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Encyclopedia > Demographics

Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. (Note the distinction from demography, see below.) Commonly-used demographics include race, age, income, disabilities, mobility (in terms of travel time to work or number of vehicles available), educational attainment, home ownership, employment status, and even location. Distributions of values within a demographic variable, and across households, are both of interest, as well as trends over time. Demographics are frequently used in economic and marketing research. For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... A demographic or demographic profile is a term used in marketing and broadcasting, to describe a demographic grouping or a market segment. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing “Consumer research” redirects here. ...

Demographic trends describe the changes in demographics in a population over time. For example, the average age of a population may increase. It may decrease aswell as certain restrictions may be in place, for instance like in China if the population is high.


Demographics vs Demography

The term demographics as a noun is often used erroneously in place of demography, the study of human population, its structure and change. Although there is no absolute delineation, demography focuses on population structure, processes and dynamics, whereas demographics is most often used in the fields of media studies, advertising, marketing, and polling, and should not be used interchangeably with the term "demography" or (more broadly) "population studies". [citation needed] 'Demographic' as an adjective can refer to either, e.g., [[demographic transition] whoooooooooooooooooooooaaaahhhhhhhhh] Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ...

Demographic variables

Demographic Marketers and other social scientists often group populations into categories based on demographic variables. Some frequently used demographic variables are: Demographic marketers use demographics in marketing research, and the assessment of the changing trends of consumer behavior. ...

The effects of ageing on a human face Elderly woman Ageing or aging is the process of systems deterioration with time. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Socioeconomics or Socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mobility is the ability and willingness to move or change; this can depend on motor skills; mobility aids may be needed such as a walking stick, walker, mobile standing frame, power operated vehicle/scooter, wheelchair or white cane for visual impairment. ... Life history theory is a method of analysis in animal and human biology, psychology, and especially evolutionary sociobiology which postulates that many of the physiological traits and behaviors of individuals may be best understood in relation to the key maturational and reproductive characteristics that define the life course. ...

Demographic profiles in marketing

Marketers typically combine several variables to define a demographic profile. A demographic profile (often shortened to "a demographic") provides enough information about the typical member of this group to create a mental picture of this hypothetical aggregate. For example, a marketer might speak of the single, female, middle-class, age 18 to 24 demographic. A demographic or demographic profile is a term used in marketing and broadcasting, to describe a demographic grouping or a market segment. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ...

Marketing researchers typically have two objectives in this regard: first to determine what segments or subgroups exist in the overall population; and secondly to create a clear and complete picture of the characteristics of a typical member of each of these segments. Once these profiles are constructed, they can be used to develop a marketing strategy and marketing plan. Strategy serves as the foundation of a marketing plan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Generational cohorts

A generational cohort has been defined as "the aggregation of individuals (within some population definition) who experience the same event within the same time interval"[1]. The notion of a group of people bound together by the sharing of the experience of common historical events due to their birth in a particular period of time was first introduced by Karl Mannheim in the early 1920s. Today the concept has found its way into popular culture through well known epitomes like "baby boomer" and "gen-Xer". Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...

Cohorts in the United States

A study by William Strauss and Neil Howe, in their books Generations and Fourth Turning, looked at generational similarities and differences going back to the 15th century and concluded that over 80 year spans, generations proceed through 4 stages of about 20 years each. The first phase consists of times of relative crisis and the people born during this period were called "artists". The next phase was a "high" period and those born in this period were called "prophets". The next phase was an "awakening period" and people born in this period were called "nomads". The final stage was the "unraveling period" and people born in this period were called "heroes". The most recent "high period" occurred in the 50s and 60s (hence baby boomers are the most recent crop of "prophets"). Strauss and Howe (William Strauss and Neil Howe) are bestselling authors and national speakers based on their proprietary model of generations in American history. ... For the text connected to the documentary hypothesis about the origin of the Torah, see Book of generations. ...

