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Encyclopedia > Democratic Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008
This article provides an overview of the nomination process. For detailed election results, see Results of the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries.
Pledged Delegate margins in the Democratic primaries and caucuses, according to the election results (which may differ from current pledged delegate estimates). Obama won the delegate count in the darkest purple states by the largest margins, while Clinton won the delegate count in the darkest green states by the largest margins. They tied in NH, MO, and GU.
Popular Vote margins in the Democratic primaries and caucuses. The darkest purple states voted for Obama by the largest margins, while the darkest green states voted for Clinton by the largest margins. (Popular vote winners and delegate winners differ in five contests: NH, NV, MO, TX, and GU.)

The 2008 Democratic primaries are the selection process by which members of the United States Democratic Party choose their candidate for the 2008 U.S. Presidential election. The Democratic candidate for President will be selected through a series of primaries and caucuses culminating in the 2008 Democratic National Convention scheduled from Monday, August 25, through Thursday, August 28, 2008, in Denver, Colorado. Image File history File links Ballot_box_current. ... This article is about the political process. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Primary. ... A caucus is most generally defined as being a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. ... The 2008 Democratic National Convention will be held from August 25 to August 28 at the Pepsi Center in Denver, Colorado. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in the State of Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State State of Colorado City and County Denver[1] Founded 1858-11-22, as Denver City, K.T.[2] Incorporated 1861-11-07, as Denver City, C.T.[3] Consolidated... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


In order to secure the nomination at the convention, a candidate must receive at least 2,117 votes from delegates (a simple majority of the 4,233 delegate votes, bearing in mind half-votes from Florida, Michigan, Democrats Abroad and the territories of Guam, American Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands). On June 3, US Senator Barack Obama passed that total as a result of his accumulated primary victories and superdelegate endorsements and became the apparent Democratic nominee, in one of the biggest upsets in United States political history. He won the nomination even with losing the popular vote to Hillary Clinton.[1] Obama is expected to become the nominee officially at the August convention. This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Democrats Abroad Democrats Abroad is the official organization of the Democratic Party of the United States for expatriates, representing Democrats that are citizens of the U.S. but live outside the United States. ... The United States Virgin Islands is a group of islands in the Caribbean that is a dependency of the United States. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... “Barack” redirects here. ...

Contents

Candidates and results

Main articles: United States Democratic presidential candidates, 2008 and Results of the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries

Notes for the following table: This article contains lists of current and former candidates associated with the 2008 Democratic Party Primaries for the 2008 United States Presidential Election. ...

  • Delegate counts:
    • The pledged delegate estimates come from the sum of the Current estimate columns for the states listed in the Chronicle section later in this article
    • The source for superdelegate estimates is the 2008 Democratic Convention Watch blog[2]
  • Ordering:
    • The candidates are ordered by pledged delegate count and then alphabetically by last name
    • To re-sort this table, click on the double-arrow symbol ( ) at the top of a column
Candidate Current or
Recent Office
Pledged Delegate
Vote Estimate[3]
Superdelegate
Vote Estimate[2]
Total Delegate
Vote Estimate
Campaign Status Links

Obama, BarackBarack Obama
U.S. Senator,
Illinois
1,765½
52%
396½
58%
2,162
53%
Presumptive
Nominee

Estimate surpassed
the 2,117 delegate votes
needed for a majority.
June 3, 2008
campaign article
campaign website

Clinton, HillaryHillary Clinton
U.S. Senator,
New York
1,639½
48%
283½
42%
1,923
47%
Active
campaign article
campaign website

Edwards, JohnJohn Edwards
Former U.S. Senator,
North Carolina

<1%
0
 

<1%
Suspended,
January 30, 2008.
Endorsed Obama,
May 14, 2008.[4]
campaign article
campaign website

Biden, JoeJoe Biden
U.S. Senator,
Delaware
0 0 0 Withdrew,
January 3, 2008.
campaign article
campaign website

Dodd, ChristopherChris Dodd
U.S. Senator,
Connecticut
0 0 0 Withdrew,
January 3, 2008.
Endorsed Obama,
February 26, 2008.
campaign article
campaign website

