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Encyclopedia > Democratic Republic of the Congo
République démocratique du Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Flag Coat of arms
MottoJustice – Paix – Travail  (French)
"Justice – Peace – Work"
AnthemDebout Congolais
Capital
(and largest city)
Kinshasaa
4°19′S, 15°19′E
Official languages French
Recognised regional languages Lingala, Kongo/Kituba, Swahili, Tshiluba
Demonym Congolese
Government Semi-Presidential Republic
 -  President Joseph Kabila
 -  Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga
Independence
 -  from Belgium June 30, 1960 
Area
 -  Total 2,344,858 km² (12th)
905,351 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 3.3
Population
 -  2007 United Nations estimate 62.6 million (21st)
 -  Density 25/km² (179th)
65/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $46.491 billion1 (78th)
 -  Per capita $774 (174th)
GDP (nominal) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $7.094 billion (116th)
 -  Per capita $119 (181th)
HDI (2007) 0.411 (low) (168th)
Currency Franc congolais (CDF)
Time zone WAT, CAT (UTC+1 to +2)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1 to +2)
Internet TLD .cd
Calling code +243
a Estimate is based on regression; other PPP figures are extrapolated from the latest International Comparison Programme benchmark estimates.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (French: République démocratique du Congo), also often referred to as DR Congo, DRC, RDC or formerly as Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, The Congo, Congo-Leopoldville, Congo-Kinshasa, and Zaire (or Zaïre in French), is the third largest country by area on the African continent. Though it is located in the Central African UN subregion, the nation is economically and regionally affiliated with Southern Africa as a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). It borders the Central African Republic and Sudan on the north, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi on the east, Zambia and Angola on the south, the Republic of the Congo on the west, and is separated from Tanzania by Lake Tanganyika on the east.[1] The country enjoys access to the ocean through a forty-kilometre stretch of Atlantic coastline at Muanda and the roughly nine-kilometre wide mouth of the Congo river which opens into the Gulf of Guinea. The name "Congo" (meaning "hunter") is coined after the Bakongo ethnic group who live in the Congo river basin. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Flag ratio: 2:3, since 2006. ... Democratic Republic of the Congo is simply an adaptation of the national flag. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Debout Congolais (Arise Congolese) is the national anthem of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Image File history File links LocationDRCongo. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Demographics of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Lingala is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and a large part of the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville), as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic. ... Kongo or Kikongo is the Bantu language spoken by the Bakongo people living in the tropical forests of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo and Angola. ... Kituba is a widely used lingua franca in Central Africa. ... This article is about the language. ... Contents // Categories: Bantu languages | Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo | Language stubs ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... i frted #REDIRECT [[ The President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (French: , Swahili: , Lingala: ) , is Congos elected Head of State, and the ex officio Supreme Commander (Commander-in-Chief) of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC). ... Joseph Kabila Kabange (born June 4, 1971), known commonly as Joseph Kabila, became president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo ten days after the murder of his father, in January 2001. ... The Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (French: , Swahili: , Lingala: ) , is Congos Head of Government. ... Antoine Gizenga (born 5 October 1925) is a Congolese (DRC) politician, and the Prime Minister of the country since December 30, 2006. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas, here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The Congolese Franc is the currency of the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in western and west-central Africa (though not in countries west of Benin, which instead use GMT). ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving Central Africa Time, or CAT, is a time zone used in central and southern Africa. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .cd is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a country in Africa. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... In statistics, regression analysis examines the relation of a dependent variable (response variable) to specified independent variables (explanatory variables). ... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations for statistical purposes The UN geoscheme divides the world into macro regions[1] and subregions, all in alphabetical order. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... SADC-only (yellow) and SADC+SACU members Headquarters Gaborone, Botswana Working languages Membership 15 African states Leaders  -  Secretary General Establishment  -  as the SADCC April 1, 1980   -  as the SADC August 17, 1992  Website http://www. ... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Muanda is a seaside resort lying on the Atlantic Ocean coast of the Democratic Republic of Congo at the mouth of the Congo River. ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ... Map of the Gulf of Guinea, showing the chain of islands formed by the Cameroon line of volcanoes. ... The Bakongo or the Kongo people (meaning hunter) live along the Atlantic coast of Africa from Pointe-Noire (Brazzaville) to Luanda, Angola. ...


Formerly the Belgian colony of the Belgian Congo, the country's post-independence name was the Republic of the Congo until August 1, 1964,[2] when its name was changed to Democratic Republic of the Congo (to distinguish it from the neighboring Republic of the Congo).[3] On October 27, 1971,[2] then-President Mobutu renamed the country Zaire, from a Portuguese mispronunciation of the Kikongo word nzere or nzadi, which translates to "the river that swallows all rivers."[4] Following the First Congo War which led to the overthrow of Mobutu in 1997, the country was renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo. From 1998 to 2003, the country suffered greatly from the devastating Second Congo War (sometimes referred to as the African World War),[5] the world's deadliest conflict since World War II. However, related fighting still continues in the east of the country. This article is about a type of political territory. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... The current head of state in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaïre, is the interim president, Joseph Kabila. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power... Kongo or Kikongo is the Bantu language spoken by the Bakongo people living in the tropical forests of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo and Angola. ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo (1908–1960) Congo Crisis First Republic (1960–1965) Zaire Mobutu regime (1965–1996) First Congo War Kabilas rise (1996–1998) Second Congo War Africas Great War (1998–2003) Transitional government Towards...

Congolese pre-history

A wave of early peoples is identified in the Northern and North-Western parts of Central Africa during the second millennium BC.[citation needed] They were food producing (pearl millet), with some domestic stock, and developed a kind of arboriculture mainly based on the oil palm.[citation needed] Several centuries later, around 2,500 BC, bananas were known to some in south Cameroon.[citation needed] Early Congolese History starts with waves of Bantu migrations from 2000 BC to 500 AD moving into the area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


From 3,500 BC to 2,000 BC, starting from a nucleus area in South Cameroon on both banks of the Sanaga River, the first Neolithic peopling of northern and western Central Africa can be followed south-eastwards and southwards.[citation needed] In D.R. Congo the first villages in the vicinity of Mbandaka and the Tumba Lake are known as the 'Imbonga Tradition', from around 2,600 BC. In Lower Congo, north of the Angolan border, it is the 'Ngovo Tradition' around 2,300 BC that shows the arrival of the Neolithic wave of advance.[citation needed]

A Katanga Cross, an obsolete form of money.
A Katanga Cross, an obsolete form of money.

In Kivu, across the country to the east, the 'Urewe Tradition' villages first show up around 2,600 BC. The few archaeological sites known in Congo are a western extension of the 'Urewe' Culture which is mainly known in Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Western Kenya and Tanzania.[citation needed] From the start of this tradition, the people knew iron smelting, as is evidenced by several iron smelting furnaces excavated in Rwanda and Burundi.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 976 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Katanga Cross. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 976 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Katanga Cross. ... A Katanga Cross. ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... Urewe is a term of a culture that developed and spread in and around the the Lake Victoria region during the African Iron Age. ...


The earliest evidence further to the west is known in Cameroon, and near to the small town of Bouar in Central Africa. Though an ongoing discussion will ultimately give us a better chronology for the start of iron production in Central Africa, the Cameroonian data places iron smelting north of the Equatorial Forest around 2,600 BC to 2,500 BC .[citation needed] This technology developed independently from the previous Neolithic expansion some 900 years later. As fieldwork done by a German team shows, the Congo river network was slowly settled by food-producing villagers going upstream in the forest. Work from a Spanish project in the Ituri area further east suggests villages reached there only around 800 BC.[citation needed] Bouar is a market town in the western Central African Republic, lying on the main road from Bangui to Cameroon. ...


