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Encyclopedia > Demographics of Afghanistan
Ethnic groups of Afghanistan (1980 map) ██ 42% Pashtun ██ 27% Tajik ██ 9% Hazara ██ 9% Uzbek       4% Aimak ██ 3% Turkmen ██ 2% Baloch       5% other (Pashai, Nuristani, Brahui, etc.)
Ethnic groups of Afghanistan (1980 map) ██ 42% Pashtun ██ 27% Tajik ██ 9% Hazara ██ 9% Uzbek       4% Aimak ██ 3% Turkmen ██ 2% Baloch       5% other (Pashai, Nuristani, Brahui, etc.)
Languages of Afghanistan (1980 map) ██ 50% Dari dialect of Persian ██ 35% Pashto ██ 8% Uzbek ██ 3% Turkmen ██ 2% Baloch       2% other (Nuristani, Pashai, Brahui, etc.)
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Languages of Afghanistan (1980 map) ██ 50% Dari dialect of Persian ██ 35% Pashto ██ 8% Uzbek ██ 3% Turkmen ██ 2% Baloch       2% other (Nuristani, Pashai, Brahui, etc.)

The Demographics of Afghanistan are ethnically and linguistically mixed. This reflects its location astride historic trade and invasion routes leading from Central Asia into South and Southwest Asia. Pashtuns are the dominant ethnic group, accounting for about 42% of the population. Tajik & Farsiwan (27%), Hazara (9%), Uzbek (9%), Aimaq (4%), Turkmen (3%), Baluch (2%) and other small groups (4%) make up the remaining. Pashto and Persian (Dari) are both official languages of the country. Persian is spoken by at least half of the population and serves as a lingua franca for most Afghans. Pashto is spoken widely in the south, east and south west, Uzbek and Turkmen are spoken in the north. Smaller groups throughout the country also speak more than 70 other languages and numerous dialects. Image File history File links Afg_ethnic_map. ... Image File history File links Afg_ethnic_map. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... The Aimak (or Eimak, Aimaq) are Persian-speaking nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes of mixed Iranian and Mongolian stock inhabiting the north and north-west Afghan highlands immediately to the north of Herat. ... The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... Minority Afghan group living throughout Afghanistan but mostly in Nooristan, Kabul, Badakhshan, Konar and Laghman. ... The Nuristani are a religious/ethnic group in the Nurestan Province of Afghanistan. ... Brahui may refer to: The Brahui language The Brahui people This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x651, 49 KB) Summary Communist government of Afghanistan, 1985; therefore not copyright protected (anymore) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x651, 49 KB) Summary Communist government of Afghanistan, 1985; therefore not copyright protected (anymore) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Dari (دری) is the local written name for the Persian language in Afghanistan used mainly in official papers. ... Persian, (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... Nuristani languages form a language sub-family of the Indo-Iranian languages localized between the Iranian languages and the Indo-Aryan languages Ashkun language Kamviri language Kati language (Bashgali) Prasuni language (Wasi-Weri) Tregami language Waigali language (Kalasha-Ala) Categories: Language stubs | Indo-Iranian languages ... Minority Afghan group living throughout Afghanistan but mostly in Nooristan, Kabul, Badakhshan, Konar and Laghman. ... Brahui may refer to: The Brahui language The Brahui people This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Parsiwan, or simply Parsi (Persian), are found mainly in western Afghanistan and are generally distiguished from the Tajiks by their adherance to Shia Islam as opposed to the Sunni sect favored by the Tajiks. ... The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... This article is about the Aimaq people. ... The Baluch (alternative spelling Baloch) are an ethnic group of Iranian origin. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Persian, (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


The term Afghan, historically synonymous with Pashtun, is nowadays used to describe a person from the country of Afghanistan. It is, however, hard to combine the varying groups. Often the Pashtun are referred to as Afghans while other groups hold to their ethnic name (e.g., Tajiks are known as Tajiks, etc.). The citizens of Afghanistan are in many ways somewhat distinct from the notion of ethnic Afghans as a result of this understanding. Thus, in recent years, the term Afghanistani[1] has been suggested for the citizens of Afghanistan in contrast to (ethnic) Afghans who would be the Pashtuns. However, currently even the non-Pashtun ethnic groups usually refer to themselves as Afghan or Afghani rather than Afghanistani. Pashtuns (also Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns; Pashto: پښتون , Persian: پختون Paxtun, Urdu: پشتون Pashtūn), or Pathans (Urdu: پٹھان, Hindi: पठान, ) and or ethnic Afghans[19] are an ethno-linguistic group primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


