his excursion in Thrace.[58] Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...


Finally, peace was sworn in Pherae, but Demosthenes accused the other envoys of venality.[59] Just after the conclusion of the Peace of Philocrates, Philip passed Thermopylae, and subdued Phocis; Athens made no move to support the Phocians.[60][61] Supported by Thebes and Thessaly, Macedon took control of Phocis' votes in the Amphictyonic League, a Greek religious organization formed to support the greater temples of Apollo and Demeter.[62] Despite some reluctance on the part of the Athenian leaders, Athens finally accepted Philip's entry into the Council of the League.[63] Demosthenes was among those who recommended this stance in his oration On the Peace. Pherae was an ancient Greek city in Thessaly. ... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -s, also Phokida, Phokis) is an ancient district of central Greece. ... Thebes (in Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva, Katharevousa: — Thēbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... The Amphictyonic League (Amphictyony) was a form of Greek Hellenic religious organization that was formed to support specific temple or sacred place. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros, was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a bringer of death... Ceres (Demeter), allegory of August: detail of a fresco by Cosimo Tura, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 1469-70 Dêmêtêr (or Demetra) (Greek: , mother-earth or perhaps distribution-mother, perhaps from the noun of the Indo-European mother-earth *dheghom *mater) is the Greek goddess of grain and agriculture... On the Peace ( Greek: ) is one of the most famous political orations of the prominent Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes. ...


Second and Third Philippic (344 BC–341 BC)

Satellite image of the Thracian Chersonese and the surrounding area. The Chersonese became the focus of a bitter territorial dispute between Athens and Macedon. It was eventually ceded to Philip in 338 BC.
Satellite image of the Thracian Chersonese and the surrounding area. The Chersonese became the focus of a bitter territorial dispute between Athens and Macedon. It was eventually ceded to Philip in 338 BC.
For more details on this topic, see Second Philippic, On the Chersonese, Third Philippic

In 344 BC Demosthenes travelled to Peloponnese, in order to detach as many cities as possible from Macedon's influence, but his efforts were generally unsuccessful.[64] Most of the Peloponnesians saw Philip as the guarantor of their freedom and sent a joint embassy to Athens to express their grievances against Demosthenes' activities.[65] In response to these complaints, Demosthenes delivered the Second Philippic, a vehement attack against Philip. In 343 BC Demosthenes delivered On the False Embassy against Aeschines, who was facing a charge of high treason. Nonetheless, Aeschines was acquitted by the narrow margin of thirty votes by a jury which may have numbered as many as 1,501.[66] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (992x653, 1202 KB) Gallipoli in Turkey from space File links The following pages link to this file: Gallipoli ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (992x653, 1202 KB) Gallipoli in Turkey from space File links The following pages link to this file: Gallipoli ... The Second Philippic is an oration that was delivered by the Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes between 344 BC-343 BC. The speech constitutes the second of the four philippics the orator is said to have delivered. ... On the Chersonese is a political oration delivered by the Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes in 341 BC. A few time later Demosthenes delivered one of his most famous speeches, the Third Philippic. ... The Third Philippic was delivered by the prominent Athenian statesman and orator, Demosthenes, in 341 BC. It constitutes the third of the four philippics. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 349 BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC - 344 BC - 343 BC 342 BC 341... The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC _ 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC... On the False Embassy ( Greek: ) is the name of two famous judicial orations, both delivered in 343 BC by the prominent Athenian statesmen and fierce opponents, Demosthenes and Aeschines. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 343 BC, Macedonian forces were conducting campaigns in Epirus and, a year later, Philip campaigned in Thrace.[67] He also negotiated with the Athenians an amendment to the Peace of Philocrates.[68] When the Macedonian army approached Chersonese (now known as the Gallipoli Peninsula), an Athenian general named Diopeithes ravaged the maritime district of Thrace, thus inciting Philip's rage. Because of this turbulence, the Athenian Assembly convened. Demosthenes delivered On the Chersonese and convinced the Athenians not to recall Diopeithes. During the same year, he delivered the Third Philippic, which is considered to be the best of his political orations.[69] Using all the power of his eloquence, he demanded resolute action against Philip and called for a burst of energy from the Athenian people. He told them that it would be "better to die a thousand times than pay court to Philip".[70] Demosthenes now dominated Athenian politics and was able to considerably weaken the pro-Macedonian faction of Aeschines. Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípiros) is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in south-eastern Europe. ... Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Map of the Thracian Chersonese The Thracian Chersonese (in Greek Χερσoνησoς Θραικια) was the ancient name of the Gallipoli peninsula, in the part of historic Thrace that is now part of modern Turkey. ... Satellite image of the Gallipoli peninsula and surrounding area Gallipoli, called Gelibolu in modern Turkish, (Greek: Καλλίπολις), is a town in northwestern Turkey. ... Diopeithes (in Greek Διoπείθης; lived 4th century BC) was an Athenian general, probably father of the poet Menander, who was sent out to the Thracian Chersonese about 343 BC, at the head of a body of Athenian settlers or κληρoυχoι.1 Disputes having arisen about their boundaries between these...


Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC)

For more details on this topic, see Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC).
The battle of Chaeronea (map designed by Marco Prins and Jona Lendering) took place the autumn of 338 BC and resulted in a significant victory for Philip, who established Macedon's supremacy over the Greek cities.
The battle of Chaeronea (map designed by Marco Prins and Jona Lendering) took place the autumn of 338 BC and resulted in a significant victory for Philip, who established Macedon's supremacy over the Greek cities.

In 341 BC Demosthenes was sent to Byzantium, where he renewed the alliance between that city and Athens. Thanks to the orator's diplomatic manoeuvres Abydos also entered into an alliance with Athens. These developments worried Philip and increased his anger towards Demosthenes. The Athenian Assembly, however, laid aside Philip's grievances against Demosthenes' conduct and denounced the peace treaty, an action equivalent to an official declaration of war. In 339 BC Philip made his last and most effective bid to conquer southern Greece, assisted by Aeschines' stance in the Amphictyonic Council.[71] During a meeting of the Council, Philip accused the Amfissian Locrians of intruding on consecrated ground.[72] The presiding officer of the Council, a Thessalian named Cottyphus, proposed the convocation of an Amphictyonic Congress to inflict a harsh punishment upon the Locrians.[73] Aeschines agreed with this proposition and maintained that the Athenians should participate in the Congress.[73] Demosthenes reversed, however, Aeschines' initiatives and Athens finally abstained.[74] After the failure of a first military excursion against the Locrians, the summer session of the Amphictyonic Council gave command of the league's forces to Philip and asked him to lead a second excursion.[75] Philip decided to act at once; in the winter of 339 BC338 BC, he passed through Thermopylae, entered Amfissa and defeated the Locrians. After this significant victory, Philip swiftly entered Phocis in 338 BC. He then turned south-east down the Cephissus valley, seized Elateia, and restored the fortifications of the city.[75] Combatants Macedon Athens, Thebes Commanders Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great Chares of Athens, Lysicles of Athens, Theagenes of Boeotia Strength 32,000 infantry 2,000 cavalry 35,000 Casualties Unknown 1,000 Athenians killed 254 Boeotians killed 2,000 captured The Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), fought near... Image File history File links Chaeronea_map. ... Image File history File links Chaeronea_map. ... Byzantium, present day Istanbul, was an ancient Greek city-state, which according to legend was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Abydos, an ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, situated at Nagara Point on the Hellespont, which is here scarcely a mile broad. ... Amphissa redirects here, for the ancient town near todays Roccella Ionica, see Amphissa, Italy Amfissa (Greek: Άμφισσα), other form: Amfissa, Latin: Amphissa is a town and the capital of the Phokida prefecture and the Parnassida province with the population around 10,000. ... Locris was a region of ancient Greece, made up of two districts. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC - 339 BC - 338 BC 337 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335... Cephissus (Athenian plain) (Greek Κήφισσος, Kifissós, Kephissós, Kêphissos) or Cephisus (Greek Κήφ&#953σος Kêphissos), a river flowing through the Athenian plain. ... Elateia was an ancient Greek city of Phocis, and the most important place in the country after Delphi, was situated about the middle of the great fertile basin which extends near 20 miles from the narrows of the Cephissus River below Amphicleia to those which are at the entrance into...


At the same time, Athens orchestrated the creation of an alliance with Euboea, Megara, Achaea, Corinth, Acarnania and some other states in the Peloponnese. However, the most desirable ally for Athens was Thebes. Therefore, Demosthenes was sent to the Boeotian city by Athens; Philip also sent a deputation, but the Athenian orator succeeded in securing an alliance with Thebes.[76] Demosthenes' oration before the Theban people is not extant and, therefore, the arguments he used to convince the Thebans remain unknown. In any case, the alliance came at a price; Thebes' control of Boeotia was recognized, Thebes was to command solely on land and jointly at sea, and Athens was to pay two thirds of the campaign's cost.[77] Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ... Achaea (Greek: , Achaïa; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient province and a present prefecture of Greece, on the northern coast of the Peloponnese, stretching from the mountain ranges of Erymanthus and Cyllene on the south to a narrow strip of fertile land on the... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Acarnania was a region of ancient central western Greece that lay along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary, and north of the gulf of Calydon, which is the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth. ...


