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Encyclopedia > Demography of the People's Republic of China
Demographics of China, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.
Economic reforms have triggered internal migrations within China. Click on the image for more information.

The demographics of the People's Republic of China are characterized by a large population with a relatively small youth cohort which is a result of the People's Republic of China's one-child policy. The population policies implemented in mainland China since 1979 have helped to prevent an extra 400 million births which would have placed the current population near 1.7 billion. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... Download high resolution version (860x630, 149 KB)This map was based on results from retrospective questions in the 1990 census. ... Download high resolution version (860x630, 149 KB)This map was based on results from retrospective questions in the 1990 census. ... Economic reforms have triggered internal migrations within China. ... For other meanings see cohort In statistics and demography, a cohort is a group of subjects — most often humans from a given population — defined by a condition on their date of birth. ... Poster of Chinese birth control policy under the slogan Sweet Achievement. ... ...

Contents

Base statistics

No statistics are included for areas currently ruled by the Republic of China. Unless stated otherwise, statistics only refer to mainland China. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 507 pixelsFull resolution (1135 × 720 pixel, file size: 149 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Demographics of the Peoples Republic... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 507 pixelsFull resolution (1135 × 720 pixel, file size: 149 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Demographics of the Peoples Republic... The Republic of China is commonly known as Taiwan or Chinese Taipei, and it is not to be confused with the Peoples Republic of China. ... ...

See also: Demographics of Hong Kong and Demographics of Macau
Population

In the mainland: 1,321,851,888 (July 2006 est.)[citation needed]
In Hong Kong: 6,994,500 (2006 census)
In Macau: 503,000
Total: 1,329,349,388 The population of Hong Kong increased steadily over the last few years of the 1990s, reaching about 7. ... Macaus population is 95% Chinese, primarily Cantonese and some Hakka, both from nearby Guangdong Province. ... ...


1950: 562,000,000
1960: 648,000,000
1970: 820,000,000
1980: 984,000,000
1990: 1,147,000,000
2000: 1,264,587,054

Projections

2010: 1,347,000,000
2020: 1,430,000,000
2030: 1,461,000,000
2040: 1,463,144,780


2050: 1,465,224,000

Age structure

0-14 years: 20.8% (male 145,461,833; female 128,445,739)
15-64 years: 71.4% (male 482,439,115; female 455,960,489)
65 years and over: 7.7% (male 48,562,635; female 53,103,902) (2006 est.)

Median age

total: 32.7 years
male: 32.3 years
female: 33.2 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate

0.59% (2006 est.)


Birth rate: 13.25 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate

6.97 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 23.12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 25.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.58 years
male: 70.89 years
female: 74.46 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.73 children born/woman (2006 est.)

Literacy, according to the official numbers, age 15 and over

total population: 90.9%
male: 95.1%
female: 86.5% (2002)

Nationality

noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese


Population

Main article: One-child policy

With a population of over 1.3 billion and an estimated growth rate of 0.57%, the PRC is very concerned about its population growth and has attempted with mixed results to implement a strict family planning policy within mainland China. The government's goal is one child per family, with exceptions in rural areas and for ethnic minorities. Official stated government policy opposes forced abortion or sterilization, but allegations of coercion continue as local officials strive to meet population targets. The government's goal is to stabilize the population and population growth early in the 21st century, although some current projections estimate a population of anywhere ranging from 1.4 billion to 1.6 billion by 2025. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This distribution is named for the pyramidal shape of its graph. ... Poster of Chinese birth control policy under the slogan Sweet Achievement. ... ... Poster of Chinese birth control policy under the slogan Sweet Achievement. ...


In Hong Kong, the birth rate of 0.9% is lower than its death rate. Hong Kong's population increases because of immigration from the mainland and a large expatriate population comprising about 4%. Like Hong Kong, Macao also has a low birth rate relying on immigration to maintain its population. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


While it is the most populated country in the world, its population density (137/km²) is not so high, similar to those of Switzerland and the Czech Republic. The vast majority of China's population lives in the fertile plains of the east, whereas the western half of the country is very large and relatively unpopulated. Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ...


Future challenges for China will be the gender disparity partially caused by the preference for boys under the 'one-child' system, and the aging of the population, with an increasing 'western-style' problem of young-old disparity. The latter is likely to be tied to the former, as the lack of sufficient female partners for males coming of age is expected to reduce total births.