99% of Afghanistan's population adheres to Islam. An estimated 80% of the population is Sunni, following the Hanafi school of jurisprudence; 19% is predominantly Shi'a. Despite attempts during the years of communist rule to secularize Afghan society, Islamic practices pervade all aspects of life. In fact, Islam served as the principal basis for expressing opposition to communist rule and the Soviet invasion. Likewise, Islamic religious tradition and codes, together with traditional practices, provide the principal means of controlling personal conduct and settling legal disputes. Excluding urban populations in the principal cities, most Afghans are divided into tribal and other kinship-based groups, which follow traditional customs and religious practices. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Hanafi (Arabic: حنفي ) is one of the four schools of thought (Madhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Combatants Soviet Union Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Afghan Mujahideen rebels supported by nations such as: United States, Pakistan, Iran, China, Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom Commanders Soviet forces only Boris Gromov Pavel Grachev Valentin Varennikov Jalaluddin Haqqani Abdul Haq Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Mohammed Younas Khalis Ismail Khan Ahmed Shah Massoud Sibghatullah Mojadeddi...

Contents

History and identification of the Afghan people

For more information see: History of Afghanistan and Durrani Empire

Afghans as a whole draw their modern national identity from the founding of the Durrani Empire in the mid 18th century. From 1747 until 1823 Ahmed Shah Durrani, his sons and grandsons held the monarchy. They were the first Pashtun rulers of Afghanistan, from the Sadozai line of the Abdali (known as the Durrani since Ahmad Shah's reign) group of clans. It was under the leadership of Ahmad Shah that the nation of Afghanistan began to take shape following centuries of fragmentation and exploitation. However each ethnic group has its own unique history which makes up the entire Afghan history. Excavation of prehistoric sites by , the University of Pennsylvania, the Smithsonian Institution and others suggests that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in Afghanistan were among the earliest in the world. ... The Durrani Empire was a state in present day Afghanistan. ... The Durrani Empire was a state in present day Afghanistan. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shah Abdali (c. ... Durrani (Persian: درانی) or Abdali (Persian: ابدالی) tribe is one of the two largest Pashtun tribes of Afghanistan and is also found in large numbers in western Pakistan. ...


There requires some realization that Afghan nationalism can be synonymous with that of Pashtun nationalism and as a result cannot be conflated into an Afghan national identity as the country is a multiethnic entity. Thus, it is important to note that there have been a variety of groups who have lived in what is today Afghanistan, but were not ethnic Afghans such as the aforementioned Tajiks as well as Uzbeks and Hazaras etc. who are currently divided as to what constitutes a national Afghan identity. Because Afghan history is fraught with regional cleavages it is important to note that any notion of an Afghan nation-state is largely absent until the 18th century and the rise of the Durrani Empire. For this reason, important figures from the past such as Avicenna and Rumi, who were of ethnic Persian (Tajik) identity, are often not identified as ethnic Afghans or even as Afghan people, at least according to academics, while they are generally included within the context of the collective history of the modern nation-state in the geographic sense.[2] The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Abū ‘Alī al-Husayn ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā al-Balkhī (Persian ابوعلى سينا/پورسينا Abu Ali Sina or arabisized: أبو علي الحسين بن عبد الله بن سينا; often referred to, simply as Ibn Sina, or by his latinized name Avicenna) was a Persian[2][3] (Tājīk) physician, philosopher, and scientist. ... Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi or Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi Rumi (also known as Mowlavi or Moulana, meaning my guide in Iran, Central and South Asia or Mevlana meaning our guide in Turkey) (September 30, 1207 - December 17, 1273 CE) was a Persian poet and Sufi mystic, who was... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Pashtuns