While the Athenians and the Thebans were preparing themselves for war, Philip made a final attempt to appease his enemies, proposing in vain a new peace treaty.[78] After a few trivial encounters between the two sides, which resulted in minor Athenian victories, Philip drew the phalanx of the Athenian and Theban confederates in a plain near Chaeronea, where he defeated them. Demosthenes fought as a mere hoplite.[h] Such was Philip's hate for Demosthenes that, according to Diodorus Siculus, the King after his victory sneered at the misfortunes of the Athenian statesman. However, the Athenian orator and statesman Demades is said to have remarked: "O King, when Fortune has cast you in the role of Agamemnon, are you not ashamed to act the part of Thersites (an obscene soldier of the Greek army during the Trojan War) ?" Stung by these words, Philip immediately altered his demeanour.[79] A modern reconstruction of Greek hoplites forming a phalanx formation. ... Chaeronea was a city in the province of Boeotia in Ancient Greece. ... A hoplite armed with a spear. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Demades (c. ... The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... In Greek mythology, Thersites, son of Agrius, was a rank-and-file soldier of the Greek army during the Trojan War. ... The fall of Troy by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769) From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe The Trojan War was a war waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey), by the armies of the Achaeans, after Paris of Troy...


Last political initiatives and death

Confronting Alexander and delivering On the Crown

See also: On the Crown
Alexander Mosaic from Pompeii, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost. In 336–335 BC, the King of Macedon crippled any attempt of the Greek cities at resistance and shattered Demosthenes' hopes for Athenian independence.
Alexander Mosaic from Pompeii, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost. In 336–335 BC, the King of Macedon crippled any attempt of the Greek cities at resistance and shattered Demosthenes' hopes for Athenian independence.

After Chaeronea, Philip inflicted a harsh punishment upon Thebes, but made peace with Athens on very lenient terms. Demosthenes encouraged the fortification of Athens and was chosen by the ecclesia to deliver the Funeral Oration.[80][81] In 337 BC, Philip created the League of Corinth, a confederation of Greek states under his leadership, and returned to Pella.[82] In 336 BC, Philip was assassinated at the wedding of his daughter, Cleopatra of Macedonia, to King Alexander of Epirus. After Philip's death, the army proclaimed Alexander, then aged 20, as the new King of Macedon. Greek cities like Athens and Thebes saw in this change of leadership an opportunity to regain their full independence. Demosthenes celebrated Philip's assassination and played a leading part in his city's uprising. According to Aeschines, "it was but the seventh day after the death of his daughter, and though the ceremonies of mourning were not yet completed, he put a garland on his head and white raiment on his body, and there he stood making thank-offerings, violating all decency."[23] Demosthenes also sent envoys to Attalus, whom he considered to be an internal opponent of Alexander.[83] Nonetheless, Alexander moved swiftly to Thebes, which submitted shortly after the King's appearance at its gates. When the Athenians learned that Alexander had moved quickly to Boeotia, they panicked and begged the new King of Macedon for mercy. Alexander admonished them but imposed no punishment. On the Crown( Greek: ) is the most famous judicial oration of the prominent Athenian stateman and orator Demosthenes, delivered in 330 BC. // Historical backround Despite the unsuccessful ventures against Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, the Athenian people still respected and admired Demosthenes, maybe even more than the... Image File history File links AlexanderAttackingDarius. ... Image File history File links AlexanderAttackingDarius. ... The Alexander Mosaic, dating from approx. ... A computer-generated depiction of the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79 which buried Pompeii, from the BBCs Pompeii: The Last Day. ... Demosthenes Funeral Oration ( Greek: ) was delivered between August and September of 338 BC, just after the Battle of Chaeronea. ... The League of Corinth was a federation of Greek states created by Philip II of Macedon during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC to facilitate his use of Greek military forces in his war against Persia. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC 334 BC 333... Alexander I of Epirus (c. ... Attalus (in Greek Άτταλος, c. ...

"You stand revealed in your life and conduct, in your public performances and also in your public abstinences. A project approved by the people is going forward. Aeschines is speechless. A regrettable incident is reported. Aeschines is in evidence. He reminds one of an old sprain or fracture: the moment you are out of health it begins to be active."
Demosthenes (On the Crown, 198) - In On the Crown Demosthenes fiercely assaulted and finally neutralized Aeschines, his formidable political opponent.

In 335 BC Alexander felt free to engage the Thracians and the Illyrians. While he was campaigning in the north, the Thebans and the Athenians rebelled once again, believing in the rumors that Alexander was dead. Darius III of Persia financed the Greek cities that rose up against Macedon, and Demosthenes is said to have received about 300 talents on behalf of Athens and to have faced accusations of embezzlement.[i] Alexander reacted immediately and razed Thebes to the ground. He did not attack Athens, but demanded the exile of all anti-Macedonian politicians, Demosthenes first of all, a request turned down by the ecclesia.[84] Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC 336 BC - 335 BC - 334 BC 333 BC... Thracian peltast, 5th to 4th century BC Thracian Horseman Thracians in an ethnic sense refers to various ancient peoples who spoke Dacian and Thracian, a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ...


Despite the unsuccessful ventures against Philip and Alexander, the Athenians still respected Demosthenes. In 336 BC, the orator Ctesiphon proposed that Athens honor Demosthenes for his services to the city by presenting him, according to custom, with a golden crown. This proposal became a political issue and in 330 BC, Aeschines prosecuted Ctesiphon on charges of legal irregularities. In his most brilliant speech,[85] On the Crown, Demosthenes effectively defended Ctesiphon and attacked vehemently those who would have preferred peace with Macedon. The orator was unrepentant about his past actions and policies and insisted that, when in power, the constant aim of his policies was the honor and the ascendancy of his country; and on every occasion and in all business he preserved his loyalty to Athens.[86] He finally defeated Aeschines, although his enemy's legal objections to the crowning were probably valid.[87] Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327...


Case of Harpalus

For more details on this topic, see Harpalus.

In 324 BC Harpalus, to whom Alexander had entrusted huge treasures, absconded and sought refuge in Athens. Demosthenes, at first, advised that he be chased out of the city.[88] Finally, Harpalus was imprisoned despite the dissent of Hypereides, an anti-Macedonian statesman and former ally of Demosthenes.[89] The ecclesia, after a proposal of Demosthenes, decided to take control of Harpalus' money, which was entrusted to a committee presided over by Demosthenes.[89] When the committee counted the treasure, they found they only had half the money Harpalus had declared he had.[89] Nevertheless, they decided not to disclose the deficit. When Harpalus escaped, the Areopagus conducted an inquiry and charged Demosthenes with mishandling 20 talents. During Demosthenes' trial, Hypereides argued that the defendant did not disclose the huge deficit, because he was bribed by Harpalus.[89] The orator was fined and imprisoned, but he soon escaped.[90] It remains unclear whether the accusations against him were just or not.[j] In any case, the Athenians soon repealed the sentence.[91] Harpalus was an aristocrat of Macedon in the 4th century BC. He was a student of Aristotle and a close friend of Alexander the Great since childhood. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 329 BC 328 BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC - 324 BC - 323 BC 322 BC 321... Hypereides (c. ... This article concerns the Classical judicial body. ...

"For a house, I take it, or a ship or anything of that sort must have its chief strength in its substructure; and so too in affairs of state the principles and the foundations must be truth and justice."
Demosthenes (Second Olynthiac, 10) - The orator faced serious accusations more than once, but he never admitted to any improper actions and insisted that it is impossible "to gain permanent power by injustice, perjury, and falsehood".

After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Demosthenes again urged the Athenians to seek independence from Macedonian control in what became known as the Lamian War. However, Antipater, Alexander's successor, quelled all opposition and demanded that the Athenians turn over Demosthenes and Hypereides, among others. Following his request, the ecclesia adopted a decree condemning the most prominent anti-Macedonian agitators to death. Demosthenes escaped to a sanctuary on the island of Calauria, where he was later discovered by Archias, a confidant of Antipater. The orator committed suicide before his capture by taking poison out of a reed, pretending he wanted to write a letter to his family.[92] When Demosthenes felt that the poison was working on his body, he said to Archias: "Now, as soon as you please you may commence the part of Creon in the tragedy, and cast out this body of mine unburied. But, O gracious Neptune, I, for my part, while I am yet alive, arise up and depart out of this sacred place; though Antipater and the Macedonians have not left so much as the temple unpolluted." After saying these words, he passed by the altar, fell down and died.[92] Years after Demosthenes' suicide, the Athenians erected a statue to honor him and decreed that the state should provide meals to his descendants in the Prytaneum.[93] On his way from Ecbatana to Babylon, Alexander the Great fights and crushes the Cossaeans. ... The Lamian war (323 BC - 322 BC) was a war in Greece between Athens and her allies in Central and Northern Greece and Macedonia. ... Antipater (Greek: Αντίπατρος Antipatros; c. ... Poros (Greek: Πόρος) is a small Greek island-pair in the southern part of the Saronic Gulf, at a distance about 48 km (32 miles) south from Piraeus and separated from the Peloponnese by a 200-metre wide sea channel. ... In Greek mythology, Creon, or Kreeon (ruler), son of Menoeceus, was a king of the city of Thebes and the father of Haemon and Megara by his wife, Eurydice. ... The prytaneis (literally presidents) of ancient Athens were members of the boule chosen to perform executive tasks during their term (a prytany), which lasted about one month and then was rotated to other members of the boule. ...