Ethnic groups

The People's Republic of China (PRC) officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups in mainland China, the largest of which are Han, who constitute about 91.9% of the total population. Large ethnic minorities include the Zhuang (16 million), Manchu (10 million), Hui (9 million), Miao (8 million), Uyghur (7 million), Yi (7 million), Tujia (5.75 million), Mongols (5 million), Tibetan (5 million), Buyi (3 million), and Korean (2 million). The Peoples Republic of China officially describes itself as a multinational unitary state and as such officially recognizes 56 nationalities or Mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... Languages Chinese languages, Indian languages, Hebrew Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The Zhuang (Simplified Chinese: 壮族; Traditional Chinese: 壯族; Hanyu Pinyin: ; own name: BouчcueÅ‹ÑŒ/Bouxcuengh) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeast China). ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... Languages Hmong/Mong Religions Shamanism, Buddhism, Christianity, others The terms Hmong (IPA:) and Mong () both refer to an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China. ... The Uyghur (also spelled Uighur; Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group of Central Asia. ... The Yi people (own name in the Liangshan dialect: ꆈꌠ, official transcription: Nuosu, IPA: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the older name Lolo is now considered derogatory in China, though used officially in Vietnam as Lô Lô and in Thailand as Lolo) are a modern ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand. ... The Tujia (土家族) are an ethnic group numbering about 8 million, living in the Wuling Mountains of Chinas Hunan and Hubei provinces. ... Ethnic Mongolians in China (Chinese: 蒙古族) are citizens of the Peoples Republic of China who are ethnically Mogolian. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... The Buyi or Bouyei people (Self called: Puyi, Puzhong, Burao, Puman; Chinese: 布依族; pinyin: bùyī zú) are an ethnic group living in southern Peoples Republic of China. ...


Ethnic minorities in mainland China currently experience higher growth rates than the Han population. Their proportion of the mainland Chinese population has grown from 6.1% in 1953, to 8.04% in 1990, 8.41% in 2000 and 9.44% in 2005. Recent surveys indicate that the population growth rate for ethnic minorities is about 7 times greater than that for the Han population.[1][2][3][4] Languages Chinese languages, Indian languages, Hebrew Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...


Neither Hong Kong nor Macau recognizes the official ethnic classifications maintained by the central government. In Macau the largest substantial ethnic groups of non-Chinese descent are the Macanese, of mixed Chinese and Portuguese descent, as well as migrants from the Philippines and Thailand. Filipinas working as domestic workers comprise the largest non-Chinese ethnic group in Hong Kong. Broadly, Macanese (Traditional Chinese: ; literally people of Macau) refers to the people of Macau. ...


Religion

The majority of Chinese are non-religious. According to the World Desk Reference by D K Publishing, the non-religious in China constitute about 59% of the population, or about 767 million people. However, religion plays a significant part in the life of some Chinese, especially the traditional beliefs of Confucianism and Taoism. About 33% of the population follow a mixture of beliefs usually referred to by statisticians as "Traditional Beliefs" or just "Other". Chinese monk lighting incense in Beijing temple. ... Religion in Hong Kong is part and parcel of the culture of Hong Kong. ... 結合東西宗教特色的中葡友好紀念物——觀音蓮花苑 Religion in Macau means the religion which can be find in Macau Special Administrative Region. ... The image above is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Taoism is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese religious and philosophical traditions and concepts. ...


About 40.6%[citation needed] of mainland Chinese people are avowed Buddhists. Mahayana Buddhism is most widely practiced. With an estimated 610 million adherents, it is the largest religious group in the country. Theravada Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism are practiced largely by ethnic minorities along the geographic fringes of the Chinese mainland. Official figures indicate there are 18 million (mostly Sunni) Muslims, 4 million Roman Catholics, and 10 million Protestants; estimates by outside followers of these beliefs for all three demographic groups are much higher. Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Tibetan Buddhism (Simplified Chinese: 藏传佛教) is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Peoples Republic of China officially describes itself as a multinational unitary state and as such officially recognizes 56 nationalities or Mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


The PRC Constitution affirms religious toleration subject to several important restrictions. The government places limits on religious practice outside officially recognized organizations. Only two Christian organizations, a Catholic church without ties to the Holy See in Rome and the "Three-Self-Patriotic" Protestant church, are sanctioned by the PRC Government. Unauthorized churches have sprung up in many parts of the country, and unofficial religious practice is flourishing. In some regions authorities have tried to control activities of these unregistered churches. In other regions registered and unregistered groups are treated similarly by authorities, and congregates worship in both types of churches. The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó XiànfÇŽ) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Three-Self Patriotic Movement (officially 中国基督教三自爱国运动委员会, China Christian Three-Self Patriotic Movement Committee; colloquially 三自教会, the Three-Self Church) and the China Christian Council (中国基督教协会) are two pro-government (patriotic) Christian organizations in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In 1999, the PRC government banned the Falun Gong spiritual movement and has since implemented a crackdown on the movement. Falun Gong claims that hundreds of thousands of its practitioners are in re-education through labor camps; thousands are in prisons or psychiatric facilities. More than 2800 practitioners have reportedly died in prison as a result of mistreatment and torture as of February 2006. Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; lit. ...


The Basic Law of Hong Kong protects freedom of religion as a fundamental right. There are a large variety of religious groups in the Hong Kong: Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Christianity including Catholicism, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and Judaism all have a considerable number of adherents. The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China serves as the constitutional document of Hong Kong. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion and a philosophy. ... Taoism is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese religious and philosophical traditions and concepts. ... The image above is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Macau Basic Law similarly recognizes freedom of religion though the Religious Freedom Ordinance requires registration of religious organizations. The major religions practiced in Macau are Buddhism and traditional beliefs with a smaller minority claiming no religious belief. A small minority of Christians, mostly Catholic, exists. This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ...