Main article: Pashtun people

The Pashtuns (also known as Pakhtun or Pathan), are independent people that reside mainly in southern, south-western, and eastern Afghanistan and also in western Pakistan. Considerable pockets also exist throughout other parts of Afghanistan, and they make up major ethnic minority in all the major cities of Pakistan. Smaller groups of Pashtuns are also found in Iran and India as well. Pashtun culture is ancient and much of it is yet to be recorded in contemporary times. There are many conflicting theories, some contemporary, some ancient, about the origins of the Pashtun people, both among historians and the Pashtun themselves. Most scholars agree that the Pashtuns are partly descendants of eastern Iranian peoples and speak Pashto, an eastern Iranian language. According to the writer W.K. Frazier Tyler writing in his book Afghanistan, "The word Afghan… first appears in history in the Hudud-al-Alam, a work by an unknown Arab geographer who wrote in 982 AD." The Afghan identity began to develop as Pashtun identity under the rule of Ahmad Shah Durrani who united the Pashtun (Afghan) chiefdoms in the middle of 18th century. Another boost took place under the rule of Nadir Shah who with Pashtun support further centralized the government. Until the advent of the modern Afghan state in the 20th century, the word Afghan had been synonymous with Pashtun. Pashtuns (also Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns; Pashto: پښتون , Persian: پختون Paxtun, Urdu: پشتون PashtÅ«n), or Pathans (Urdu: پٹھان, Hindi: पठान, ) and or ethnic Afghans[19] are an ethno-linguistic group primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: ; also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pushtoo, Pathan, or Afghan language and Pukhto ‎) is a language spoken by people living in the southern half of Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid...


Tajiks & Farsiwans

Main article: Tajiks
Main article: Farsiwan

The Persian-speaking Tajiks are closely related to the Persians of Iran and are amongst the oldest inhabitants of the region. They can trace their roots back to the original Iranian peoples that settled Central Asia in ancient times, such as the Bactrians, Sogdians, Scythians and Parthians, as well as ancient Persians who fled to Central Asia during the Arab Islamic expansion. The Tajiks also comprise the majority population of Tajikistan and are found in large numbers in Uzbekistan and Iran as well as parts of western Pakistan and the Xinjiang province of China. A related group in Afghanistan known as the Farsiwan are often affiliated with the Tajiks and are considered a subgroup of Afghanistan's Tajik community. The difference between them is that the Farsiwan are generally of the Shia sect and are more similar to the Persians of Iran. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Parsiwan, or simply Parsi (Persian), are found mainly in western Afghanistan and are generally distiguished from the Tajiks by their adherance to Shia Islam as opposed to the Sunni sect favored by the Tajiks. ... Persian, (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Faravahar is a prominent guardian spirit in Zoroastrianism and Iranian culture that is believed to be a depiction of a Fravashi. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogeneous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The Parsiwan, or simply Parsi (Persian), are found mainly in western Afghanistan and are generally distiguished from the Tajiks by their adherance to Shia Islam as opposed to the Sunni sect favored by the Tajiks. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...


Hazaras

Hazara children.
Hazara children.
Main article: Hazara

Historically, the Hazara seem to have Turkic-Mongolian origins, but with some Caucasoid admixture from surrounding groups. Linguistically though the Hazara speak Persian, but their variant is interspersed with more Mongolian words, but this is also the case with many Turkic languages such as Uzbek. It may simply be the case that the Hazara are of Uyghur Turkic origin as many Turks accompanied the Mongol armies or arrived in the region long before the Mongols. It is however commonly believed by many Afghans that the Hazara are descendants of Genghis Khan's army, which marched into the area during the 12th century. Proponents of this view hold that many of the Mongol soldiers and their family members settled in the area and remained there after the Mongol empire dissolved in the 13th century, converting to Islam and adopting local customs. The theory regarding a more Turkic origin for the Hazara has equal validity and the relatively small number of actual Mongols in comparison to Turks makes it more likely that the Hazara are descendants of Turkic invaders who were Persianized over time. Unlike most Afghans the Hazara are Shia, which has often set them apart from their neighbors. Image File history File links Twoboys. ... Image File history File links Twoboys. ... The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Uyghur (Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Uighur Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; Pinyin: Wéiwúěr; Turkish: Uygur) are a Turkic people, forming one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ...   or Temüjin by birthname, (c. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, meaning Great (Их) Mongol Nation (Улс)) (1206–1405) was the largest empire in world history, covering over 36 million km² [1] at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million people, and it was one of the most powerful of all... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Uzbeks