Assessments

Political career

Bust of Demosthenes, Römisch-Germanisches Museum, Köln
Bust of Demosthenes, Römisch-Germanisches Museum, Köln

Plutarch lauds Demosthenes for not being of a fickle disposition. Rebutting historian Theopompus, the biographer insists that for "the same party and post in politics which he held from the beginning, to these he kept constant to the end; and was so far from leaving them while he lived, that he chose rather to forsake his life than his purpose". [94] On the other hand, Polybius, a Greek historian of the Mediterranean world, was highly critical of Demosthenes' policies. Polybius accused him of having launched unjustified verbal attacks on great men of other cities, branding them unjustly as traitors to the Greeks. The historian maintains that Demosthenes measured everything by the interests of his own city, imagining that all the Greeks ought to have their eyes fixed upon Athens. According to Polybius, the only thing the Athenians eventually got by their opposition to Philip was the defeat at Chaeronea. "And had it not been for the king's magnanimity and regard for his own reputation, their misfortunes would have gone even further, thanks to the policy of Demosthenes".[95] 1881 Young Peoples Cyclopedia of Persons and Places This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1881 Young Peoples Cyclopedia of Persons and Places This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Römisch-Germanisches Museum (or Romano-Germanic Museum) is one of the most important museums in Cologne. ... Köln may refer to: Cologne (German: Köln), the fourth largest city in Germany and largest city of the North Rhine-Westphalia state German Cruiser Köln that served from 1930-1945 mostly for the Kriegsmarine German Frigate Köln (1961-1982), a F120 Köln class frigate of... Theopompus, a Greek historian and rhetorician, was born at Chios about 380 BC. In early youth he seems to have spent some time at Athens, along with his father, who had been exiled on account of his Laconian sympathies. ... Polybius (c. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ...

"The man who deems himself born only to his parents will wait for his natural and destined end; the son of his country is willing to die rather than see her enslaved, and will look upon those outrages and indignities, which a commonwealth in subjection is compelled to endure, as more dreadful than death itself."
Demosthenes (On the Crown, 205) - During his long political career Demosthenes urged his countrymen to defend their city and to preserve their freedom and their democracy.

Paparregopoulus extols Demosthenes' patriotism, but criticizes him as being short-sighted. According to this critique, Demosthenes should have understood that the ancient Greek states could only survive unified under the leadership of Macedon.[15] Therefore, Demosthenes is accused of misjudging events, opponents and opportunities and of being unable to foresee Philip's inevitable triumph.[74] He is criticized for having overrated Athens' capacity to revive and challenge Macedon.[96] His city had lost most of its Aegean allies, whereas Philip had consolidated his hold over Macedonia and was master of enormous mineral wealth. Chris Carey, a professor of Greek in UCL, concludes that Demosthenes was a better orator and political operator than strategist.[74] Nevertheless, the same scholar underscores that "pragmatists" like Aeschines or Phocion had no inspiring vision to rival that of Demosthenes. The orator asked the Athenians to choose that which is just and honorable, before their own safety and preservation.[94] The people preferred Demosthenes' activism and even the bitter defeat at Chaeronea was regarded as a price worth paying in the attempt to retain freedom and influence.[74] According to Professor of Greek Arthur Wallace Pickard-Cambridge, success may be a poor criterion for judging the actions of people like Demosthenes, who were motivated by the ideal of political liberty.[97] Athens was asked by Philip to sacrifice its freedom and its democracy, while Demosthenes longed for the city's brilliance.[96] He endeavored to revive its imperilled values and, thus, he became an "educator of the people" (in the words of Werner Jaeger).[98] University College London, commonly known as UCL, is one of the colleges that make up the University of London. ... Werner Jaeger Werner Jaeger (July 30, 1888 - October 9, 1961) was a classicist of the 20th century. ...


The fact that Demosthenes fought at the battle of Chaeronea as a hoplite indicates that he lacked any military skills. According to historian Thomas Babington Macaulay, in his time the division between political and military offices was beginning to be strongly marked.[99] Almost no politician, with the exception of Phocion, was at the same time an apt orator and a competent general. Demosthenes dealt in policies and ideas, and war was not his business.[99] This contrast between Demosthenes' intellectual prowess and his deficiencies in terms of vigor, stamina, military skill[15] and strategic vision[74] is illustrated by the inscription his countrymen engraved on the base of his statue:[100] A hoplite armed with a spear. ... Quotes His imagination resembled the wings of an ostrich. ... Phocion (c402 - c318 BC), Athenian statesman and general, was born the son of a small manufacturer. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ...

   
Demosthenes
Had you for Greece been strong, as wise you were,

The Macedonian had not conquered her. Image File history File links Cquote1. ...

   
Demosthenes

Image File history File links Cquote2. ...

Oratorical skill

According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, Demosthenes represented the final stage in the development of Attic prose. Dionysius asserts that the orator brought together the best features of the basic types of style; he used the middle or normal type style ordinarily and applied the archaic type and the type of plain elegance where they were fitting. In each one of the three types he was better than its special masters.[101] He is, therefore, regarded as a consummate orator, adept in the techniques of oratory, which are brought together in his work.[98] In his initial judicial orations, the influence of both Lysias and Isaeus is obvious, but his marked, original style is already revealed.[17][102] Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... Lysias (d. ...


According to the classical scholar Harry Thurston Peck, Demosthenes "affects no learning; he aims at no elegance; he seeks no glaring ornaments; he rarely touches the heart with a soft or melting appeal, and when he does, it is only with an effect in which a third-rate speaker would have surpassed him. He had no wit, no humour, no vivacity, in our acceptance of these terms. The secret of his power is simple, for it lies essentially in the fact that his political principles were interwoven with his very spirit."[6] In this judgement, Peck agrees with Jaeger, who said that the imminent political decision imbued the orator's speech with a fascinating artistic power.[103] Demosthenes was apt at combining abruptness with the extended period, brevity with breadth. Hence, his style harmonizes with his fervent commitment.[98] His language is simple and natural, never far-fetched or artificial. According to Jebb, Demosthenes was a true artist who could make his art obey him.[17] For his part, Aeschines stigmatized his intensity, attributing to his rival strings of absurd and incoherent images.[104] Dionysius stated that Demosthenes' only shortcoming is the lack of humor, although Quintilian regards this deficiency as a virtue.[105][106] The main criticism of Demosthenes' art, however, seems to have rested chiefly on his known reluctance to speak extempore;[107] he often declined to comment on subjects he had not studied beforehand.[6] However, he gave the most elaborate preparation to all his speeches and, therefore, his arguments were the products of careful study. He was also famous for his caustic wit.[108]


According to Cicero, Demosthenes regarded "delivery" (gestures, voice etc.) as more important than style.[109] Although he lacked Aeschines' charming voice and Demades's skill at improvisation, he made efficient use of his body to accentuate his words.[14] Thus he managed to project his ideas and arguments much more forcefully. Nonetheless, his delivery was not accepted by everybody in antiquity: Demetrius Phalereus and the comedians ridiculed Demosthenes' "theatricality", whilst Aeschines regarded Leodamas of Acharnae as superior to him.[110][111] Demetrius Phalereus ( - died approximately 280 BC) was an Athenian orator and one of the first Peripatetics. ... Archarnae was the largest deme of ancient Attica; it was located in the northwest part of the Attic plain, around Menidi, and about 10 km due north of Athens. ...


Rhetorical legacy

See also: Demosthenes (fictional character)
Phryne Going to the Public Baths as Venus and Demosthenes Taunted by Aeschines by J. M. W. Turner (1838)
Phryne Going to the Public Baths as Venus and Demosthenes Taunted by Aeschines by J. M. W. Turner (1838)

Demosthenes' fame continued down the ages. The scholars at the Library of Alexandria carefully edited the manuscripts of his speeches, while Roman schoolboys studied his art as part of their own oratorical training.[32] Juvenal acclaimed him as "largus et exundans ingenii fons" (a large and overflowing fountain of genius)[112] and Cicero was inspired by Demosthenes for his speeches against Mark Antony, which were called Philippics too. Plutarch drew attention in his Life of Demosthenes to the strong similarities between the personalities and careers of Demosthenes and Marcus Tullius Cicero:[113] The prominent Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes constituted a source of inspiration for certain novelists, especially those writing historical novels. ... Image File history File links AeschinesDemosthenes. ... Image File history File links AeschinesDemosthenes. ... Phryne was a famous courtesan of ancient Greece who adjusted her prices for customers depending upon how she felt about them. ... Adjective Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... Self portrait, oil on canvas, circa 1799 Joseph Mallord William Turner (born in Covent Garden, London on April 23, 1775 (exact date disputed), died December 19, 1851) was an English Romantic landscape artist, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... The Royal Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt was once the largest library in the world. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius, from a volume translated by John Dryden in 1711. ... For his relatives, see Marcus Antonius (disambiguation). ... A philippic is a fiery, damning speech delivered to condemn a particular political actor. ...