Gravel, MikeMike Gravel
Former U.S. Senator,
Alaska
0 0 0 Endorsed Jesse Johnson,
March 13, 2008.
Joined Libertarian Party,
March 25, 2008.
campaign article
campaign website

Kucinich, DennisDennis Kucinich
U.S. Representative,
Ohio
0 0 0 Withdrew,
January 23, 2008.
campaign article
campaign website

Richardson, BillBill Richardson
Governor,
New Mexico
0 0 0 Withdrew,
January 10, 2008.
Endorsed Obama,
March 21, 2008.
campaign article
campaign website

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Barack_Obama. ... “Barack” redirects here. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Barack Obama, the junior United States Senator from Illinois, announced his candidacy for the presidency of the United States in Springfield, Illinois, on February 10, 2007. ... REDIRECT Hillary Rodham Clinton   This is a redirect from a title with another method of capitalisation. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the state. ... New York junior Senator and former First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton had expressed interest in the 2008 United States presidential election[1] since at least October 2002, drawing media speculation on whether she would become a candidate. ... Image File history File links John_Edwards,_official_Senate_photo_portrait. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... John Edwards campaigning in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on Labor day in 2007. ... Biden redirects here. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... United States Democratic Senator Joe Biden of Delaware, announced his candidacy for president of the United States on the January 7, 2007 edition of Meet the Press. ... Christopher John Dodd (born May 27, 1944) is an American lawyer and politician from Willimantic, Connecticut. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Senior Senator Chris Dodd (D-CT) has sought the nomination of the Democratic Party for President of the United States since entering the race early in January 2007. ... Image File history File links Alaska Senator Mike Gravel. ... Maurice Robert Mike Gravel (pronounced ) (born May 13, 1930) is a former Democratic United States Senator from Alaska, who served two terms from 1969 to 1981, and is a candidate in the 2008 presidential election. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party founded on December 11, 1971. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...   Mike Gravel, a former United States Senator from Alaska, on April 17, 2006 became a declared candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2008 election,[1] announcing his run in a speech to the National Press Club. ... Photo of Dennis Kucinich File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dennis John Kucinich (IPA: ) (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic party and a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in both 2004 and 2008. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Dennis Kucinich announced on December 26, 2006 that he would persue the nomination for the Democratic President of the United States. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (488 × 683 pixels, file size: 82 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other persons named William Richardson, see William Richardson (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Governors of the state of New Mexico (est. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

Delegate system

Delegates are the people who will decide the nomination at the Democratic National Convention. Delegates from forty-eight US states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have a single vote each, while delegates from American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam and Democrats Abroad, as well as the states of Florida and Michigan which contravened the schedule, have half a vote each. Thus, the total number of delegates is slightly higher than the total number of available delegate votes (4,049).[5] [now updated to 4,233 with FL-MI delegations] The 2008 Democratic National Convention will be held from August 25 to August 28 at the Pepsi Center in Denver, Colorado. ... ... Democrats Abroad Democrats Abroad is the official organization of the Democratic Party of the United States for expatriates, representing Democrats that are citizens of the U.S. but live outside the United States. ...


Pledged delegates

Democratic candidates campaign for the nomination in a series of primary elections and caucus events. The results from these primaries and caucuses determine the number of pledged delegates committed to vote for each candidate at the Democratic National Convention. Pledged delegates are allocated to each of the fifty US states following two main criteria: (1) the proportion of votes each state gave to the Democratic candidate in the last three presidential elections, and (2) the percentage of votes each state has in the United States Electoral College. In addition, fixed numbers of delegates are allocated to the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Democrats Abroad under the party's Delegate Selection Rules for the 2008 Democratic National Convention.[6] Pledged delegates reflect the preferences of voters but are not actually legally bound to vote for the candidate they represent. However, since candidates may remove delegates who they feel may be disloyal, the delegates generally vote as pledged.[7] In 2008, a total of 3,253 pledged delegate votes will be awarded through the primaries and caucuses. Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent...