Main article: Uzbek people

The Uzbeks are the main Turkic people of Afghanistan and are found mainly in the northern regions of the country. Most likely the Uzbeks migrated with a wave of Turkic invaders and intermingled with local Iranian tribes over time to become the ethnic group they are today. By the 1500s the Uzbeks had settled throughout Central Asia and reached Afghanistan following the conquests of Muhammad Shaybani. Most Uzbeks are Sunni Muslim and are closely related to the Turkmen who also can be found in Afghanistan. The Uzbeks of Afghanistan are usually bilingual, fluent in both Persian and Uzbek. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Portrait of Muhammad Shaybani Abu I-Fath Muhammad Shaybani Khan (c. ...


Turkmen

Main article: Turkmen people

The Turkmen are the smaller Turkic group who can also be found in neighoring Turkmenistan. Largely Sunni Muslim, their origins are very similar to that of the Uzbeks. Unlike, the Uzbeks, however, the Turkmen are traditionally a nomadic people (though they were forced to abandon this way of life in Turkmenistan itself under Soviet rule). The Turkmen (Türkmen or Түркмен, plural Türkmenler or Түркменлер) are a Turkic people found primarily in the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan and in northeastern Iran. ...


Baluch

Main article: Baloch

The Baluch are another Iranian ethnic group that numbers around 200,000 in Afghanistan. The main Baloch areas located in Balochistan province in Pakistan and Sistan and Baluchistan province of Iran. Many also live in southern Afghanistan. They are most likely an offshoot of the Kurds and reached Afghanistan sometime between 1000 and 1300 BCE. Mainly pastoral and desert dwellers, the Baluch are also Sunni Muslim. The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... The Baluch (alternative spelling Baloch) are an ethnic group of Iranian origin. ... The province of Balochistan (or Baluchistan) (Urdu: بلوچستان) in Pakistan is the largest in the country by geographical area. ... Sistān and Balūchestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


Nuristani

Main article: Nuristani
A smiling Nuristani girl.
A smiling Nuristani girl.

The Nuristani are an Indo-Iranian people, representing a third branch independent of the Iranian and Indo-Aryan groups, who live in isolated regions of northeastern Afghanistan. Better known historically as the Kafirs of what was once known as Kafiristan (now called Nuristan), they were forcibly converted to Islam during the rule of "Iron" Amir Abdur Rahman and their country was renamed "Nuristan" or "Land of Light" as in the light of Islam. Many Nuristanis believe that they are the descendants of Alexander's Greeks, but there is a lack of genetic evidence for this and they are more than likely an isolated pocket of early Aryan invaders. They are largely Sunni Muslims. The Nuristani are a religious/ethnic group in the Nurestan Province of Afghanistan. ... Image File history File links Nuristani_Girl. ... Image File history File links Nuristani_Girl. ... The Nuristani are a religious/ethnic group in the Nurestan Province of Afghanistan. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Rabindranath Tagore, Mahatama Gandhi and a Rajasthani tribesman The Indo-Aryans are the ethno-linguistic descendents of the Indic branch of the Indo-Iranians. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Amir Abdur Rahman Khan Abdur Rahman Khan (c. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


Culture

The culture of Afghanistan has been around for millennia. ...

Language

Afghans speak a variety of languages of which the largest are Pashto and Persian (Dari or Afghan Persian). Other significant languages include the Turkmen and the Uzbek. Pashto and Persian are the official languages of Afghanistan. Pashto (‎, IPA: ; also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pushtoo, Pathan, or Afghan language and Pukhto ‎) is a language spoken by people living in the southern half of Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Dari (دری) is the local written name for the Persian language in Afghanistan used mainly in official papers. ...