The supposedly Bantu-speaking Neolithic, and then iron-producing, villagers added to and displaced the indigenous Pygmy populations (also known in the region as the "Bitwa" or "Twa") into secondary parts of the country.[citation needed] Subsequent migrations from the Darfur and Kordofan regions of Sudan into the north-east, as well as East Africans migrating into the eastern Congo added to the mix of ethnic groups. The Bantus imported a mixed economy made up of agriculture, small stock raising, fishing, fruit collecting, hunting and arboriculture before 3,500 BC; iron-working techniques, possibly from West Africa, are a much later addition.[citation needed] The villagers established the Bantu language family as the primary set of tongues for the Congolese.[citation needed] This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... Location of Kurdufan in Sudan Kurdufan (sometimes Kordofan) is a former province of central Sudan. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Image of Kinshasa and Brazzaville, taken by NASA; the Congo River is visible in the center of the photograph Length 4,380 km Elevation of the source m Average discharge 41,800 m³/s Area watershed 3,680,000 km² Origin Mouth Atlantic Ocean Basin countries Dem. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...

Historical nation-states of present-day
Democratic Republic of the Congo

Kingdom of Kongo (1395-1914)
Luba Empire (1585-1889)
Lunda Empire (c. 1665-1887)
Yeke Kingdom (1856-1891)
Congo Free State (1885-1908)
Belgian Congo (1908-1960)
Republic of the Congo (1960-1964)
Democratic Republic of the Congo (1964-1971)
Republic of Zaire (1971-1997)
Democratic Republic of the Congo (1997-present)
The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... The Kingdom of Congo (now usually rendered as Kingdom of Kongo to maintain distinction from the present-day Congo nations) Capital Mbanza-Kongo, Angola; re-named São Salvador in the late 16th century; re-named back to Mbanza-Kongo in 1975 Religion Christianity with some traditional practices Government Monarchy... The Luba Empire (1585-1889) was a pre-colonial Central African state, which arose in the marshy grasslands of the Upemba depression in what is now southern Democratic Republic of Congo. ... The Lunda Kingdom became known in the 17th century. ... The Yeke Kingdom (also called the Garanganze or Garenganze kingdom) in Katanga, DR Congo was short-lived, existing from about 1856 to 1891 under one king, Msiri, but it became for a while the most powerful state in south-central Africa, controlling a territory of about half a million square... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... For other uses, see Zaire (disambiguation). ...

In the fifth century, a society began to develop in a region that initially encompassed only a 200 kilometer (125 mi) area along the banks of the Lualaba River in the modern day Katanga Province.[citation needed] This culture, known as the Upemba, would eventually evolve into the more significant Luba kingdom.[citation needed] “Miles” redirects here. ... The Lualaba is the headstream of the Congo River, running from the vicinity of Lubumbashi north to Kisangani, where the Congo officially begins. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Lubumbashi Largest city Lubumbashi National language Swahili, Tshiluba Land area¹ 496 871 km² Governor Moïse Katumbi Chapwe Population Density 4 125 000 (est. ... Luba may refer to: Luba, Equatorial Guinea Luba, a tribe in western Africa Tshiluba language Luba, a comic book character This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The Congo Free State (1877 – 1908)

Clearing tropical forests ate away at profit margins. However, ample plots of cleared land were already available. Above, a Congolese farming village (Baringa, Equateur) is emptied and levelled to make way for a rubber plantation.

European exploration and administration took place from the 1870s until the 1920s — first by Sir Henry Morton Stanley who undertook his explorations mainly under the sponsorship of King Leopold II of Belgium, who desired what was to become the Congo as a colony. In a succession of negotiations, Leopold, professing humanitarian objectives in his capacity as chairman of the Association Internationale Africaine, played one European rival against the other. The Congo territory was acquired formally by Leopold at the Conference of Berlin in 1885. He made the land his private property and named it the Congo Free State. Leopold's regime began undertaking various projects, such as the railway that ran from the coast to Leopoldville (now Kinshasa) which took years to complete. Nearly all these projects were aimed at increasing the capital Leopold and his associates could extract from the colony, leading to exploitation of Africans. In the Free State, the local population was brutalized in exchange for rubber, a growing market with the development of rubber tires. The selling of the rubber made a fortune for Leopold, who built several buildings in Brussels and Ostend to honour himself and his country. To enforce the rubber quotas, the Force Publique (FP) was called in. The FP was an army, but its aim was not to defend the country, but to terrorise the local population. The Force Publique made the practice of cutting off the limbs of the natives as a means of enforcing rubber quotas a matter of policy; this practice was widespread. During the period between 1885 and 1908, between five and 15 (the commonly accepted figure is about ten) million Congolese died as a consequence of exploitation and diseases. A government commission later concluded that the population of the Congo had been "reduced by half" during this brutal period.[6]The actions of the Free State's administration sparked international protests led by E. D. Morel and British diplomat/Irish patriot Roger Casement, whose 1904 report on the Congo condemned the practice, as well as famous writers such as Mark Twain. Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness also takes place in Congo Free State. In 1908, the Belgian parliament, which was at first reluctant, bowed to international pressure (especially from Great Britain) by taking over the Free State from the king as a Belgian colony. From then on, it became the Belgian Congo, under the rule of the elected Belgian government. Image File history File links CongoVillageErased. ... Image File history File links CongoVillageErased. ... Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo (1908–1960) Congo Crisis First Republic (1960–1965) Zaire Mobutu regime (1965–1996) Shaba I (1977) Shaba II (1978) First Congo War Kabilas rise (1996–1998) Second Congo War Africas Great... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... Sir Henry Morton Stanley (January 29, 1841-May 10, 1904) was a 19th century Welsh-born United Statesjournalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. ... King Leopold II Leopold II, King of the Belgians (Louis Philippe Marie Victor) (April 9, 1835–December 17, 1909), succeeded his father, Leopold I of Belgium, to the Belgian throne in 1865 and remained king until his death. ... The Association Internationale Africaine (French) was an organization created by King Leopold II of Belgium for supposedly furthering humanitarian projects in the area of Central Africa that was to become the Congo Free State and subsequently todays Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... For the Cold War conference see Berlin Conference of 1954. ... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... The esplanade with the Thermae Palace, the former Royal Residence and the casino For other uses, see Ostend (disambiguation). ... The Force Publique (FP) was the official armed force for what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1885, (when the territory was known as the Congo Free State), through the period of direct Belgian rule (1908-60), until the beginning of the Second Republic in 1965. ... Picture of E.D. Morel frontpage of Red Rubber 1906 Picture of Roger Casement Emile Vandervelde Edmund Dene Morel, originally Georges Eduard Pierre Achille Morel de Ville (July 10, 1873 – November 12, 1924) was a British journalist, author and socialist politician. ... Roger David Casement (Irish: ;[1] 1 September 1864 – 3 August 1916), known as Sir Roger Casement, CMG between 1905 and July 1916, was an Irish patriot, poet, revolutionary and nationalist by inclination. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born English novelist. ... For other uses, see Heart of Darkness (disambiguation). ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian...


The Belgian administration: Belgian Congo (1908 – 1960)

Main article: Belgian Congo

Conditions in the Congo improved following the Belgian government's takeover. Select Bantu languages were taught in primary schools, a rare occurrence in colonial education. Colonial doctors were to greatly reduce the spread of African trypanosomiasis, commonly known as sleeping sickness. The colonial administration implemented a variety of economic reforms that focused on the improvement of infrastructure: railways, ports, roads, mines, plantations and industrial areas. The Congolese people, however, lacked political power and faced legal discrimination. All colonial policies were decided in Brussels and Leopoldville. The Belgian Colony-secretary and Governor-general, neither of whom was elected by the Congolese people, wielded absolute power. Among the Congolese people, resistance against their undemocratic regime grew over time. In 1955, the Congolese upper class (the so-called "évolués"), many of whom had been educated in Europe, initiated a campaign to end the inequality. Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in humans. ... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in people and animals, caused by protozoa of genus Trypanosoma and transmitted by the tsetse fly. ...