   
Demosthenes
The divine power seems originally to have designed Demosthenes and Cicero upon the same plan, giving them many similarities in their natural characters, as their passion for distinction and their love of liberty in civil life, and their want of courage in dangers and war, and at the same time also to have added many accidental resemblances. I think there can hardly be found two other orators, who, from small and obscure beginnings, became so great and mighty; who both contested with kings and tyrants; both lost their daughters, were driven out of their country, and returned with honor; who, flying from thence again, were both seized upon by their enemies, and at last ended their lives with the liberty of their countrymen.
   
Demosthenes

During the Middle Ages and Renaissance, Demosthenes had a reputation for eloquence.[32] He was read more than any other ancient orator; only Cicero offered any real competition.[114] French author and lawyer Guillaume du Vair praises his speeches for their artful arrangement and elegant style, while John Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury, and Jacques Amyot, a French Renaissance writer and translator, regard Demosthenes as a great or even the "supreme" orator.[115] Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... Guillaume du Vair (March 7, 1556 - August 3, 1621) was a French author and lawyer. ... John Jewel ( May 24, 1522 - September 23, 1571), bishop of Salisbury, son of John Jewel of Buden, Devonshire, was educated under his uncle John Bellamy, rector of Hampton, and other private tutors until his matriculation at Merton College, Oxford, in July 1535. ... Arms of the Bishop of Salisbury The Bishop of Salisbury is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury. ... Jacques Amyot (October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593), French writer, was born of poor parents, at Melun. ...


In modern history, famous orators like Henry Clay would mimic Demosthenes' technique. His ideas and principles survived, influencing prominent politicians and movements of our times. Hence, he constituted a source of inspiration for the authors of the Federalist Papers (series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution) and for the major orators of the French Revolution.[116] French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau was among those who idealized the Athenian orator and wrote a book about him.[117] For his part, Friedrich Nietzsche often composed his sentences according to the paradigms of Demosthenes, whose style he admired.[118][119] During World War II, the fighters of the French Resistance identified themselves with Demosthenes, while they gave Adolf Hitler the name of Philip. Therefore, the Athenian statesman was recognized as the symbol of independence and as a synonym of resistance against any tyrannical oppression.[98] He also constituted a source of inspiration for writers of modern literature, such as Mary Renault and Orson Scott Card.[120] The terms Modern World, Modern Period, New World, Modern Times, Progressive Age, Modern Age, or Modern Era are recognized by historians as being that period of time commencing after the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, after the mid-18th century. ... Henry Clay (April 12, 1777 in Hanover County, Virginia – June 29, 1852 in Washington, D.C.) was a leading American statesman and orator who represented Kentucky in both the House of Representatives and Senate. ... Imitation is an advanced animal behaviour whereby an individual observes anothers behaviour and replicates it itself. ... An advertisement for The Federalist The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. ... The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... Georges Clemenceau Georges Clemenceau[1] (Mouilleron-en-Pareds, Vendée, 28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French statesman, physician and journalist. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Bold textItalic textLink title // Headline text Headline text Headline text == The cross of Lorraine used by the French Resistance as a symbolic reference to Joan of Arc. ... Hitler redirects here. ... This article is the second in a series of The History of Literature. ... Mary Renault (1905–1983) was an English novelist whose works are still popular with devotees of the historical novel. ... The introduction to this article is too long. ...


The Demosthenian Literary Society at the The University of Georgia is named after Demosthenes, due to his oratorical ability, and the manner in which he improved his speaking ability. Demosthenian Hall, built in 1824, as seen on the night of the Demosthenian Literary Societys 200th Anniversary The Demosthenian Literary Society is a debating society at The University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia. ... The University of Georgia (UGA) is the largest institution of higher learning and research in the State of Georgia. ...


Works

For more details on this topic, see Works of Demosthenes.

It seems that Demosthenes published many or all of his orations.[121] After his death, texts of his speeches survived in Athens and the Library of Alexandria. In Alexandria these texts were incorporated into the body of classical Greek literature that was preserved, catalogued and studied by scholars of the Hellenistic period. From then until the 4th century CE, copies of his orations multiplied and they were in a relatively good position to survive the tense period from the 6th until the 9th century CE.[122] In the end, sixty-one of Demosthenes' orations survived till the present day. Friedrich Blass, a German classical scholar, believes that nine more speeches were recorded by the orator, but they are not extant.[123] Modern editions of these speeches are based on four manuscripts of the 10th and 11th centuries CE.[124][125] The authorship of at least nine of the sixty-one orations is disputed.[k] Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... The Royal Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt was once the largest library in the world. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek peoples that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Friedrich Blass (1843-1907), German classical scholar, was born on January 22, 1843 at Osnabrück. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ...


Fifty-six prologues and six letters are also extant. The prologues were openings of Demosthenes's speeches. They were collected for the Library of Alexandria by Callimachus, who believed that Demosthenes composed them.[126] Modern scholars are divided: some of them reject them,[10] while others, such as Blass, believe they are genuine.[127] The letters are written under Demosthenes's name, but their authorship has been fiercely debated.[l] A prologue (Greek πρόλογος, from προ~, pro~ - fore~, and lógos, word), or rarely prolog, is a prefatory piece of writing, usually composed to introduce a drama. ... Callimachus (ca. ...

Demosthenes' orations 
Political orations Olynthiacs 1-2-3 | First Philippic | On the Peace | Second Philippic | On the Halonnesus | On the Chersonese | Third Philippic | Fourth Philippic | Reply to Philip | Philip | On Organisation | On the Navy | For the Megalopolitans | On the Liberty of the Rodians | On the Accession of Alexander
Judicial orations On the Crown | On the False Embassy | Against Leptines | Against Meidias | Against Androtion | Against Aristocrates | Against Timocrates | Against Aristogiton 1-2 | Against Aphobus 1-2-3 | Against Ontenor 1-2 | Against Zenothemis | Against Apatourius | Against Phormio | Against Lacritus | For Phormio | Against Pantaenetus | Against Nausimachus and Xenopeithes | Against Boeotus 1-2 | Against Spudias | Against Phaenippus | Against Macartatus | Against Leochares | Against Stephanus 1-2 | Against Evergus and Mnesibulus | Against Olympiodorus | Against Timotheus | Against Polycles | On the Trierarcic Crown | Against Callipus | Against Nicostratus | Against Conon | Against Callicles | Against Dionysodorus | Against Eubulides | Against Theocrines | Against Naeara
Epideictic orations Funeral Oration | Erotic Essay

The Olynthiacs were three political speeches, all delivered by the Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes. ... The first of the four Philippics was delivered by the Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes between 351 BC-350 BC. It constitutes the first speech of the prominent politician against Philip II of Macedon. ... On the Peace ( Greek: ) is one of the most famous political orations of the prominent Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes. ... The Second Philippic is an oration that was delivered by the Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes between 344 BC-343 BC. The speech constitutes the second of the four philippics the orator is said to have delivered. ... On the Halonnesus ( Greek: ) is a political oration attributed to the prominent Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes. ... On the Chersonese is a political oration delivered by the Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes in 341 BC. A few time later Demosthenes delivered one of his most famous speeches, the Third Philippic. ... The Third Philippic was delivered by the prominent Athenian statesman and orator, Demosthenes, in 341 BC. It constitutes the third of the four philippics. ... On the Navy ( Greek: ) is the first political oration of the prominent Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes. ... For the Megalopolitans ( Greek: ) is one of the first political orations of the prominent Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes. ... On the Liberty of the Rodians ( Greek: ) is one of the first political orations of the prominent Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes. ... On the Crown( Greek: ) is the most famous judicial oration of the prominent Athenian stateman and orator Demosthenes, delivered in 330 BC. // Historical backround Despite the unsuccessful ventures against Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, the Athenian people still respected and admired Demosthenes, maybe even more than the... On the False Embassy ( Greek: ) is the name of two famous judicial orations, both delivered in 343 BC by the prominent Athenian statesmen and fierce opponents, Demosthenes and Aeschines. ... Against Leptines was a speech give by Demosthenes in which he called for the repeal of a law which denied anyone a special exemption from paying public charges. ... Against Meidias ( Greek: ) is one of the most famous judicial oration of the prominent Athenian stateman and orator Demosthenes. ... Against Androtion was a speech composed by Demosthenes in which he accused Androtion of making an illegal proposal. ... Demosthenes Funeral Oration ( Greek: ) was delivered between August and September of 338 BC, just after the Battle of Chaeronea. ... The Erotic Essay ( Greek: ) constitutes along with the Funeral Oration the two epideictic speeches ascribed to the prominent Athenian statesman and orator Demosthenes, which are still extant. ...