Religion

Afghans are 99% Muslim, the majority are Sunni. The remaining are mostly Shiites. Before Islam's arrival, the region was predominately Buddhist and Zoroastrian. Recent media attention to the arrest of an Afghan Christian Convert indicates that there is a very small community of Afghan Christians living inside and outside Afghanistan. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...


Additional demographic information

Population

Demographics of Afghanistan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.
Demographics of Afghanistan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.
31,056,997 (July 2006 est.)

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...

Age structure

0-14 years: 44.6% (male 7,095,117/female 6,763,759)
15-64 years: 53% (male 8,436,716/female 8,008,463)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 366,642/female 386,300) (2006 est.)

Median age

Total: 17.6 years
Male: 17.6 years
Female: 17.6 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate

2.67% (2006 est.)

Birth rate

46.6 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate

20.34 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate

0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Gender ratio

Population pyramid for Afghanistan
Population pyramid for Afghanistan
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Image File history File links Afghanistan_population_pyramid_2005. ... Image File history File links Afghanistan_population_pyramid_2005. ... A population pyramid is two back-to-back bar graphs, one showing the number of males and one showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups (also called cohorts). ...

Infant mortality rate

Total: 160.23 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 164.77 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 155.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total population: 46 years (2004 est.) [3]
Male: 46 years
Female: 46 years

Total fertility rate

6.69 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 61 (as of 2006)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. ... Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections in humans resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ...

Nationality

Noun: Afghan(s)
Adjective: Afghan

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria is a high risk countrywide below 2,000 meters from March through November
animal contact disease: rabies (2005)

Ethnic groups

Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, other 4%

The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... The Aimak (or Eimak, Aimaq) are Persian-speaking nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes of mixed Iranian and Mongolian stock inhabiting the north and north-west Afghan highlands immediately to the north of Herat. ... The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ...

Religions

Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 19%, other 1%

Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam, also Shi`ite Islam or Shi`ism (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: Persian: ‎ ) is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... Mazari Sharifs Blue Mosque is a magnificent and sacred structure of cobalt blue and turquoise minarets, attracting visitors and pilgrims throughout the world. ... Buddhism in Afghanistan has a long history. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

Languages spoken

Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Dari is a term used to denote one of several closely related Persian dialects spoken in what used to be Greater Khorasan: The official name for the Persian language in Afghanistan; see Dari (Afghanistan) One name used by Zoroastrians (the others being Gabri and Yazdi) to refer to the Northwestern... Pashto (‎, IPA: ; also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pushtoo, Pathan, or Afghan language and Pukhto ‎) is a language spoken by people living in the southern half of Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... Balochi may refer to: Baloch people Balochi language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Minority Afghan group living throughout Afghanistan but mostly in Nooristan, Kabul, Badakhshan, Konar and Laghman. ...

Literacy

Definition: Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 36%
Male: 51%
Female: 21% (1999 est.)

Notes and references

  1. ^ TheFreeDictionary.com: "Adj. 1. Afghanistani - of or relating to or characteristic of Afghanistan or its people" (LINK)
  2. ^ Vogelsang, Willem. 2002. The Afghans. Blackwell Publishers. Oxford. ISBN 0631198415
  3. ^ BBC News In Depth - Life in Afghanistan (Health)...Link

TheFreeDictionary. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... The Background Notes series is a collection of works by the United States Department of State. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Afghanistan - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (4940 words)
Afghanistan is a mosaic of ethnic groups and cultures, and a crossroads between east and west.
Afghanistan faces numerous problems, ranging from its devastated economy, the return of millions of refugees, continued warlordism, drug trafficking, and a new government that is struggling with the political forces trying to define the sort of country Afghanistan will become in the 21st century.
Afghanistan is a land-locked mountainous country, with plains in the north and southwest.
Wikipedia search result (5955 words)
Afghanistan was created in 1747 as a large empire, its modern-day shape being recognized by the international community as a fully independent state in 1919, when foreign intervention ceased following the Anglo-Afghan wars.
Afghanistan is a land-locked, mountainous, central Asian country, with plains in the north and southwest.
The CIA factbook on languages spoken in Afghanistan is as follows: Pashto 35% (in gray) and Persian (Dari) 50% (in pink), both Indo-European languages from the Iranian languages sub-family.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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