Language

The official spoken standard the People Republic of China is Putonghua. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin. Map of Linguistic Groups (showing arees under effective control of the Peoples Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macau) and Republic of China combined) Chinas many different ethnic groups speak many different languages, collectively called Zhōngguó YÇ”wén (中国语文), literally Speech and writing of China which... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Standard Mandarin refers to the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China on Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Mandarin (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally speech of officials), or Beifanghua (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Northern Dialect(s)), is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ...


Other languages and dialects include other Mandarin dialects, and Wu (Shanghainese), Yue (Cantonese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese, Teochiu), Xiang, Gan and Hakka, as well as languages of the minorities. Mandarin (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally speech of officials), or Beifanghua (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Northern Dialect(s)), is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ... Wu (吳方言 pinyin wú fāng yán; 吳語 pinyin wú yǔ) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... Min Bei is a subcategory of Min, which is a Chinese language. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Hokkien is a Min nan word corresponding to Standard Mandarin Fujian. It can refer to: Min Nan, a Chinese language/dialect, also called Minnan, Min Nan or Minnanyu (meaning Southern Fujian). ... Taiwanese (pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-oÄ“ or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: TáiyÇ”, Táiwānhuà) is a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... The Chaozhou language , also called Teochew, Teochiu, Tiuchiu, or Diojiu, is a dialect of the Chinese spoken variant of Minnan 閩南, spoken in the Chaoshan 潮汕 region of eastern Guangdong 廣東. // Chaozhou is a member of the Southern Min or Minnan dialect group, which in turn constitutes one of the seven major dialect... Xiang (湘語/湘语), also Hunan, Hunanese, or Hsiang, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ... Gan (赣) is one of the major divisions of spoken Chinese, concentrated in and typical of Jiangxi Province. ... Hakka is one language in the family of languages known as Chinese. ...


The seven major mutually unintelligible Chinese dialects which are considered by some to be different languages of the Chinese language family, and by some others to be dialects of the Chinese language. Each of these dialects has many sub-dialects. Over 70% of the Han ethnic group are native speakers of the Mandarin group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China. The rest, concentrated in south and southeast China, speak one of the six other major Chinese dialects. In addition to the local dialect, nearly all also speak Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua) which pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, which inself is one of the Mandarin group of dialects, and is the language of instruction in all schools and is used for formal and official purposes. Non-Chinese languages spoken widely by ethnic minorities include Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and other Turkic languages (in Xinjiang), Korean (in the northeast), and Vietnamese (in the southeast). Mandarin (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally speech of officials), or Beifanghua (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Northern Dialect(s)), is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ... Standard Mandarin refers to the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China on Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore. ... Mandarin (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally speech of officials), or Beifanghua (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Northern Dialect(s)), is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ...


In addition to Chinese, in the special administrative regions, English is an official language of Hong Kong and Portuguese is an official language of Macao. Patuá is a Portuguese creole spoken by a small number of Macanese. English, though not official, is widely used in Macau. In both of the special administrative regions, the dominant spoken form of Chinese is Cantonese. Patuá or Macanese (Macaista Chapado) is a Creole language based on the Portuguese language spoken in Macau. ... Broadly, Macanese (Traditional Chinese: ; literally people of Macau) refers to the people of Macau. ... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...


For written Chinese, the PRC officially uses simplified Chinese characters in mainland China, while traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and Macau. Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ...


The Pinyin system of romanization

On January 1, 1979, the PRC Government officially adopted the hanyu pinyin system for spelling Chinese names and places in mainland china in Roman letters. A system of romanization invented by the Chinese, pinyin has long been widely used in mainland China on street and commercial signs as well as in elementary Chinese textbooks as an aid in learning Chinese characters. Variations of pinyin also are used as the written forms of several minority languages. Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. ...


Pinyin replaced other conventional spellings in mainland China's English-language publications. The U.S. Government and United Nations also adopted the pinyin system for all names of people and places in mainland China. For example, the capital of the PRC is spelled "Beijing" rather than "Peking." ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.stats.gov.cn/was40/gjtjj_en_detail.jsp?searchword=population&channelid=9528&record=6 Communiqué on Major Data of 1% National Population Sample Survey in 2005
  2. ^ http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjfx/ztfx/xzgwsnxlfxbg/t20020605_21432.htm
  3. ^ http://www.gov.cn/test/2005-07/26/content_17366.htm
  4. ^ http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/cept/chn/xwdt/t240927.htm
  • CIA World Factbook. Accessed 19 April 2006.
  • China‘s Population by Age and Sex, 1950-2050. Moving Age Pyramid.
  • Alternative studies of literacy rate in China, claiming the official numbers are inflated and inaccurate

 
 

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