During World War I, the Congolese Force Nationale successfully attacked, invaded and occupied German East Africa, which included the present-day Rwanda and Burundi. Belgium continued to administer these colonies under League of Nations mandates after the war, instituting racial policies that set the stage for the Rwandan genocide of 1994. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of the hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ...


During World War II, the small Congolese army achieved several victories against the Italians in North Africa. The Belgian Congo, which was also rich in uranium deposits, supplied the uranium that was used by the United States to build the atomic weapons that were used in the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... This article is about the chemical element. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ...


Political crises (1960 – 1965)

Main article: Congo Crisis

In May 1960, the MNC party or Mouvement National Congolais, led by Patrice Lumumba, won the parliamentary elections, and Lumumba was appointed Prime Minister. Joseph Kasavubu, of the ABAKO (Alliance des Bakongo) party, was elected President by the parliament. Other parties that emerged include the Parti Solidaire Africain (or PSA, led by Antoine Gizenga) and the Parti National du Peuple (or PNP led by Albert Delvaux and Laurent Mbariko). (Congo 1960,dossiers du CRISP,Belgium) The Belgian Congo achieved independence on June 30, 1960 under the name "Republic of Congo" or "Republic of the Congo" ("République du Congo"). As the French colony of Middle Congo (Moyen Congo) also chose the name "Republic of Congo" upon receiving its independence, the two countries were more commonly known as "Congo-Léopoldville" and "Congo-Brazzaville", after their capital cities. In 1966, Joseph Mobutu changed the country's official name to "Democratic Republic of the Congo", and in 1971 it was changed again to "Republic of Zaïre". (in the Footsteps of Mr Kurtz- Michela Wrong) Shortly after independence, the provinces of Katanga (with Moise Tshombe) and South Kasai engaged in secessionist struggles against the new leadership. Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Mouvement National Congolais (English: Congolese National Movement, MNC) is a pro-independence group that emerged in the colonized Belgian Congo. ... Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ... Joseph Kasa Vubu (c. ... Antoine Gizenga (born 5 October 1925) is a Congolese (DRC) politician, and the Prime Minister of the country since December 30, 2006. ... Laurent Jean-Pierre Mbariko (January 19, 1925 in the Kwilu region of the Democratic Republic of Congo - December 30, 1972) was a Congolese politician who played a significant role in Congos independence from Belgium. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Lubumbashi Largest city Lubumbashi National language Swahili, Tshiluba Land area¹ 496 871 km² Governor Moïse Katumbi Chapwe Population Density 4 125 000 (est. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flag of South Kasai South Kasai was a secessionist region in the area of south central Congo (Kinshasa) during the early 1960’s. ...


Subsequent events led to a crisis between President Kasavubu and Prime Minister Lumumba. On September 5, 1960, Kasavubu dismissed Lumumba from office. Lumumba declared Kasavubu's action "unconstitutional" and a crisis between the two leaders developed. (Secession au Katanga- J.Gerald-Libois.-Brussels-CRISP) Lumumba had previously appointed Joseph Mobutu chief of staff of the new Congo army, Armee Nationale Congolaise (ANC). Taking advantage of the leadership crisis between Kasavubu and Lumumba, Mobutu garnered enough support within the army to create sentiment sufficient to inspire mutinous action. With financial support from the United States and Belgium, Mobutu made payments to his soldiers in order to generate their loyalty. The aversion of Western powers towards communism and leftist ideology in general influenced their decision to finance Mobutu's quest to maintain "order" in the new state by neutralizing Kasavubu and Lumumba in a coup by proxy. Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku wa za Banga (or Mobutu Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga; October 14, 1930 - September 7, 1997) was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) from 1965 to 1997. ... The Armée Nationale Congolaise (ANC) was the Congolese army that replaced the Force Publique after independence in 1960. ...


On January 17, 1961, Katangan forces and Belgian paratroops, supported by foreign interests intent on copper and diamond mines in Katanga and South Kasai, kidnapped and executed Patrice Lumumba. Amidst widespread confusion and chaos, a temporary government led by technicians (College des Commissaires) with Evariste Kimba, and several short governments Joseph Ileo, Cyrille Adoula, Moise Tshombe took over in quick succession. See the book The Assassination of Lumumba by Ludo de Witte. The execution is known to have been witnessed by at least one CIA observer. Evariste Kimba (July 16, 1926 - Kinshasa, June 2, 1966) served briefly as the Democratic Republic of the Congos Prime Minister from October 18 to November 14, 1965. ... Cyrille Adoula (born September 13, 1921 in Léopoldville – died May 24, 1978 in Lausanne, Switzerland) was a Congolese politician. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Zaire (1971 – 1997)

Main article: Zaire

Following five years of extreme instability and civil unrest, Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, now Lieutenant General, overthrew Kasavubu in a 1965 coup. He had the support of the United States on account of his staunch opposition to Communism, which would presumably make him a roadblock to Communist schemes in Africa. It is also argued that the Western support for Mobutu was also related to his allowing businesses to export the many natural resources of Zaire without worrying about environmental, labour, or other regulations. A one-party system was established, and Mobutu declared himself head of state. He would periodically hold elections in which he was the only candidate. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


Relative peace and stability was achieved; however, Mobutu's government was guilty of severe human rights violations, political repression, a cult of personality (every Congolese bank note displayed his image, his portrait was displayed in all public buildings, most businesses, and on billboards, and it was common for ordinary people to wear his likeness on their clothing), and excessive corruption. Corruption became so prevalent the term "le mal Zairois" or "Zairean Sickness"[citation needed] was coined, reportedly by Mobutu himself.[citation needed] As soon as 1984, he was said to have $4 billion (USD), an amount close to the country's national debt, deposited in a personal Swiss bank account. International aid, most often in the form of loans, enriched Mobutu while national infrastructure such as roads deteriorated to as little as one-fourth of what had existed in 1960. The term "kleptocracy" was in fact coined to describe Mobutu's embezzlement of government funds. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a countrys leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise. ... Swiss banks are world-renowned for their secretive nature and protection of clients. ... Kleptocracy (sometimes Cleptocracy) (root: Klepto+cracy = rule by thieves) is a pejorative, informal term for a government that is primarily designed to sustain the personal wealth and political power of government officials and their cronies (collectively, kleptocrats). ...


In a campaign to identify himself with African nationalism, starting on June 1, 1966, Mobutu renamed the nation's cities (Léopoldville became Kinshasa [the country was now Democratic Republic of The Congo – Kinshasa], Stanleyville became Kisangani, and Elisabethville became Lubumbashi). This renaming campaign was completed in the 1970s. In 1971, he renamed the country the Republic of Zaire, its fourth name change in 11 years and its sixth overall. The Congo River became the Zaire River. In 1972, Mobutu renamed himself Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga. is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power...


Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, U.S. relations with Kinshasa cooled, as Mobutu was no longer deemed necessary as a Cold War ally, and his opponents within Zaire stepped up demands for reform. This atmosphere contributed to Mobutu's declaring the Third Republic in 1990, whose constitution was supposed to pave the way for democratic reform. The reforms turned out to be largely cosmetic, and Mobutu's rule continued until conflict forced him to flee Zaire in 1997. The name of the nation was returned to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as the name Zaire carried strong connections to the rule of Mobutu. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Conflict and transition (1994 – present)

Since 1994, the Congo has been wrought by ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees fleeing the Rwandan Genocide. The government of Mobutu Sese Seko was toppled by a rebellion led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila in May 1997; he changed the country's name back to Democratic Republic of The Congo-Kinshasa (the capital of Congo/Zaire). His former allies soon turned against him, however, and his regime was challenged by a Rwandan and Ugandan-backed rebellion in August 1998. Troops from Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia, Chad, and Sudan intervened to support the new regime in Kinshasa. See Foreign relations of Congo and First Congo War. Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... Combatants Lendu tribe, Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) Hema tribe, Uganda, Union of Congolese Patriots, Democratic Republic of Congo United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo RCD-K Commanders Etienne Lona (FNI) James Kazini (UDPF) Casualties Civilians killed: 60,000 (estimate as of Nov. ... Transitional Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Stub: In 2001 President Luarent Kabila was assasinated and his son Joseph Kabila was named head of state. ... Refugee camp in Zaire, 1994 The Great Lakes refugee crisis is the common name for the situation beginning with the exodus in April 1994 of over two million Rwandans to neighboring countries of the Great Lakes region of Africa in the aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide. ... The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of the hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power... Laurent-Désiré Kabila (November 27, 1939 – January 16, 2001) was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 1997, when he overthrew longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko after 32 years of ruling Zaire until his assassination in January 2001, succeeded by his son Joseph. ... Its location in the center of Africa has made DROC a key player in the region since independence. ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as...