The most definitive recent study of US generational cohorts was done by Schuman and Scott (1989) in 1985 in which a broad sample of adults of all ages were asked, "What world events over the past 50 years were especially important to them?"[2]. They found that 33 events were mentioned with great frequency. When the ages of the respondents were correlated with the expressed importance rankings, seven distinct cohorts became evident. Today the following descriptors are frequently used for these cohorts:

  • Depression cohort (born from 1912 to 1921)
    • Memorable events: The Great Depression, high levels of unemployment, poverty, lack of creature comforts, financial uncertainty
    • Key characteristics: strive for financial security, risk averse, waste-not-want-not attitude, strive for comfort
  • World War II cohort (born from 1922 to 1927)
    • Memorable events: men leaving to go to war and many not returning, the personal experience of the war, women working in factories, focus on defeating a common enemy
    • Key characteristics: the nobility of sacrifice for the common good, patriotism, team player
  • Post-war cohort (born from 1928 to 1945)
  • Baby Boomer cohort #1 (born from 1946 to 1954)
    • Memorable events: assassinations of JFK, Robert Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, political unrest, walk on the moon, Vietnam War, anti-war protests, social experimentation, sexual freedom, civil rights movement, environmental movement, women's movement, protests and riots, experimentation with various intoxicating recreational substances
    • Key characteristics: experimental, individualism, free spirited, social cause oriented
  • Baby Boomer cohort #2 (born from 1955 to 1964)
    • Memorable events: Watergate, Nixon resigns, the cold war, the oil embargo, raging inflation, gasoline shortages
    • Key characteristics: less optimistic, distrust of government, general cynicism
  • Generation X cohort (born from 1965 to 1976)
    • Memorable events: Challenger explosion, Iran-Contra, social malaise, Reaganomics, AIDS, safe sex, fall of Berlin Wall, single parent families
    • Key characteristics: quest for emotional security, independent, informality, entrepreneurial
  • MISSING: 1977-1983 The titles is this section are off.
  • Generation Y cohort also called N Generation (born from 1984 to 2001)
    • Memorable events: rise of the internet, September 11 attacks, cultural diversity, 2 wars in Iraq
    • Key characteristics: quest for physical security and safety, patriotism, heightened fears, acceptance of change, technically savvy, environmental issues

The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Cold War (1947-1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... For the video game, see Baby Boomer (video game). ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Historically, various popular movements struggling for social justice and democratic rights since the Second World War were known as civil rights movement, most famously the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, which struggled for equal rights for African-Americans. ... The Watergate building. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Generation X is a term used to describe generations in many countries around the world. ... In the Iran-Contra Affair, United States President Ronald Reagans administration secretly sold arms to Iran, which was engaged in a bloody war with its neighbor Iraq from 1980 to 1988 (see Iran-Iraq War), and diverted the proceeds to the Contra rebels fighting to overthrow the leftist and... Ronald Reagan, the US president from which Reaganomics derives its name Reaganomics (a blend of Reagan and economics, coined by radio broadcaster Paul Harvey) is a term that has been used to both describe and decry free market advocacy economic policies of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who served from... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... Look up Generation Y in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...

US Demographic birth cohorts

The US Census Bureau considers the following demographic birth cohorts based on birth rate, which is statistically measurable: Population of the United States, 1790 to 2000 The demographics of the United States depict a largely urban nation, with 57 percent of its population living in places more than 100 miles away from the ocean (2003). ...

  • Classics (born from 1900 to 1920)
    • (the last American cohort in which the population pyramid takes on the standard "step" form for males and females)
  • Baby Bust (I) (born from 1921 to 1945)
    • early cohort (born from 1921 to 1933)
    • late cohort (born from 1934 to 1945)
  • Baby Boomers (born from 1946 to 1964)
    • Leading Edge Boomers (born from 1946 to 1957)
    • Trailing Edge Boomers (born from 1958 to 1964)
  • Baby Bust (II) (born from 1965 to 1976)
  • Echo Boomers (born from 1977 to 1994)
    • Leading Edge (born from 1977 to 1990)

Subdivided groups are present when peak boom years or inverted peak bust years are present, and may be represented by a normal or inverted bell-shaped curve (rather than a straight curve). The boom subdivided cohorts may be considered as "pre-peak" (including peak year) and "post-peak". The year 1957 was the baby boom peak with 4.3 million births and 122.7 fertility rate. Although post-peak births (such as trailing edge boomers) are in decline, and sometimes referred to as a "bust", there are still a relative large number of births. The dearth-in-birth bust cohorts include those up to the valley birth year, and those including and beyond, leading up to the subsequent normal birth rate. The normal distribution, also called the Gaussian distribution, is an important family of continuous probability distributions, applicable in many fields. ... Inverted bell may refer to one of the following Inverted bell, a shape Inverted bell (music) a musical instrument [1] Inverted bell curve, a curve opposite to the bell curve Category: ...