Notes

a. ^  According to Edward Cohen, professor of classics at the University of Pennsylvania, Cleoboule was the daughter of a Scythian woman and of an Athenian father, Gylon, although other scholars insist on the genealogical purity of Demosthenes.[128] There is an agreement among scholars that Cleoboule was a Crimean and not an Athenian citizen.[10][128] Gylon had suffered banishment at the end of the Peloponnesian War for allegedly betraying Nymphaeum in Crimaea.[129] According to Aeschines, Gylon received as a gift from the Bosporan rulers a place called "the Gardens" in the colony of Kepoi in present-day Russia (located within two miles from Phanagoria).[5] Nevertheless, the accuracy of these allegations is disputed, since more that 70 years had elapsed between Gylon's possible treachery and Aeshines speech, and, therefore, the orator could be confident that his audience would have no direct knowledge of events at Nymphaeum.[130] Classics, particularly within the Western University tradition, when used as a singular noun, means the study of the language, literature, history, art, and other aspects of Greek and Roman culture during the time frame known as classical antiquity. ... The University of Pennsylvania (or Penn[3][4]) is a private, nonsectarian research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Combatants Delian League led by Athens Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Commanders Pericles Cleon Nicias Alcibiades Archidamus II Brasidas Lysander The Peloponnesian War (431 BC–404 BC) was an Ancient Greek military conflict fought between Athens and its empire and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. ... An image of a ship on the wall of a temple in Nymphaeum (3rd century BC). ... The Bosporan Kingdom, which was located on the Crimea peninsula, existed in the time of the Roman Empire. ... Kepoi or Cepoi (Russian: Кепы) was an ancient Greek colony situated on the Taman peninsula, three kilometres to the east of Phanagoria, in the present-day Krasnodar Krai of Russia. ... Phanagoria was an ancient Greek colony on the Taman peninsula between the Black Sea and the Azov, roughly on the site of modern Tmutarakan. ...


b. ^  According to Tsatsos, the trials against the guardians lasted until Demosthenes was twenty four.[102] Nietzsche reduces the time of the judicial disputes to five years.[131]


c. ^  According to the 10th century encyclopedia Suda, Demosthenes studied with Eubulides and Plato.[132] Cicero and Quintilian argue that Demosthenes was Plato's disciple.[133][134] Tsatsos and Weil believe that there is no indication that Demosthenes was a pupil of Plato or Isocrates.[21][135] As far as Isaeus is concerned, according to Jebb "the school of Isaeus is nowhere else mentioned, nor is the name of any other pupil recorded".[17] Peck believes that Demosthenes continued to study under Isaeus for the space of four years after he had reached his majority.[6] Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ... Eubulides of Miletus was a Greek philosopher who formulated the liar paradox in the 4th century BC. He was the successor of Euclid of Megara, the founder of the Megarian school of philosophy. ...


d. ^  Both Tsatsos and Weil maintain that Demosthenes never abandoned the profession of the logographer, but, after delivering his first political orations, he wanted to be regarded as a statesman.[136][137] According to Jams J. Murphy, Professor emeritus of Rhetoric and Communication at the University of California, his lifelong career as a logographer continued even during his most intense involvement in the political struggle against Philip.[32] The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ...


e. ^ "Batalus" or "Batalos" meant "stammerer" in ancient Greek, but it was also the name of a flute-player (in ridicule of whom Antiphanes wrote a play) and of a song-writer.[138][139] The word "batalus" was also used by the Athenians to describe the anus.[138][140] Another nickname of Demosthenes was "Argas." According to Plutarch, this name was given him either for his savage and spiteful behavior or for his disagreeable way of speaking. "Argas" was a poetical word for a snake, but also the name of a poet.[138] Female Human Anatomy Male Human Anatomy Anal redirects here. ...


f. ^  "Theorika" were allowances paid by the state to poor Athenians to enable them to watch dramatic festivals. Eubulus passed a law making it difficult to divert public funds, including "theorika," for minor military operations.[37]


g. ^  Demosthenes characterized Philip as a "barbarian" in the Third Olynthiac and in the Third Philippic.[141][142] According to Tsatsos, Demosthenes regarded as Greeks only those who had reached the cultural standards of south Greece and he did not take into consideration ethnological criteria.[143]


h. ^  According to Plutarch, Demosthenes deserted his colors and "did nothing honorable, nor was his performance answerable to his speeches".[144][145]


i. ^  Aeschines reproached Demosthenes for being silent as to the seventy talents of the king's gold which he allegedly seized and embezzled.[146] Aeschines and Dinarchus also maintained that when the Arcadians offered their services for ten talents, Demosthenes refused to furnish the money to the Thebans, who were conducting the negotiations, and so the Arcadians sold out to the Macedonians.[146][147] Dinarchus, (c. ...


j. ^  According to Pausanias, Demosthenes himself and others had declared that the orator had taken no part of the money that Harpalus brought from Asia.[148] He also narrates the following story: Shortly after Harpalus ran away from Athens Harpalus was put to death by the servants who were attending him, though some assert that he was assassinated. The steward of his money fled to Rhodes, and was arrested by a Macedonian, Philoxenus. Philoxenus proceeded to examine the slave, "until he learned everything about such as had allowed themselves to accept a bribe from Harpalus." He then sent a dispatch to Athens, in which he gave a list of the persons who had taken a bribe from Harpalus. "Demosthenes, however, he never mentioned at all, although Alexander held him in bitter hatred, and he himself had a private quarrel with him."[148] On the other hand, Plutarch believes that Harpalus sent Demosthenes a cup with twenty talents and that "Demosthenes could not resist the temptation, but admitting the present, ... he surrendered himself up to the interest of Harpalus."[88] Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...


k. ^  Blass disputes the authorship of the following speeches: Fourth Philippic, Funeral Oration, Erotic Essay, Against Stephanus 2 and Against Evergus and Mnesibulus.[149], while Arnold Schaefer, a German classical scholar, recognizes as genuine only twenty-nine orations.[121]


l. ^  In this discussion the work of Jonathan A. Goldstein, Professor of History and Classics at the University of Iowa, is regarded as paramount.[150][151] Goldstein regards Demosthenes's letters as authentic apologetic letters that were addressed to the Athenian assembly.[152] The University of Iowa is a major national research university located on a 1,900-acre campus in Iowa City, Iowa, USA, on the Iowa River in East Central Iowa. ...