UN peacekeepers (from Pakistan) to the DRC in 2005

A cease-fire was signed on July 10, 1999; nevertheless, fighting continued apace especially in the eastern part of the country, financed by revenues from the illegal extraction of minerals such as coltan, cassiterite and diamonds. Kabila was assassinated in January 2001 and his son Joseph Kabila was named head of state. The new president quickly began overtures to end the war and an accord was signed in South Africa in 2002. By late 2003, a fragile peace prevailed as the Transitional Government was formed. Kabila appointed four vice presidents, two of whom had been fighting to oust him until July 2003. Much of the east of the country remains insecure, primarily due to the Ituri conflict and the continued activity of the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda in the Kivus. Image File history File links Pictures of peacekeepers for the UN mission to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Image File history File links Pictures of peacekeepers for the UN mission to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a nation full of complexity and seeming contradictions. ... Coltan is the colloquial African name for columbite-tantalite, a metallic ore used to produce the elements niobium and tantalum. ... Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Joseph Kabila Kabange (born June 4, 1971), known commonly as Joseph Kabila, became president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo ten days after the murder of his father, in January 2001. ... Transitional Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Stub: In 2001 President Luarent Kabila was assasinated and his son Joseph Kabila was named head of state. ... Combatants Lendu tribe, Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) Hema tribe, Uganda, Union of Congolese Patriots, Democratic Republic of Congo United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo RCD-K Commanders Etienne Lona (FNI) James Kazini (UDPF) Casualties Civilians killed: 60,000 (estimate as of Nov. ... The Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda was the primary anti-Rwanda rebel group during the latter part of the Second Congo War. ... Kivu was the name for a large Region in the Democratic Republic of Congo under the rule of Mobutu Sese Seko that bordered Lake Kivu. ...


This period of conflict has been the bloodiest in history since World War II.[7] Almost 5 million people have died as a result of the fighting.[8][9][10] The United Nations is concerned that 1000 people a day are still dying as a result of the conflict and described 2006 as a "make or break point" for the continuing humanitarian crisis.[11]


On July 30, 2006, the Congo held its first multi-party elections since independence in 1960. After this Joseph Kabila took 45% of the votes and his main opponent Jean-Pierre Bemba took 20%. That was the origin of a two-day fight between the two factions from August 20, 2006 in the streets of the capital, Kinshasa. Sixteen people died before police and the UN mission, MONUC, took control of the city and stopped the violence is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General elections were held in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on July 30, 2006, the first multiparty elections in the country in 46 years. ... Joseph Kabila Kabange (born June 4, 1971), known commonly as Joseph Kabila, became president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo ten days after the murder of his father, in January 2001. ... Jean-Pierre Bemba (4 November 1962) is one of four vice-presidents in the transitional government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... MONUC is a French acronym for Mission de l Organisation des Nations unies en République démocratique du Congo, in English: Mission of the United Nations (UN) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ...


A second round of elections between the two leading candidates, Kabila and Bemba, was held on 29 October, 2006. Rioters destroyed polling stations in Congo's east and electoral officials organized a revolt over burned ballots in the north. Despite that, the presidential vote was called a success. Both Kabila and Bemba assured that they would respect the result,[12] but Bemba's militants have begun riots against the the Supreme Court's decision that will legitimise Kabila's 58%-42% winning result in the run-off.[13] is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bemba has argued for his supporters to stop fighting the government and vowed to take his seat as an official opposition leader. But despite successful elections held in the second half of 2006 and an overall increase in the level of stability, over a million people remained internally displaced in the east of the country, according to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre.[14] Tailor in Labuje IDP camp in Uganda An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution or war, but has not crossed an international border. ...


On July 30, 2007, a report by Yakin Erturk, special rapporteur for the United Nations Human Rights Council on violence against women, found extreme sexual violence against women is pervasive in the DRC and local authorities do little to stop it or prosecute those responsible. Her report also found 'women are gang raped, often in front of their families and communities. In numerous cases, male relatives are forced at gun point to rape their own daughters, mothers or sisters.' Survivors told Ertuck that after rape, many women are held as slaves by the gangs and forced to eat excrement or the flesh of their murdered relatives.[15] is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Finally, a peace deal was signed on 23 January 2008 to end the Kivu conflict, including provisions for an immediate ceasefire, the phased withdrawal of all rebel forces in North Kivu province, the resettlement of thousands of villagers, and immunity for rebel forces. This formally ended all conflicts in the D.R. of the Congo.[16] is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Government

After 4 years of interim between two constitutions that established different political institution at the various levels of all branches of government, as well as different administrative divisions of the country, politics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are settling into a stable presidential democratic republic. Despite President Laurent-Désiré Kabilas claims that his was a transitional government leading to a new constitution and full elections by April 1999, these elections have not as of 2004 been held, and a 1998 draft constitution has not been finalized. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The transitional constitution[17] established a system composed of a bicameral legislature with a Senate and a National Assembly. The Senate has, among other things, the charge of drafting the new constitution of the country. The executive branch is vested in a 60-member cabinet, headed by a pentarchy of a President, and four vice presidents. The President is also the Commander-in Chief of the Armed forces. The unusual organization of the executive — considering the large number of vice presidents — has earned it the very official nickname of "The 1 + 4".[citation needed] This article is about bicameralism in government. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... ... Composition of the National Assembly This politics-related article is a stub. ... The Pentarchy, a Greek word meaning government of five, designates the Five Great Sees or early Patriarchates, which were the five major centres of the Christian church in Late Antiquity. ... i frted #REDIRECT [[ The President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (French: , Swahili: , Lingala: ) , is Congos elected Head of State, and the ex officio Supreme Commander (Commander-in-Chief) of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC). ...


The transition constitution also established a relatively independent judiciary, headed by a Supreme Court with constitutional interpretation powers.


The 2006 constitution, also known as the Constitution of the Third Republic, came into effect in February 2006. It has concurrent authority, however, with the transitional constitution until the inauguration of the elected officials who will emerge from the July 2006 elections. Under this constitution, the legislature will remain bicameral; the executive will be concomitantly undertaken by a President and the government; and the latter will be led by a Prime Minister, appointed from the party with the majority at the National Assembly. The government – not the President – is responsible to the Parliament.


The provincial governments will gain new powers, under the new decentralized model, with the creation of provincial parliaments, with oversight over the Governor, head of the provincial government, whom they elect.


The new constitution also sees the disappearance of the Supreme Court, which is divided into three new institutions. The constitutional interpretation prerogative of the Supreme Court will be held by the Constitutional Court. The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Third Republic on 18 February 2006. ...