Superdelegates

Main article: List of Democratic Party (United States) superdelegates, 2008

There are currently a total of 823.5 unpledged delegates (known as superdelegates) who are free to vote for any candidate at the convention. Superdelegate votes are given equal weight to the votes of pledged delegates. Superdelegates are members of the United States House of Representatives and Senate, state and territorial governors, members of the Democratic National Committee, distinguished party leaders, and add-on delegates selected by the state parties. They represent almost 20 percent of the total 4,233 delegates. Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Current party control of Governors offices (2006). ... The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the principal organization governing the United States Democratic Party on a day to day basis. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


The number and composition of superdelegates can change right up to the start of the Democratic National Convention. The total number of superdelegate votes at the start of the primary season in October 2007 stood at 850. Various events such as deaths, elections, and disqualifications have brought the total to its current state. Further change is possible, given that in Maryland's 4th congressional district special election, 2008, on June 17, the Democrat is heavily favored to win a currently open seat.[8] is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


While officially uncommitted until the convention, the superdelegates may publicly endorse or commit to a candidate at any time. The presidential candidates compete heavily for these commitments. News organizations survey the superdelegates periodically throughout the election season and try to calculate how many have committed to each of the candidates. The media often include these superdelegate estimates in their reporting on the race, leading to differing delegate counts from various news sources.


Delegate selection rules

Washington Democrats meet in the legislative district caucuses.

Under the Democratic Party's Delegate Selection Rules for the 2008 Democratic National Convention,[6] delegates are awarded by proportional representation, with a minimum 15 percent threshold required in order to receive delegates. Each state party is required to publish its own state level delegate selection plan, indicating how the state will select delegates at the congressional and statewide level, how the delegation will implement the party's affirmative action policy, and how the delegation will ensure an equal balance between women and men. Those plans were adopted at state conventions and forwarded to the national party in mid-2007. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota...


In most state caucuses, the viability threshold must be met at each level in the process, from the precinct level upwards. This puts enormous pressure on the remaining candidates to gain the support of voters whose chosen candidates fall below the 15 percent mark.[9] The focus on viability is designed to weed out small, divisive factions from gaining delegates to disrupt the national convention. However, this can result in candidates gaining viability in some precincts but not in others, and a complicated "caucus math" is required to allocate delegates to the county and state conventions for each precinct.[10] In the primaries, the viability threshold is set based on statewide and congressional district votes. At-large and PLEO (Party Leaders and Elected Officials) delegates are allocated based on statewide votes, while district-level delegates are allocated by district votes.[6]


Although journalists at several news outlets[11][12] have indicated that Puerto Rico's 63 delegates will all be awarded to a single candidate rather than proportionally, the party's Delegate Selection Plan states that delegates are to be allocated in a manner similar to other state caucuses.[13] The Washington Post Fact Checker has determined that the "winner take all" Puerto Rican primary is a myth.[14] The misconception is derived from the fact that by the time Puerto Rico votes, late in the primary season, there is often only one candidate still on the ballot. The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...


Reporting delegate totals

There is no easy answer to the question, What's the current count? Each of the major news organizations keeps a count of delegate votes, while the campaigns keep their own numbers. Rarely do these totals coincide. Some online sources use an aggregate of sources, leading to even more confusion in delegate vote totals. The actual result may not be known until the votes are cast at the Democratic National Convention.


There are several reasons for this discrepancy. First, some news sources include only pledged delegates in their total count, while others include superdelegates. Second, estimates of superdelegate votes are unreliable and are subject to change. Third, pledged delegates in many states are selected at county or state conventions late in the process; thus, the initial primary and caucus results provide only a projection of pledged delegates, highlighted by the discrepancies with the Iowa county convention results. Fourth, in the days after an election, results in individual precincts may be delayed, and news organizations may project the winners of those precincts based on statistical analysis or may wait for confirmed results. The Democratic nominating process is a complex (perhaps even byzantine) system that has evolved over time, and in close races, it can be difficult under the current system to know who is leading in the delegate count.[15] The term Byzantine was first applied to the eastern Roman Empire by historians in the 16th century, decades after the Fall of Constantinople to the forces of Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire on 29 May 1453. ...