Criticisms and qualifications of demographic profiling

Demographic profiling is essentially an exercise in making generalizations about groups of people. As with all such generalizations many individuals within these groups will not conform to the profile - demographic information is aggregate and probabilistic information about groups, not about specific individuals. Critics of demographic profiling argue that such broad-brush generalizations can only offer such limited insight that their practical usefulness is debatable.

Most demographic information is also culturally based. The generational cohort information above, for example, applies primarily to North America (and to a lesser extent to Western Europe) and it may be unfruitful to generalise conclusions more widely.

See also

For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... This is a list of over 200 articles on marketing topics. ... Consumer behaviour is the study of how people buy, what they buy, when they buy and why they buy. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing “Consumer research” redirects here. ... The population growth/decline of European countries The Demographics of Europe refers to the changing number and composition of the population of Europe. ... A Market segment is a subgroup of people or organizations sharing one or more characteristics that cause them to have similar product needs. ... Strategic Workforce Planning involves analyzing and forecasting the talent that companies need to execute their business strategy, proactively rather then reactively, it is a critical strategic activity, enabling the organization to identify, develop and sustain the workforce skills it needs to successfully accomplish its strategic intent whilst balancing career and... The General Social Survey (GSS) is a means for the collection of data on demographic characteristics and attitudes of residents of the United States. ... The German General Social Survey (GGSS/ALLBUS - Die Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften) is a national data generation program in Germany, which is similar to the American General Social Survey (GSS). ... The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) is a longitudinal panel dataset of the population in Germany. ... The World Values Survey is an academic project by social scientists to assess the state of sociocultural and political values of different cultures around the world. ... The following is a partial list of United States cities, towns, and unincorporated areas (Census Designated Places) in which a majority (over 50%) of the population is African American or Black, according to data from the 2000 Census. ... The following are links to lists of United States cities in which a majority of the population is not white (used broadly here to mean all non-Hispanic European-Americans), organized by majority racial group. ...


  1. ^ Ryder, N., The cohort as a concept in the study of social change, presented at the 1959 annual meeting of the American Sociological Association.
  2. ^ Schuman, H. and Scott, J. (1989), Generations and collective memories, American Psychological Review, vol. 54, 1989, pp. 359-81.
  • Klauke, A. (2000) Coping with Changing Demographics An analysis of the effect of changing demographic patterns on school enrollments and education.
  • Meredith, G., Schewe, C., and Haim, A. (2002), Managing by defining moments: Innovative strategies for motivating 5 very different generational cohorts, Hungry Minds Inc., New York, 2002, ISBN 0-7645-5412-3

External links

  • 'Demographics' as a term in Economics
  • Demographic Reports & Maps
  • Demographic Data
  • Demographic Reports

  Results from FactBites:
Demographics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1553 words)
The term demographics as a noun is often used erroneously for demography, the study of human population and its structure and change.
Although there is no absolute delination, ('demographic' as an adjective can indeed refer to either e.g.: demographic transition), demography focuses on population dynamics, whereas demographics is the study of changes in the economic and social properties of populations.
Demographic trends have been used to explain everything from the demand for vacation properties, to the tennis craze of the 1970s, to election and stock market results.
Demographics - definition of Demographics in Encyclopedia (1339 words)
Demographics comprises selected characteristics of a population (age and income distribution and trends, mobility, educational attainment, home ownership and employment status, for instance) for purposes of social studies.
The term demographics is often used erroneously for demography, the study of human population and its structure and change.
Demographics is interested in any population characteristic that might be useful in understanding what people think, what they are willing to buy, and how many fit this profile.
  More results at FactBites »



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