Provinces and territories

Further information: Administrative divisions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
A new provincial map of Democratic Republic of Congo
A new provincial map of Democratic Republic of Congo

The constitution approved in 2005 divided the country into 26 fairly autonomous provinces, including the capital, Kinshasa. These new provinces will be formed by February 2009. Until then, the country continues with the existing eleven provinces, as follows: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Main article: Subdivisions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo The 2005 Congolese Constitution (article 2) - which came into effect in February 2006 - creates 25 new provinces, alongside the city/province of Kinshasa, which remains the capital city; this new territorial organization is to take effect within 36 months of... Territories of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Main article: Subdivisions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo The provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo are divided into 129 territories (fr. ... Reference : Executive Order 081 of July 8 1998 on administrative and territorial organisation in the RDC The administrative hierarchy of Political subdivisions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is as follows Province (formerly Région) Mairies (in Urban Areas) Cities Commune or Incorporated Grouping (formerly zone urbaine (urban area... Image File history File links Provinces_de_la_République_démocratique_du_Congo_-_2005. ... Image File history File links Provinces_de_la_République_démocratique_du_Congo_-_2005. ... The Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been changed and/or replaced several times. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...

  1. Kinshasa
  2. Province Orientale
  3. Kasaï Oriental
  4. Kasaï Occidental
  5. Maniema
  6. Katanga
  7. Sud-Kivu
  8. Nord-Kivu
  9. Bas-Congo
  10. Équateur
  11. Bandundu

The provinces are subdivided into territories. Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Orientale (also Oriental) (formerly Haut-Zaire) is a province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Mbuji-Mayi Largest city National Language Tshiluba Land area¹ km² Governor [[]] Population Density (est. ... Kasai-Occidental (West Kasai) is a province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Kindu Largest city National Language Kiswahili Land area¹ km² Governor [[]] Population Density (est. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Lubumbashi Largest city Lubumbashi National language Swahili, Tshiluba Land area¹ 496 871 km² Governor Moïse Katumbi Chapwe Population Density 4 125 000 (est. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Bukavu Largest city National Language Kiswahili Land area¹ km² Governor [[]] Population Density (est. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Goma Largest city Goma National language Swahili Land area¹ 59,483 km² Governor Eugène Serufuli Ngayabaseka Population Density 3,564,434 (est. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Matadi Largest city Matadi National Language Kikongo Land area¹ 53. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Mbandaka Largest city Mbandaka National Language Lingala Land area¹ 403,292 km² Governor Yves Mobando Yogo Population Density 4,820,000 (est. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Bandundu Largest city Kikwit National Language Kikongo, Lingala Land area¹ 295. ... Territories of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Main article: Subdivisions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo The provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo are divided into 129 territories (fr. ...

Nyiragongo volcano
Nyiragongo volcano

Image File history File links Nyiragongo_volcano_-_SRTM.jpg PIA03337 Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Pre-eruption Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat Source: http://photojournal. ... Image File history File links Nyiragongo_volcano_-_SRTM.jpg PIA03337 Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Pre-eruption Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat Source: http://photojournal. ... Mount Nyiragongo is a dormant volcano in the Virunga Mountains associated with the Great Rift Valley or East African Rift. ... Image File history File links Kinshasa_2003. ... Image File history File links Kinshasa_2003. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...

Population of major cities

City Population
Kinshasa 6,301,100
Lubumbashi 1,074,600
Mbuji-Mayi 905,800
Kolwezi 803,900
Kananga 539,600
Kisangani 510,300
Likasi 375,100

Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Nickname: Location in the Congo Province Katanga Government  - Governor Moise Katumbi Area  - City 747 km²  (288. ... Mbuji-Mayi (formerly Bakwanga) serves as the capital of Kasai-Oriental (Anglicized as East-Kasai) province in the south-central Democratic Republic of Congo. ... Kolwezi is a city in the south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Likasi in the province of Katanga. ... Kananga is the capital of the Kasai-Occidental province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Kisangani, formerly Stanleyville, (population 500,000) is a city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. ... View of Jadotville (now Likasi), c1930. ...

Geography

The map of Democratic Republic of Congo from the CIA World Factbook
The map of Democratic Republic of Congo from the CIA World Factbook
Satellite image of Democratic Republic of the Congo, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
Satellite image of Democratic Republic of the Congo, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library

The Congo is situated at the heart of the west-central portion of sub-Saharan Africa and is bounded by (clockwise from the southwest) Angola, the Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, the Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania across Lake Tanganyika, and Zambia. The country straddles the Equator, with one-third to the north and two-thirds to the south. The size of Congo, 2,345,408 square kilometres (905,567 sq mi), is comparable to that of Western Europe. Map of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, from [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, from [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Democratic Republic of the Congo includes the greater part of the Congo River Basin, which covers an area of almost 1 million square kilometers (400,000 sq. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2293x2261, 3209 KB) Summary Raster data download July 12, 2006 from The Map Library: exported to TIFF format, and converted to JPEG via Paint. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2293x2261, 3209 KB) Summary Raster data download July 12, 2006 from The Map Library: exported to TIFF format, and converted to JPEG via Paint. ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... Satellite image of Congo, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south... The Republic of the Congo, also known as Middle Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, and Congo (but not to be confused with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire, which was also at one time known as the Republic of the Congo), is a former French colony of west-central Africa. ... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


As a result of its equatorial location, the Congo experiences large amounts of precipitation and has the highest frequency of thunderstorms on Earth. The annual rainfall can total upwards of 80 inches (200 cm) in some places, and the area sustains the second largest rain forest in the world (after the Amazon). This massive expanse of lush jungle covers most of the vast, low-lying central basin of the river, which slopes toward the Atlantic Ocean in the west. This area is surrounded by plateaus merging into savannas in the south and southwest, by mountainous terraces in the west, and dense grasslands extending beyond the Congo River in the north. High, glaciated mountains are found in the extreme eastern region. Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... An Inner Mongolia Grassland. ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ...


The tropical climate has also produced the Congo River system which dominates the region topographically along with the rainforest it flows through, (though they are not mutually exclusive). The name for the "Congo" state is derived from that of the river, along with that of the Kongo Empire which controlled much of the region in precolonial times. The river basin (meaning the Congo River and all of its myriad tributaries) occupy nearly the entire country and an area of nearly one million square kilometers (400,000 sq mi). The river and its tributaries (major offshoots include the Kasai, Sangha, Ubangi, Aruwimi, and Lulonga) form the backbone of Congolese economics and transportation, they have a drastic impact on the daily lives of the people. The sources of the Congo are in the highlands and mountains of the East African Rift, as well as Lake Tanganyika and Lake Mweru. The river flows generally west from Kisangani just below Boyoma Falls, then gradually bends southwest, passing by Mbandaka, joining with the Ubangi River, and running into the Pool Malebo (Stanley Pool). Kinshasa and Brazzaville are actually on opposite sides of the river at the Pool (see NASA image), then the river narrows and falls through a number of cataracts in deep canyons (collectively known as the Livingstone Falls), and then running past Boma into the Atlantic. The river also has the second-largest flow and the second-largest watershed of any river in the world (trailing the Amazon in both respects). The river and a forty-kilometre-wide strip of land on its north bank provide the country's only outlet to the Atlantic, otherwise it would be completely landlocked. Naples beach in Florida lined with coconut trees is an example of a tropical climate. ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ... The Kingdom of Congo (now usually rendered as Kingdom of Kongo to maintain distinction from the present-day Congo nations) Capital Mbanza-Kongo, Angola; re-named São Salvador in the late 16th century; re-named back to Mbanza-Kongo in 1975 Religion Christianity with some traditional practices Government Monarchy... The Kasai River is a river in central Africa. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... The Ubangi River (also Oubangi) is a major tributary of the Congo River in Central Africa. ... The Aruwimi River is a tributary of the Congo River, located to the north and east of the Congo. ... The Lulonga is a river in the Equateur province of Congo-Kinshasa. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... Lake Mweru is a lake located on the border between Zambia and Democratic Republic of the Congo, about 150 km west of the southern end of Lake Tanganyika. ... Kisangani, formerly Stanleyville, (population 500,000) is a city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. ... Boyoma Falls, formerly known as Stanley Falls, consists of seven cataracts extending over 100 km on the Lualaba River near Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Mbandaka, formerly known as Coquilhatville is a city on the Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, lying near the confluence of the Congo and Ruki Rivers. ... The Ubangi River (also Oubangi) is a major tributary of the Congo River in central Africa. ... Image of Pool Malebo, as well as the cities of Kinshasa and Brazzaville, taken by NASA The Pool Malebo (formerly Stanley Pool, also seen as Malebo Pool), is a lake-like widening in the lower reaches of the Congo River. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... This article is about the city named Brazzaville. ... Livingstone Falls, named for David Livingstone, is a rapids of the lower Congo River in west equatorial Africa below Malebo Pool. ... For other uses, see Boma (disambiguation). ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... This article is about the river. ...