This article uses pledged delegate estimates from the respective Wikipedia articles of each state primary or caucus. Reliable sources appropriate to each state's individual process are found in those articles. The Not Yet Assigned columns in the tables below reflect pledged delegates that these sources have not yet allocated to any candidates. For superdelegate vote estimates, this article uses the Democratic Convention Watch blog.[2] A periodically updated article on the blog also provides a comparison of the delegate totals from several different sources (CBS, CNN, NBC, Associated Press, and The Green Papers). This article is about the broadcast network. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... This article is about the television network. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


Brokered convention

In most modern United States presidential primaries, the Democratic nominee is known well in advance of the official nomination at the Democratic National Convention. Typically, a presumptive nominee emerges when one candidate receives a majority of the available pledged delegates and superdelegates, and all other candidates drop out of the race.


If no candidate receives a clear majority of delegates, the party may head into the convention without a presumptive nominee. This is known as a brokered convention. The nominee is then determined by a series of floor votes at the convention, which may be preceded by negotiations among the party leaders and candidates. Pledged delegates and superdelegates may switch their support, and negotiations continue until one candidate receives a majority of votes. The last brokered Democratic convention was in 1952. The 1952 Democratic National Convention was held in Chicago, Illinois. ...


Sometimes the term “brokered convention” is used loosely to refer to any process by which party leaders negotiate among themselves to bring an end to the nominating process. For example, in 2008, if neither of the candidates were to receive a majority of delegates by the final primaries on June 3, party leaders could step in to broker a deal by which superdelegates could come together to provide clear support for a candidate before the August 25 convention. is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Chronicle

See also: Results of the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries, Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008, and Hillary Clinton presidential campaign, 2008

Notes for the tables in this section: Barack Obama, the junior United States Senator from Illinois, announced his candidacy for the presidency of the United States in Springfield, Illinois, on February 10, 2007. ... New York Senator and former First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton had expressed interest in the 2008 United States presidential race[1] since at least October 2002, drawing media speculation on whether or not she would become a candidate. ...

  • Votes to the Convention column:
    • The source for delegation sizes is the Democratic National Committee's official Call for the 2008 Democratic National Convention.[16] Specific sources are present for Florida and Michigan. Very recent changes not already in the official source are indicated by the footnotes.
  • Pledged Delegate Votes Estimate column:
    • The source is each state's primary or caucus article. Click on the Specific Election (link) column to see the sources used in those articles.
    • The candidate with the highest pledged delegate vote is highlighted. In some cases, this may be different from the winner of the popular vote.

Early campaigning

Mike Gravel at the launch of his Presidential campaign in April 2006

The race for the 2008 presidential nomination began in earnest after the 2006 midterm elections. Between November 2006 and February 2007, eight major candidates opened their campaigns—Joe Biden, Hillary Clinton, Chris Dodd, John Edwards, Dennis Kucinich, Barack Obama, Bill Richardson, and Tom Vilsack—joining Mike Gravel, who had announced his candidacy in April 2006. Potential candidates John Kerry, Al Gore, Russ Feingold, Evan Bayh, Tom Daschle, Wesley Clark, Mark Warner, and Al Sharpton reportedly considered running but ultimately declined to seek the nomination. Vilsack dropped out in February 2007. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ... United States Democratic Senator Joe Biden of Delaware, announced his candidacy for president of the United States on the January 7, 2007 edition of Meet the Press. ... New York Senator and former First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton had expressed interest in the 2008 United States presidential race[1] since at least October 2002, drawing media speculation on whether or not she would become a candidate. ... Senior Senator Chris Dodd (D-CT) has sought the nomination of the Democratic Party for President of the United States since entering the race early in January 2007. ... John Edwards campaigning in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on Labor day in 2007. ... Dennis Kucinich announced on December 26, 2006 that he would persue the nomination for the Democratic President of the United States. ... Barack Obama, the junior United States Senator from Illinois, announced his candidacy for the presidency of the United States in Springfield, Illinois, on February 10, 2007. ... Thomas James Vilsack (born December 13, 1950) is an American politician, a member of the Democratic Party, and served as the 40th Governor of the state of Iowa. ...   Mike Gravel, a former United States Senator from Alaska, on April 17, 2006 became a declared candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2008 election,[1] announcing his run in a speech to the National Press Club. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Russell Dana Russ Feingold (born March 2, 1953) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... Birch Evans Bayh III (commonly known as Evan Bayh) (pronounced like bye; IPA pronunciation: ) (born December 26, 1955) is an American politician who has served as the junior U.S. Senator from Indiana since 1999 and a former Governor of Indiana. ... Thomas Andrew Daschle (born December 9, 1947) is a former U.S. Senator and Senate Majority Leader from South Dakota. ... Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. ... Mark Robert Warner (born December 15, 1954) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Alfred Charles Al Sharpton Jr. ...