Citations

  1. ^ Longinus, On the Sublime, 34.4
  2. ^ Cicero, Brutus, 35
  3. ^ Quintillian, Institutiones, X, 1, 6 and 76
  4. ^ H. Weil, Biography of Demosthenes, 5–6
  5. ^ a b Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 171
  6. ^ a b c d H. T. Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities
  7. ^ Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 172
  8. ^ O. Thomsen, The Looting of the Estate of the Elder Demosthenes, 61
  9. ^ Demosthenes, Against Aphobus 1, 4
  10. ^ a b c d e f g "Demosthenes". Encyclopaedia The Helios. (1952).
  11. ^ Demosthenes, Against Aphobus 1, 6
  12. ^ Demosthenes, Against Aphobus 3, 59
  13. ^ a b c Plutarch, Demosthenes, 5
  14. ^ a b F. Nietzsche, Lessons of Rhetoric, 233–235
  15. ^ a b c K. Paparregopoulus, Ab, 396–398
  16. ^ Lucian, Demosthenes, An Encomium, 12
  17. ^ a b c d e f R. C. Jebb, The Attic Orators from Antiphon to Isaeos
  18. ^ Suda, article Isaeus
  19. ^ K. Tsatsos, Demosthenes, 83
  20. ^ Lucian, The Illiterate Book-Fancier, 4
  21. ^ a b H. Weil, Biography of Demothenes, 10–11
  22. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, Demosthenes, 847c
  23. ^ a b c Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 77
  24. ^ Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 173
  25. ^ a b Aeschines, The Speech on the Embassy, 165
  26. ^ Plutarch, Demosthenes, 15
  27. ^ A.W. Pickard, Demosthenes and the Last Days of Greek Freedom, xiv-xv
  28. ^ a b S. Usher, Greek Oratory, 226
  29. ^ Demosthenes, Against Zenothemis, 32
  30. ^ a b c Plutarch, Demosthenes, 6
  31. ^ Plutarch, Demosthenes, 7
  32. ^ a b c d e "Demosthenes". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002).
  33. ^ Aeschines, Against Timarchus, 126
  34. ^ Aeschines, The Speech on the Embassy, 99
  35. ^ Plutarch, Demosthenes, 6–7
  36. ^ a b I. Worthington, Demosthenes: Statesman and Orator, 29
  37. ^ a b c d J. De Romilly, A Short History of Greek Literature, 116–117
  38. ^ K. Tsatsos, Demosthenes, 88
  39. ^ D. Phillips, Athenian Political Oratory, 72
  40. ^ T. N. Habinek, Ancient Rhetoric and Oratory, 21
  41. ^ D. Phillips, Athenian Political Oratory, 69
  42. ^ Demosthenes, Against Aristocrates, 121
  43. ^ Demosthenes, For the Liberty of the Rhodians, 24
  44. ^ Demosthenes, On the False Embassy, 319
  45. ^ Demosthenes, First Philippic, 10
  46. ^ Demosthenes, Second Olynthiac, 3
  47. ^ Demosthenes, First Olynthiac, 3
  48. ^ a b Demosthenes, On the Peace, 5
  49. ^ a b Demosthenes, Against Meidias, 78–80
  50. ^ J. De Romilly, Ancient Greece against Violence, 113–117
  51. ^ H. Yunis, The Rhetoric of Law in 4th Century Athens, 206
  52. ^ H. Weil, Biography of Demosthenes, 28
  53. ^ Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 52
  54. ^ Demosthenes, Third Philippic, 56
  55. ^ Aeschines, The Speech on the Embassy, 34
  56. ^ Demosthenes, Third Philippic, 15
  57. ^ a b Demosthenes, On the Crown, 25–27
  58. ^ Demosthenes, On the Crown, 30
  59. ^ Demosthenes, On the Crown, 31
  60. ^ Demosthenes, On the Crown, 36
  61. ^ Demosthenes, On the Peace, 10
  62. ^ Demosthenes, On the Crown, 43
  63. ^ Demosthenes, On the False Embassy, 111–113
  64. ^ Demosthenes, Second Philippic, 19
  65. ^ T. Buckley, Aspects of Greek History 750-323 BC, 480
  66. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, Aeschines, 840c
  67. ^ Demosthenes, Third Philippic, 17
  68. ^ Demosthenes (or Hegesippus), On Halonnesus, 18–23
  69. ^ K. Tsatsos, Demosthenes, 245
  70. ^ Demosthenes, Third Philippic, 65
  71. ^ Demosthenes, On the Crown, 149
  72. ^ Demosthenes, On the Crown, 150
  73. ^ a b Demosthenes, On the Crown, 151
  74. ^ a b c d e C. Carey, Aeschines, 12–14
  75. ^ a b Demosthenes, On the Crown, 152
  76. ^ Demosthenes, On the Crown, 153
  77. ^ P.J. Rhodes, A History of the Classical World, 317
  78. ^ Plutarch, Demosthenes, 18
  79. ^ Diodorus, Library, XVI 87
  80. ^ Demosthenes, On the Crown, 299
  81. ^ Demosthenes, On the Crown, 285
  82. ^ L.A. Tritle, The Greek World in the Fourth Century, 123
  83. ^ P. Green, Alexander of Macedon, 119
  84. ^ Plutarch, Phocion, 17
  85. ^ K. Tsatsos, Demosthenes, 301 and The Helios
  86. ^ Demosthenes, On the Crown, 321
  87. ^ A. Duncan, Performance and Identity in the Classical World, 70
  88. ^ a b Plutarch, Demosthenes, 25
  89. ^ a b c d Hypereides, Against Demosthenes, 1
  90. ^ Plutarch, Demosthenes, 26
  91. ^ Plutarch, Demosthenes, 27
  92. ^ a b Plutarch, Demosthenes, 29
  93. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, Demosthenes, 847d
  94. ^ a b Plutarch, Demosthenes, 13
  95. ^ Polybius, Histories, 13
  96. ^ a b K. Tsatsos, Demosthenes, 318–326
  97. ^ A.W. Pickard, Demosthenes and the Last Days of Greek Freedom , 490
  98. ^ a b c d J. De Romilly, A Short History of Greek Literature, 120-122
  99. ^ a b T.B. Macaulay, On Mitford's History of Greece, 136
  100. ^ Plutarch, Demosthenes, 30
  101. ^ Dionysius, On the Admirable Style of Demosthenes, 46
  102. ^ a b K. Tsatsos, Demosthenes, 86
  103. ^ W. Jaeger, Demosthenes, 123–124
  104. ^ Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 166
  105. ^ Dionysius, On the Admirable Style of Demosthenes, 56
  106. ^ Quintillian, Institutiones, VI, 3, 2
  107. ^ J. Bollansie, Hermippos of Smyrna, 415
  108. ^ Plutarch, Demosthenes, 8
  109. ^ Cicero, Brutus, 38, 142
  110. ^ Plutarch, Demosthenes, 9–11
  111. ^ Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 139
  112. ^ Juvenal, Satura, X, 119
  113. ^ Plutarch, Demosthenes, 3
  114. ^ G. Gibson, Interpreting a Classic, 1
  115. ^ W. A. Rebhorn, Renaissance Debates on Rhetoric, 139, 167, 258
  116. ^ K. Tsatsos, Demosthenes, 352
  117. ^ V. Marcu, Men and Forces of Our Time, 32
  118. ^ P. J. M. Van Tongeren, Reinterpreting Modern Culture, 92
  119. ^ F. Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil, 247
  120. ^ G. Slusser, Ender's Game, 82
  121. ^ a b H. Weil, Biography of Demosthenes, 66–67
  122. ^ H. Yunis, "Demosthenes: On the Crown," 28
  123. ^ F. Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, III, 2, 60
  124. ^ C.A. Gibson, Interpreting a Classic, 1
  125. ^ K.A. Kapparis, Apollodoros against Neaira, 62
  126. ^ I. Worthington, Oral Performance, 135
  127. ^ F. Blass, Die Attische Beredsamkeit, III, 1, 281–287
  128. ^ a b E. Cohen, The Athenian Nation, 76
  129. ^ E.M. Burke, The Looting of the Estates of the Elder Demosthenes, 63
  130. ^ D. Braund, The Bosporan Kings and Classical Athens, 200
  131. ^ F. Nietzsche, Lessons of Rhetoric, 65
  132. ^ Suda, article Demosthenes
  133. ^ Cicero, Brutus, 6
  134. ^ Quintilian, Institutiones, XII, 2 XXII
  135. ^ K. Tsatsos, Demosthenes, 84
  136. ^ K. Tsatsos, Demosthenes, 90
  137. ^ H. Weil, Biography of Demothenes, 17
  138. ^ a b c Plutarch, Demosthenes, 4
  139. ^ D. Hawhee, Bodily Arts, 156
  140. ^ M.L. Rose, The Staff of Oedipus,,] 57
  141. ^ Demosthenes, Third Olynthiac, 16 and 24
  142. ^ Demosthenes, Third Philippic, 31
  143. ^ K. Tsatsos, Demosthenes, 258
  144. ^ Plutarch, Demosthenes, 20
  145. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, Demosthenes, 845f
  146. ^ a b Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 239-240
  147. ^ Dinarcus, Against Demosthenes, 18–21
  148. ^ a b Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2, 33
  149. ^ F. Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, III, 1, 404–406 and 542–546
  150. ^ F.J. Long, Ancient Rhetoric and Paul's Apology, 102
  151. ^ M. Trap, Greek and Latin Letters, 12
  152. ^ J.A. Goldstein, The Letters of Demosthenes, 93

References

Primary sources (Greeks and Romans)

  • Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Aeschines, Against Timarchus. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Aeschines, The Speech on the Embassy. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Cicero, Brutus. See original text in the Latin Library
  • Demosthenes, Against Aphobus 1. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Demosthenes, Against Aphobus 3. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Demosthenes, Against Aristocrates. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Demosthenes, Against Meidias. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Demosthenes, For the Freedom of the Rhodians
  • Demosthenes, First Philippic
  • Demosthenes, First Olynthiac
  • Demosthenes, Second Olynthiac
  • Demosthenes, Third Olynthiac
  • Demosthenes, Second Philippic
  • Demosthenes, On the Peace
  • Demosthenes, On the False Embassy
  • Demosthenes (or Hegesippus), On Halonnesus. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Demosthenes, Third Philippic
  • Demosthenes, Against Zenothemis. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Demosthenes, On the Crown
  • Dinarchus, Against Demosthenes. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Diodurus Siculus, Library. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Dionysius of Halicarnassus, On the Admirable Style of Demosthenes.
  • Hypereides,Against Demosthenes. See original text in Perseus program
  • Juvenal, Saturae. See original text in the Latin Library.
  • Translated in English by M. Madan
  • Longinus, On the Sublime. Translated by W. Rhys Roberts
  • Lucian, Demosthenes, An Encomium. Translated in Sacred Texts
  • Lucian, The Illiterate Book-Fancier. Translated Sacred Texts
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece. See original text in Perseus program
  • Plutarch, Demosthenes.
  • The texts quoted from Plutarch's Demosthenes are taken from John Dryden's translation
  • Plutarch, Phocion.
  • Polybius, Histories. See original text in Perseus program
  • Pseudo-Plutarch, Aeschines. See Charles Barcroft's translation
  • Pseudo-Plutarch, Demosthenes. See Charles Barcroft's translation
  • Quintilian, Institutiones. See original text in the Latin Library

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 9, 1631 – May 12, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known as the Age of Dryden. ...