The previously mentioned Great Rift Valley, in particular the Eastern Rift, plays a key role in shaping the Congo's geography. Not only is the northeastern section of the country much more mountainous, but due the rift's tectonic activities, this area also experiences low levels of volcanic activity. The rifting of the African continent in this area has also manifested itself as the famous Great Lakes which lie on the Congo's eastern frontier. The country is bordered in the east by two of these: Lake Albert and Lake Tanganyika. Perhaps most important of all, the Rift Valley has endowed most of the south and east of the Congo with an enormous amount of mineral wealth. These include cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore, and coal. Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... The Greater Lakes and the East African coastline as seen from space. ... For other uses, see Lake Albert (disambiguation). ... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...


On January 17, 2002 Mount Nyiragongo erupted in Congo, with the lava running out at 40 mph (60 km/h) and 50 yards (50 m) wide. One of the three streams of lava emitted flowed through the nearby city of Goma, killing 45 and leaving 120,000 homeless. 400,000 people were evacuated from the city during the eruption. The lava poisoned the water of Lake Kivu, killing fish. Only two planes left the local airport because of the possibility of the explosion of stored petrol. The lava passed the airport but ruined the runway, entrapping several airplanes. Six months after the 2002 eruption, nearby Mount Nyamuragira also erupted, and again more recently in 2006. Both volcanos remain active. Mount Nyiragongo is a volcano in the Virunga Mountains associated with the Great Rift Valley. ... Mount Nyamuragira is an active volcano in the Virunga Mountains of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


Economy

The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a nation endowed with vast potential wealth, has declined drastically since the mid-1980s. The two recent conflicts (the First and Second Congo Wars), which began in 1996, have dramatically reduced national output and government revenue, have increased external debt, and have resulted in the deaths from war, famine, and disease of perhaps over 5 million people. Foreign businesses have curtailed operations due to uncertainty about the outcome of the conflict, lack of infrastructure, and the difficult operating environment. The war has intensified the impact of such basic problems as an uncertain legal framework, corruption, inflation, and lack of openness in government economic policy and financial operations. Malnutrition affects approximately two thirds of the country's population. Conditions improved in late 2002 with the withdrawal of a large portion of the invading foreign troops. A number of International Monetary Fund and World Bank missions have met with the government to help it develop a coherent economic plan, and President Joseph Kabila has begun implementing reforms. Much economic activity lies outside the GDP data. A United Nations Human Development Index report shows human development to be one of the worst in decades along with other African countries. Sparsely populated in relation to its area, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is home to a vast potential of natural resources and mineral wealth, yet the economy of the DROC has declined drastically since the mid-1980s. ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... IMF redirects here. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Joseph Kabila Kabange (born June 4, 1971), known commonly as Joseph Kabila, became president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo ten days after the murder of his father, in January 2001. ... United Nations Human Development Index is an index that measures the develompment of countries using more factors than just wealth, as is the case with the Gross Domestic Product. ...


The Congo remains the world's largest producer of cobalt, and a significant producer of copper and industrial diamonds. It has significant deposits of tantalum, which is used in the fabrication of electronic components used in computers and mobile phones. For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mineral. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ...


Demographics

The population was estimated at 62.6 million people according to the United Nations 2007 estimate, growing quickly from 46.7 million in 1997. As many as 250 ethnic groups have been distinguished and named. The most numerous people are the Kongo, Luba, and Mongo. Although seven hundred local languages and dialects are spoken, the linguistic variety is bridged both by the use of French and the intermediary languages Kongo, Tshiluba, Swahili, and Lingala. Demographics of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Bakongo or the Kongo people (meaning hunter) live along the Atlantic coast of Africa from Pointe-Noire (Brazzaville) to Luanda, Angola. ... The Luba are one of the Bantu peoples of Central Africa. ... Mongo may refer to subjects within the following categories: A city in Chad; see Mongo, Chad. ... Kongo or Kikongo is the Bantu language spoken by the Bakongo people living in the tropical forests of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo and Angola. ... Contents // Categories: Bantu languages | Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo | Language stubs ... This article is about the language. ... Lingala is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and a large part of the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville), as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic. ...


Status of Women

Young women preparing fufu
Young women preparing fufu

The United Nations Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in 2006 expressed concern that in the post-war transition period, the promotion of women’s human rights and gender equality is not seen as a priority.[18] Image File history File links Fufuprep. ... Image File history File links Fufuprep. ... Young women in preparing Fufu in Democratic Republic of Congo Fufu, also spelled foofoo, foufou, or fu fu, is a staple food of West and Central Africa. ...


A 2006 report by the African Association for the Defence of Human Rights prepared for that committee provides a broad overview of issues confronting women in the DRC in law and in daily life.[19]


The war situation has made the life of women more precarious. Violence against women seems to be perceived by large sectors of society to be normal.[20] In July 2007, the International Committee of the Red Cross expressed concern about the situation in eastern DRC.[21] A phenomenon of 'pendulum displacement' has developed, where people hasten at night to safety. According to the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence, Yakin Ertürk, who toured eastern Congo in July 2007, violence against women in North and South Kivu included “unimaginable brutality”. "Armed groups attack local communities, loot, rape, kidnap women and children and make them work as sexual slaves," Ertürk said.[22] A local initiative by women in Bukavu aims for recovery from violence based on women's own empowerment.[23] Bukavu is a city in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, lying at the southern end of Lake Kivu, west of Cyangugu in Rwanda. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Christianity is the majority religion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, followed by about 80% of the population, comprising Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%.[24] Kimbanguism was seen as a threat to the colonial regime and was banned by the Belgians. Kimbanguism, officially "the church of Christ on Earth by the prophet Simon Kimbangu," now has about three million members,[24] primarily among the Bakongo of Bas-Congo and Kinshasa. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Kimbanguism (The Church of Christ on Earth) is a branch of Christianity founded by Simon Kimbangu in what was then the Belgium Congo (now the Democratic Republic of Congo). ... The Bakongo or the Kongo people (meaning hunter) live along the Atlantic coast of Africa from Pointe-Noire (Brazzaville) to Luanda, Angola. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Matadi Largest city Matadi National Language Kikongo Land area¹ 53. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


As well as being the largest religious organisation in the country with about 30 million members, the Roman Catholic Church in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is one of the largest Christian Churches in Africa. The Congo has more Catholics than any other African country, and one of the highest proportions of Catholics. The Roman Catholic Church in Congo (Kinshasa) is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ...


62 of the Protestant denominations in the country are federated under the umbrella of the Church of Christ in Congo or CCC (in French, Église du Christ au Congo or ECC). It is often simply referred to as 'The Protestant Church', since it covers most of the 20% of the population who are Protestants. The Church of Christ in Congo or CCC (in French, Eglise du Christ au Congo or ECC), is a union of 62 Protestant denominations, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


Of the remaining 20% of the population, up to 10% are Muslim,[25] and the rest follow traditional beliefs or syncretic sects. Islam was introduced, and mainly spread by Arabic merchants [26] involved in the ivory trade. Traditional religions embody such concepts as monotheism, animism, vitalism, spirit and ancestor worship, witchcraft, and sorcery and vary widely among ethnic groups. The syncretic sects often merge Christianity with traditional beliefs and rituals, and may not be accepted by mainstream churches as part of Christianity. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Vitalism is the doctrine that vital forces are active in living organisms, so that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... Witch redirects here. ...