Secondary sources

  • Blass, Friedrich (1887-1898). Die Attische Beredsamkeit (in German). Third Volume. B. G. Teubner.
  • Bolansie, J. (1999). Herrmippos of Smyrna. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-11303-7.
  • Burke, E.M. (1998). “The Looting of the Estate of the Elder Pericles”, Classica Et Mediaevalia V. 49 edited by Ole Thomsen. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 87-7289-535-7.
  • Bolansie, J. (1999). Herrmippos of Smyrna. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-11303-7.
  • Brown, David (2004). The Bosporan Kings and Classical Athens: Imagined Breaches in a Cordial Relationship
  • Carey, Chris (2000). Aeschines. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71223-5.
  • Cohen, Edward (2002). “The Local Residents of Attica”, The Athenian Nation. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09490-X.
  • Dunkan, Anne (2006). Performance and Identity in the Classical World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85282-X.
  • "Demosthenes". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002).
  • "Demosthenes". Encyclopaedic Dictionary The Helios Volume V (in Greek). (1952)
  • Gibson, Graig A. (2002). Interpreting a Classic. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22956-8.
  • Goldstein, Jonathan A. (1968). The Letters of Demosthenes. Columbia University Press.
  • Green, Peter (1992). Alexander of Macedon, 356-323 B.C.. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07166-2.
  • Habinek, Thomas N. (2004). Ancient Rhetoric and Oratory. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-23515-9.
  • Hawhee, Debra (2005). Bodily Arts: Rhetoric and Athletics in Ancient Greece. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70584-0.
  • Jaeger, Werner (1938). Demosthenes. Walter de Gruyter Company. ISBN 3-11-002527-2.
  • Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse (1876). The Attic Orators from Antiphon to Isaeos. Macmillan and Co..
  • Kapparis, Konstantinos A. (1999). Apollodoros Against Neaira. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016390-X.
  • Long, Fredrick J. (2004). Ancient Rhetoric and Paul's Apology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84233-6.
  • Macaulay, Thomas Babington (2004). “On Mitford's History of Greece”, The Miscellaneous Writings and Speeches of Lord Macaulay Volume I. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4191-7417-7.
  • Marcu, Valeru (2005). Men and Forces of Our Time. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-9529-7.
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich (1909-1913). Beyond Good and Evil. The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche.
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich (1975). Lessons of Rhetoric. Plethron (from the Greek translation).
  • Paparregopoulus, Constantine (-Karolidis, Pavlos) (1925), History of the Hellenic Nation (Volume Ab). Eleftheroudakis (in Greek).
  • Peck, Harry Thurston (1898). Harper's Dictionary Of Classical Literature And Antiquities.
  • Phillips, David (2004). “Philip and Athens”, Athenian Political Oratory: 16 Key Speeches. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-96609-4.
  • Pickard, A. W. (2003). Demosthenes and the Last Days of Greek Freedom 384 - 322 B.C. Gorgias Press LLC. ISBN 1-59333-030-8.
  • Phillips, David (2004). Athenian Political Oratory. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-96609-4.
  • Romilly de, Jacqueline (1996). A Short History of Greek Literature. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-8014-8206-2.
  • Romilly de, Jacqueline (2001). Ancient Greece against Violence (translated in Greek). To Asty. ISBN 960-86331-5-X.
  • Rebhorn, Wayne A. (1999). Renaissance Debates on Rhetoric. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-226-14312-0.
  • Rhodes, P.J. (2005). “Philip II of Macedon”, A History of the Classical Greek World. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22564-1.
  • Rose, M.L. (2003). The Staff of Oedipus. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11339-9.
  • Schaefer, Arnold (1885). Demosthenes und seine Zeit (in German). Third Volume. B. G. Teubner.
  • Slusser, G. (1999). “Ender's Game”, Nursery Realms edited by G. Westfahl. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-2144-3.
  • Thomsen, Ole (1998). "The Looting of the Estate of the Elder Demosthenes". "Classica Et Mediaevalia - Revue Danoise De Philologie Et D'Histoire" 49: 45-66. ISBN 87-7289-535-7. Retrieved on 2006-10-08.
  • Trapp, Michael (2003). Greek and Latin Letters. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-49943-7.
  • Tritle, Lawrence A. (1997). The Greek World in the Fourth Century. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-10583-8.
  • Tsatsos, Konstantinos (1975). Demosthenes. Estia (in Greek).
  • Usher, Stephen (1999). “Demosthenes Symboulos”, Greek Oratory: Tradition and Originality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815074-1.
  • Van Tongeren, Paul J. M. (1999). Reinterpreting Modern Culture: An Introduction to Friedrich Nietzsche's Philosophy. Purdue University Press. ISBN 1-55753-156-0.
  • Weil, Henri (1975). Biography of Demosthenes in "Demosthenes' Orations". Papyros (from the Greek translation).
  • Worthington, Ian (2001). Demosthenes. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-20457-7.
  • Worthington, Ian (2004). “Oral Performance in the Athenian Assembly and the Demosthenic Prooemia”, Oral Performance and its Context edited by C.J. MacKie. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-13680-0.
  • Yunis, Harvey (2001). “Introduction”, Demosthenes: On the Crown. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62930-6.
  • Yunis, Harvey (2005). “The Rhetoric of Law in Fourth-Century Athens”, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law edited by Michael Gagarin, David Cohen. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81840-0.

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Further reading

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Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Demosthenes
  • Brodribb, William Jackson (1877). Demosthenes. J.B. Lippincott & co..
  • Butcher, Samuel Henry (1888). Demosthenes. Macmillan & co..
  • Clemenceau, Georges (1926). Demosthène. Plon.
  • Easterling P. E., Knox Bernard M. W. (1985). The Cambridge History of Classical Literature. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21042-9.
  • Jennings, Bryan William (1906). The world's famous orations (Volume 1). New York: Funk and Wagnalls Company.

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External links

Biographies

  • Ancient Library
  • Art of Speech
  • Britannica, 11th Edition
  • Britannica online
  • Center for Hellenic Studies
  • Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition (2001-05)
  • Kurtus, Ron
  • Lendering, Jona
  • Perseus Encyclopedia

His era

  • Beck, Sanderson: Philip, Demosthenes, and Alexander
  • Blackwell, Christopher W.: The Assembly during Demosthenes' era
  • Britannica online: Macedonian supremacy in Greece
  • Smith, William: A Smaller History of Ancient Greece-Philip of Macedon

Miscellaneous

  • Libanius, Hypotheses to the Orations of Demosthenes
  • Works by Demosthenes at Project Gutenberg
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans
Alcibiades and Coriolanus - Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar - Aratus & Artaxerxes and Galba & Otho - Aristides and Cato the Elder
Crassus and Nicias - Demetrius and Antony - Demosthenes and Cicero - Dion and Brutus - Fabius and Pericles - Lucullus and Cimon
Lysander and Sulla - Numa and Lycurgus - Pelopidas and Marcellus - Philopoemen and Flamininus - Phocion and Cato the Younger - Pompey and Agesilaus
Poplicola and Solon - Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius - Romulus and Theseus - Sertorius and Eumenes
Tiberius Gracchus & Gaius Gracchus and Agis & Cleomenes - Timoleon and Aemilius Paullus - Themistocles and Camillus



Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... Alcibiades Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (also Alkibiades) (Greek: Αλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαμβωνίδης)¹ (c. ... Gaius Marcius Coriolanus is widely believed to be a legendary figure who is said to have lived during the 5th century BC. He was given the agnomen Coriolanus as a result of his action in capturing the Volscian town of Corioli in 493 BC. Venturia at the Feet of Coriolanus... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Gāius JÅ«lius Caesar (IPA: ;[1]), July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Aratus (Greek Aratos) (ca. ... A sculpture dating back to the time of Achaemenid Empire Artaxerxes I (Artakhshathra I) was king of the Persian Empire from 465 BC to 424 The name as given is the Greek form; the Persian form is Artakhshathra. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... Aristides (530 BC–468 BC) was an Athenian statesman, nicknamed the Just. He was the son of Lysimachus, and a member of a family of moderate fortune. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Nicias (d. ... Demetrius I (337-283 BC), surnamed Poliorcetes (Besieger), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294 - 288 BC). ... For his relatives, see Marcus Antonius (disambiguation). ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ; Classical pronunciation:  ; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, lawyer and philosopher of Ancient Rome. ... Dio Chrysostom, Dion of Prusa or Dio Cocceianus ( 40 AD– 120 AD) was a Greek orator, writer, philosopher and historian of the Roman Empire in the first century. ... Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC, one of Julius Caesars assassins. ... Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (c. ... Pericles or Perikles (c. ... Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c. ... This article or section should include material fromKimon Cimon (died 450 BC?) was a major figure of the 470s BC and 460s BC in Athens, and the son of Miltiades. ... Lysander (d. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] ( 138 BC–78 BC) Roman general and dictator, was usually known simply as Sulla. ... rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ... Lycurgus Lycurgus (Greek: , Lukoûrgos; 700 BCE?–630 BCE) was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... Pelopidas (d. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. ... Philopoemen (253-184 B.C.), Greek general, was born at Megalopolis, and educated by the academic philosophers Ecdemus and Demophanes or Megalophanes, who had distinguished themselves as champions of freedom. ... Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. ... Phocion (c402 - c318 BC), Athenian statesman and general, was born the son of a small manufacturer. ... Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder, was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC – September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... Agesilaus II, or Agesilaos II (Greek Ἀγησιλάος), king of Sparta, of the Eurypontid family, was the son of Archidamus II and Eupolia, and younger step-brother of Agis II, whom he succeeded about 401 BC. Agis had, indeed, a son Leotychides, but he was set aside as illegitimate, current rumour representing... This article needs to be wikified. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... Gaius Marius Gaius Marius (Latin: C·MARIVS·C·F·C·N)[1] (157 BC — January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. ... The ancient bronze Capitoline Wolf suckles the infant twins Romulus and Remus; the twins were added in the late 15th century, perhaps by Antonio del Pollaiuolo. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night. ... Quintus Sertorius (died 72 BC), Roman statesman and general. ... Eumenes of Cardia (c. ... Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (163 BC-132 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. As a plebeian tribune, he caused political turmoil in the Republic by his attempts to legislate agrarian reforms. ... Gaius Gracchus (Latin: C·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (154 BC-121 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. He was the younger brother of Tiberius Gracchus and, like him, pursued a popular political agenda that ultimately ended in his death. ... Son of Eudamidas II., of the Eurypontid family, commonly called Agis IV. He succeeded his father probably in 245 BC, in his twentieth year. ... Cleomenes III was the son of Leonidas II. He became King of Sparta in 235 BC. He continued the reforms of Agis IV. Less squeamish than his predecessor, in 227 BC the opposition in Sparta were removed in a coup - four of the five ephors were killed and eighty opponents... Timoleon (c. ... Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus (229 BC-160 BC) was a Roman general and politician. ... Themistocles (ca. ... Marcus Furius Camillus (circa 446- 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. ...

Attic Orators
Antiphon | Andocides | Lysias | Isocrates| Isaeus | Aeschines | Lycurgus | Demosthenes | Hypereides | Dinarchus


The ten Attic orators were considered the greatest orators and logographers of the classical era (5th century BC–4th century BC). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Andocides, or Andokidès , (440–390 BC) one of the ten Attic orators. ... Lysias (d. ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... Isaeus (fl. ... Aeschines (389 - 314 BC), Greek statesman and one of the ten Attic orators, was born at Athens. ... Lycurgus (in Greek Λυκουργος; 396–323 BC), an Attic orator, was born at Athens about 396 BC, and was the son of Lycophron, who belonged to the noble family of the Eteobutadae. ... Hypereides (c. ... Dinarchus, (c. ...

Athenian statesmen | Ancient Greece
Aeschines - Agyrrhius - Alcibiades - Andocides - Archinus - Aristides - Aristogeiton - Aristophon - Autocles
Callistratus - Chremonides - Cleisthenes - Cleon - Critias - Demades - Demetrius Phalereus - Demochares - Democles - Demosthenes
Ephialtes - Eubulus - Hyperbolus - Hypereides - Cimon - Cleophon - Laches- Lycurgus - Lysicles
Miltiades - Moerocles - Nicias - Peisistratus - Pericles - Philinus - Phocion - Themistocles
Theramenes - Thrasybulus - Thucydides - Xanthippus

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3519x2345, 1339 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Parthenon ... Evzones Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Greece. ... The Ancient Greek world, circa 550 BC Ancient Greece is the period in Greek history which lasted for around one thousand years and ended with the rise of Christianity. ... I took this myself File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Aeschines (389 - 314 BC), Greek statesman and one of the ten Attic orators, was born at Athens. ... Agyrrhius (403-389 BC) was an Athenian democratic politician who introduced and later increased payment for attendance of the Assembly. ... Alcibiades Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (also Alkibiades) (Greek: Αλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαμβωνίδης)¹ (c. ... Andocides, or Andokidès , (440–390 BC) one of the ten Attic orators. ... Archinus was an Athenian democratic politician who wielded substantial influence between the restoration of democracy in 403 BCE and the beginning of the Corinthian War in 395 BCE. In the early days of the restored democracy, he acted to weaken the oligarchic exiles at Eleusis by ending the ending the... Aristides (530 BC–468 BC) was an Athenian statesman, nicknamed the Just. He was the son of Lysimachus, and a member of a family of moderate fortune. ... Aristogeiton (in Greek Aριστογειτων; lived 4th century BC) was an Athenian orator and adversary of Demosthenes and Dinarchus. ... Aristophon (in Greek Aριστοφών; lived 4th century BC) was native of the deme of Azenia in Attica. ... Autocles (in Greek Aυτοκλης; lived 4th century BC), son of Strombichides, was one of the Athenian envoys empowered to negotiate peace with Sparta in 371 BC.1 Xenophon reports a somewhat injudicious speech of his, which was delivered on this occasion before the congress at Sparta, and which by no... Callistratus of Aphidnae (Greek: Καλλιστράτος Kallistratos; died 355 BC) was an Athenian orator and general in the 4th century BCE. For many years, as prostates, he supported Spartan interests at Athens, recognizing that Thebes posed a greater threat to Athens. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Cleisthenes (also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was a noble Athenian of the accursed Alcmeonidate family. ... Cleon (d. ... Critias, 460-403 BC, was the uncle of Plato, leading member of the Thirty Tyrants, and one of the most violent. ... Demades (c. ... Demetrius Phalereus ( - died approximately 280 BC) was an Athenian orator and one of the first Peripatetics. ... Demochares (c. ... Democles (in Greek Δημοκλής; lived 4th century BC) was an Athenian orator, and a contemporary of Demochares, among whose opponents he is mentioned. ... See the Aloadae article for information about the giant Ephialtes of Greek mythology For Ephialtes, the prominent Athenian politician see Ephialtes of Athens Ephialtes (Greek: ) was the son of Eurydemus of Malis. ... Eubulus, or Euboulos (c. ... Hyperbolus (in Greek ΥπέρβολoÏ‚, Hybérbolos) was an Athenian politician active during the first half of the Peloponnesian war, coming to particular prominence after the death of Cleon. ... Hypereides (c. ... This article or section should include material fromKimon Cimon (died 450 BC?) was a major figure of the 470s BC and 460s BC in Athens, and the son of Miltiades. ... Cleophon (Greek: , Kleophōn; ?-404 BCE) was an Athenian politician and demagogue who was of great influence during the Peloponnesian War. ... Laches (Gr. ... Lycurgus (in Greek Λυκουργος; 396–323 BC), an Attic orator, was born at Athens about 396 BC, and was the son of Lycophron, who belonged to the noble family of the Eteobutadae. ... Lysicles or Lysikles (? - 428 BC-427 BC, Greek: ) was an Athenian general and leader of the democratic faction in the city. ... Miltiades the Younger Miltiades the Younger (c. ... Moerocles (in Greek Mοιροκλής; lived 4th century BC) was an Athenian orator, native of Salamis. ... Nicias (d. ... In Greek mythology, Pisistratus (also transliterated as Peisístratos) was a friend of Telemachus and a son of Nestor. ... Pericles or Perikles (c. ... Philinus (in Greek Φιλινος; lived 4th century BC) was an Athenian orator, a contemporary of Demosthenes and Lycurgus. ... Phocion (c402 - c318 BC), Athenian statesman and general, was born the son of a small manufacturer. ... Themistocles (ca. ... Theramenes (d. ... Thrasybulus (Ancient Greek: , brave-willed, Eng. ... Thucydides (Greek: Θουκυδίδης) was a prominent politician of ancient Athens and the leader for a number of years of the powerful conservative faction. ... Xanthippus was a Greek (possibly Spartan) mercenary general hired by the Carthaginians to aid in their war against the Romans during the First Punic War. ... Evzones Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Greece. ... Poros (Greek: Πόρος) is a small Greek island-pair in the southern part of the Saronic Gulf, at a distance about 48 km (32 miles) south from Piraeus and separated from the Peloponnese by a 200-metre wide sea channel. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Demosthenes - Greek Orator Demosthenes (444 words)
Demosthenes, renowned as a great Greek orator and statesman, was born in 384 (or 383) B.C. He died in 322.
Demosthenes' father, also Demosthenes, was an Athenian citizen from the deme of Paeania who died when Demosthenes was 7.
Demosthenes was a professional speech writer or logographer.
Demosthenes (3422 words)
Demosthenes and most of his contemporaries did not see it that way; to them the leadership of Macedon was seen as the 'death of Greek political liberty' Some people dismiss Demosthenes' outbursts as a political rhetoric, others hold his political abuse of Philip from Macedon as historical facts, undeniably blunt and truthful.
Demosthenes unlike Isocrates does not mask his national ideals with "Panhellenistic union" against the Persians, but boldly and aggressively calls his Hellenic nation to an uprising against the barbarian from the north -the Kingdom of Macedon and its king Philip.
Demosthenes died from a dose of poison on the island of Calauria, in the altar of Poseidon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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