Languages

Major Bantu languages in the Congo.
Major Bantu languages in the Congo.

There is an estimated total of 242 languages spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Out of these, only four have the status of national languages: Kongo, Lingala, Tshiluba and Swahili. Image File history File links Map_-_DR_Congo,_major_languages. ... Image File history File links Map_-_DR_Congo,_major_languages. ... Languages of the Democratic Republic of Congo ... Kongo or Kikongo is the Bantu language spoken by the Bakongo people living in the tropical forests of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo and Angola. ... Lingala is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and a large part of the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville), as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic. ... Contents // Categories: Bantu languages | Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo | Language stubs ... This article is about the language. ...


Lingala was made the official language of the colonial army, the "Force Publique" under Belgian colonial rule. But since the recent rebellions, a good part of the army also uses Swahili in the East. Lingala is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and a large part of the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville), as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic. ... The Force Publique (FP) was the official armed force for what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1885, (when the territory was known as the Congo Free State), through the period of direct Belgian rule (1908-60), until the beginning of the Second Republic in 1965. ... This article is about the language. ...


French is the official language of the country. It is meant to be an ethnically neutral language, to ease communication between all the different ethnic groups of the Congo.


When the country was a Belgian colony, the four national languages were already used in primary schools, which makes the country one of the few to have had literacy in local languages during the occupation by Europeans.


Culture

The culture of the Democratic Republic of the Congo reflects the diversity of its hundreds of ethnic groups and their differing ways of life throughout the country — from the mouth of the River Congo on the coast, upriver through the rainforest and savanna in its centre, to the more densely populated mountains in the far east. Since the late 19th century, traditional ways of life have undergone changes brought about by colonialism, the struggle for independence, the stagnation of the Mobutu era, and most recently, the First and Second Congo Wars. Despite these pressures, the customs and cultures of the Congo have retained much of their individuality. The country's 60 million inhabitants are mainly rural. The 30 percent who live in urban areas have been the most open to Western influences. The culture of the Democratic Republic of the Congo reflects the diversity of its hundreds of ethnic groups and their differing ways of life throughout the country—from the mouth of the River Congo on the coast, upriver through the rainforest and savanna in its centre, to the more densely... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Savannah redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Mobutu Sésé Seko in the 1960s sporting his trademark leopardskin toque and glasses. ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...


Another notable feature in Congo culture is its sui generis music. The DROC has blended its ethnic musical sources with Cuban rumba, and meringue to give birth to soukous. Influential figures of soukous and its offshoots (n'dombolo, rumba rock...) are Franco Luambo, Tabu Ley, Lutumba Simaro, Papa Wemba, Koffi Olomide, Kanda Bongo, Ray Lema, Mpongo Love, Abeti Masikini, Reddy Amisi,[Pasnas] Pepe Kalle and Nyoka Longo. Africa produces music genres which are direct derivatives of Congolese soukous. Some of the African bands sing in Lingala, the main language in the DRC. The same Congolese soukous, under the guidance of "le sapeur", has set up the tone for a generation of young guys always dressed up in expensive designer's clothes. Sui generis is a (post) Latin expression, literally meaning a scholar like what pradeep is or unique in its characteristics. ... Rumba is a family of music rhythms and dance styles that originated in Africa and were introduced to Cuba and the New World by African slaves. ... Lemon meringue muffins For the Dominican folk dance and the music it is performed to, see merengue. ... // Soukous is a musical genre that originated in the Congos during the 1930s and early 1940s, and which has gained popularity throughout Africa. ... Francois Luambo Makiadi (6 July 1938 - 12 October 1989) was a major figure in twentieth century Congolese music, and African music in general. ... Taby Ley Rochereau Tabu Ley Rochereau (born 1940 Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo as Tabu Ley) is bandleader of Orchestre Afrisa International and one of Africas most influential vocalists and prolific songwriters. ... Papa Wemba Papa Wemba was born Jules Shungu Wembadio Pene Kikumba in 1949 in Lubefu (Kasai - DR Congo). ... Antoine Koffi Olomide (born August 13, 1958), is a Congolese soukous singer, producer, and composer. ... Ray Lema born 1946 in Lufutoto) is a pianist, guitarist, and songwriter from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Lingala is one of the Bantu languages spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and a large part of the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville), as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic. ...


Flora and fauna

Main article: Wildlife of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Bas-Congo landscape
Bas-Congo landscape

The rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo contain great biodiversity, including many rare and endemic species, such as both species of chimpanzee: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (also known as the Pygmy Chimpanzee), mountain gorilla, okapi and white rhino. Five of the country's national parks are listed as World Heritage Sites: the Garumba, Kahuzi-Biega, Salonga and Virunga National Parks, and the Okapi Wildlife Reserve. The civil war and resultant poor economic conditions have endangered much of this biodiversity. Many park wardens were either killed or could not afford to continue their work. All five sites are listed by UNESCO as World Heritage In Danger. African Bush Elephant African Buffalo Bwindi Gorilla Congo Peafowl Hippopotamus Wildlife of the Democratic Republic of the Congo includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats. ... Image File history File links Landscape of Bas-Congo, November 2003 Photo by Vberger File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Landscape of Bas-Congo, November 2003 Photo by Vberger File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Matadi Largest city Matadi National Language Kikongo Land area¹ 53. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Gorilla berengei berengei Matschie, 1914 The Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei[1]) is one of two species of Eastern Gorillas. ... Binomial name (P.L. Sclater, 1901) Range map The okapi (Okapia johnstoni) is a mammal of the Ituri Rainforest in central Africa. ... Binomial name Ceratotherium simum Burchell, 1817 The White Rhinoceros or Square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is one of the five species of rhinoceros that still exists and is one of the few megaherbivore species left. ... This article is about national parks. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Garamba National Park, located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Africa, was established in 1938. ... Sign at the entrance to the park. ... Salonga National Park is a national park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The Virunga National Park lies in the Virunga Mountains of the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, bordering Volcans National Park in Rwanda and Rwenzori National Park in Uganda. ... The Okapi Wildlife Reserve is a World Heritage Site in the Ituri Forest in the north-east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, near the borders with Sudan and Uganda. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


Over the past century or so, the DRC has developed into the center of what has been called the Central African "bushmeat" problem, which is regarded by many as a major environmental, as well as, socio-economic crisis. "Bushmeat" is another word for the meat of wild animals. It is typically obtained through trapping, usually with wire snares, or otherwise with shotguns or arms originally intended for use in the DRC's numerous military conflicts. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ...


The "bushmeat crisis" has emerged in the DRC mainly as a result of the poor living conditions of the Congolese people. A rising population combined with deplorable economic conditions has forced many Congolese to become dependent on bushmeat, either as a means of acquiring income (hunting the meat and selling), or are dependent on it for food. Unemployment and urbanization throughout Central Africa have exacerbated the problem further by turning cities like the urban sprawl of Kinshasa into the prime market for bushmeat. CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...

A Bonobo climbing a tree.
A Bonobo climbing a tree.

This combination has caused not only widespread endangerment of local fauna, but has forced humans to trudge deeper into the wilderness in search of the desired animal meat. This overhunting results in the deaths of more animals and makes resources even more scarce for humans. The hunting has also been facilitated by the extensive logging prevalent throughout the Congo's rainforests (from corporate logging, in addition to farmers clearing out forest in order to create areas for agriculture), which allows hunters much easier access to previously unreachable jungle terrain, while simultaneously eroding away at the habitats of animals.[27] Image File history File links A Bonobo (Pan paniscus) Source License  [1]: Unless a copyright is indicated, information on this Web site is in the public domain and may be reproduced, published or otherwise used without USAIDs permission. ... Image File history File links A Bonobo (Pan paniscus) Source License  [1]: Unless a copyright is indicated, information on this Web site is in the public domain and may be reproduced, published or otherwise used without USAIDs permission. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... Hunters was a commissioned soundtrack for the Discovery Channel series Hunters: The World of Predators and Prey. ... A habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular organism usually lives or grows. ...


A case that has particularly alarmed conservationists is that of primates. The Congo is inhabited not only by two distinct species of chimpanzee - the Common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus) - but by the gorilla as well. It is the only country in the world in which bonobo are found in the wild. The two species of chimpanzees, along with gorillas, are the closest living evolutionary relatives to humans. Much concern has been raised about Great ape extinction. Because of hunting and habitat destruction, the chimpanzee and the gorilla, both of whose population once numbered in the millions have now dwindled down to only about 200,000 per species. Gorillas and both species of chimpanzee are classified as Endangered by the World Conservation Union, as well as the okapi, which is also native to the area geography. For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Ape extinction, particularly great ape extinction, is one of the most widely held biodiversity concerns. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Binomial name (P.L. Sclater, 1901) Range map The okapi (Okapia johnstoni) is a mammal of the Ituri Rainforest in central Africa. ...


See also

Location of earthquake Workers in Nairobi were quick to rush to safety when the quake hit. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 20,000 (2000), 36,000 (1995) Telephones - mobile cellular: 15,000 (2000), 10,000 (1995) Telephone system: general assessment: poor domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations international: satellite earth station... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... The Ebola River in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the headstream of the Mongala River (a tributary of the Congo River, formerly named the Zaïre River). ... Its location in the center of Africa has made DROC a key player in the region since independence. ... African Writers (by country): This is a list of prominent and notable literary figures from the African continent, listed by country, including poets, novelists, childrens writers, essayists, and scholars, listed by country. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to the Democratic Republic of the Congo - Congo (Kinshasa) - the larger of the two Congos. ... The military of the Democratic Republic of Congo is currently in the rebuilding process after the Second Congo War officially ended in July 2003. ... Describing the music of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is difficult, due to vagaries surrounding the meanings of various terms. ...  â€¢  â€¢  Public holidays in Africa Algeria â€¢ Angola â€¢ Benin â€¢ Botswana â€¢ Burkina Faso â€¢ Burundi â€¢ Cameroon â€¢ Cape Verde â€¢ Central African Republic â€¢ Chad â€¢ Comoros â€¢ Democratic Republic of the Congo â€¢ Republic of the Congo â€¢ Côte dIvoire (Ivory Coast) â€¢ Djibouti â€¢ Egypt â€¢ Equatorial Guinea â€¢ Eritrea â€¢ Ethiopia â€¢ Gabon â€¢ The Gambia â€¢ Ghana â€¢ Guinea â€¢ Guinea-Bissau â€¢ Kenya â€¢ Lesotho â€¢ Liberia... Surface transport within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has always been difficult. ... MONUC peacekeepers MONUC is a French acronym for Mission de l Organisation des Nations unies en République démocratique du Congo, in English: Mission of the United Nations (UN) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ...

References

  1. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (10 January 2006). "Democratic Republic of the Congo", CIA - The World Factbook. ISSN 1553-8133. 
  2. ^ a b "Zaire: Post-Indepdent Political Development", Library of Congress
  3. ^ Prior to this, the two countries were commonly distinguished by their capitals, with DRC called Congo-Kinshasa and the RC called Congo-Brazzaville
  4. ^ (Peter Forbath, The River Congo, p. 19)
  5. ^ See "Rumblings of war in heart of Africa" by Abraham McLaughlin and Duncan Woodside The Christian Science Monitor 23 June 200"World War Three" by Chris Bowers My Direct Democracy 24 July 2006
  6. ^ King Leopold's Ghost by Adam Hochschild (1999) ISBN 0-618-00190-5 Houghton Mifflin Books
  7. ^ The Economist, "The Lesser of two evils", October 26th, 2006
  8. ^ The Lancet, "Mortality in the Democratic republic of Congo: a nationwide survey", 2006
  9. ^ Conflict in Congo has killed 4.7m, charity says
  10. ^ The New York Times, "War’s Chaos Steals Congo’s Young by the Millions" By Lydia Polgreen, July 30, 2006
  11. ^ Reuters Alertnet, "Congo crisis at "make-or-break" point -UN's Egeland". By Jiro Osem 06 Sep 2006
  12. ^ International Herald Tribune, "As rioters burn ballots, Congo strives to tally presidential vote", October 30th, 2006
  13. ^ The Economist, "A wilderness that may become a state", November 23rd, 2006
  14. ^ DR Congo: returns outnumber new displacements in the east IDMC, April 2007
  15. ^ RTÉ News, "UN: Violence in Congo 'beyond rape'", June 30th, 2007
  16. ^ "Eastern Congo peace deal signed" BBC News Africa (accessed 2008-01-23
  17. ^ Full text of constitution (French)
  18. ^ Concluding comments of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  19. ^ Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
  20. ^ UN expert on violence against women expresses serious concerns following visit to Democratic Republic of Congo.
  21. ^ DRC: 'Civilians bearing brunt of South Kivu violence'. “The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has expressed concern over abuses against civilians, especially women and children, in South Kivu in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, saying it frequently receives reports of abductions, executions, rapes, and pillage.”
  22. ^ DRC: 'Pendulum displacement' in the Kivus.
  23. ^ The Bukavu Women's Trauma Healing and Care Centre.
  24. ^ a b "Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo)", Adherents.com - Religion by Location. Sources quoted are CIA Factbook (1998), Library of Congress Country Studies, 'official government web site' of Democratic Republic of Congo. Retrieved 25 may 2007.
  25. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2005", United States Department of State
  26. ^ The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa By Timothy Insoll
  27. ^ "The Bushman crisis: long term solutions - international, national and local policies"PDF (67.9 KiB), WWF, 2001.

The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... This article is about the city named Brazzaville. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Department of State redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ...

Further reading

  • Tim Butcher: Blood River - A Journey To Africa's Broken Heart, 2007. ISBN 0-701-17981-3
  • Wrong, Michela, In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu's Congo
  • Hochschild, Adam, King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa, 1998.
  • Renton, David; Seddon, David; Zeilig, Leo. The Congo: Plunder and Resistance, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84277-485-4
  • Larémont, Ricardo René, ed. 2005. Borders, nationalism and the African state. Boulder, Colorado and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Devlin, Larry (2007). Chief of Station, Congo: A Memoir of 1960-67. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781586484057. 
  • Melvern, Linda, Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide and the International Community. Verso, 2004
  • Edgerton, Robert, The Troubled Heart of Africa: A History of the Congo. St. Martin's Press, December 2002.
  • Lemarchand, Reni and Hamilton, Lee; Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide. Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1994.
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Nyerere and Africa: End of an Era, Third Edition, New Africa Press, 2006, "Chapter Six: Congo in The Sixties: The Bleeding Heart of Africa," pp. 147 - 205, ISBN 978-0980253412; Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Africa and America in The Sixties: A Decade That Changed The Nation and The Destiny of A Continent, First Edition, New Africa Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0980253429.

Tim Butcher, (born 1967 in Warwickshire, UK) is an English journalist and author. ... Adam Hochschild (born 1942) is an American writer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Larry Devlin is a retired CIA field officer. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Congo (Kinshasa) (06/07) (4617 words)
D.R.C. lies on the Equator, with one-third of the country to the north and two-thirds to the south.
The area known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was populated as early as 10,000 years ago and settled in the 7th and 8th centuries A.D. by Bantus from present-day Nigeria.
The Congo was the world's fourth-largest producer of industrial diamonds during the 1980s, and diamonds continue to dominate exports, accounting for over half of exports ($642 million) in 2003.
Democratic Republic of the Congo travel guide - Wikitravel (0 words)
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (Republique Democratique du Congo) (Abbreviated:DROC) is a country in Central Africa.
The country is also known as Congo-Kinshasa to distinguish it from its northern neighbor, the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville).
The Democratic Republic of the Congo should be considered a high-risk destination, particularly outside Kinshasa, Goma and Kisangani.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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