In the first three months of 2007, Clinton and Obama raised more than $20 million each and Edwards raised more than $12 million.[17] The three candidates quickly became the frontrunners for the nomination,[18] a status they held all the way through the end of 2007. At the end of the year, December 31, Clinton held a substantial lead in superdelegates, and she was leading in the national polls with 42% of likely voters, over Obama, 23%, and Edwards, 16%.[19] However, Edwards and Obama remained close in state polls for the early contests, including the Iowa caucuses, where the final polling average had Obama leading narrowly, 31%, over Clinton, 30%, Edwards, 26%, Biden, 5%, and Richardson, 5%.[20] is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


January 2008

Following tradition, the 2008 primary calendar began with the Iowa caucus and the New Hampshire primary. The Nevada caucus and the South Carolina primary were the third and fourth contests sanctioned by the Democratic National Committee. Under the national committee's rules, no state was allowed to hold primaries or caucuses before February 5 with the exceptions of these four states.[21] Michigan and Florida also held early primaries, but as the contests were unsanctioned, the results were not recognized by the national committee until a political compromise was reached four months later.[22] is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The following table shows the pledged delegate votes awarded in the first four contests recognized by the DNC.

Details Delegate Votes to the Convention Pledged Delegate Vote Count[23]
Election Result Change
Notes
Current Estimate
Date Election link Pledged Super Total Obama Clinton Edwards Obama Clinton Edwards
January 3 Iowa caucuses 45 12 57 16 15 14 [24] 26 14 5
January 8 New Hampshire primary 22 8 30 9 9 4 [25] 12 9 1
January 19 Nevada caucuses 25 9 34 13 12 0 [26] 14 11 0
January 26 South Carolina primary 45 9 54 25 12 8 [27] 32 12 1
- Total 137 38 175 63 48 26 84 46 7

Obama won the Iowa caucuses with 38% of the vote, over Edwards, 30%, and Clinton, 29%. His victory brought him to national prominence as many voters tuned in to the race for the first time. In a speech that evening, he defined change as the primary theme of his campaign and said, "On this January night, at this defining moment in history, you have done what the cynics said we couldn't do."[28] The delegate count was virtually tied, but Clinton’s surprising third-place finish in the popular vote damaged her image as the "inevitable" nominee.[29] However, she remained upbeat, saying "This race begins tonight and ends when Democrats throughout America have their say. Our campaign was built for a marathon."[29] The following day, reports described "panic" among some Clinton donors,[30] and rumors of a staff shake-up began to circulate.[31] Biden and Dodd withdrew from the race. is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

John Edwards campaigns in New Hampshire.

After Obama's upset win in Iowa, it appeared to many political observers that he would ride a wave of momentum through the New Hampshire primaries and then onward to win the Democratic nomination. Eulogies were published on the Clinton campaign,[32] as Obama surged to a roughly 10-point lead in the New Hampshire polls.[33] However, the race turned quickly in the days before the primary, and the polls were slow to register a reversal toward Clinton. On January 5, Edwards sided with Obama against Clinton in a televised debate.[34] In one noted exchange, Edwards said that Clinton could not bring about change, while he and Obama could: "Any time you speak out powerfully for change, the forces for status quo attack." Clinton passionately retorted, "Making change is not about what you believe; it's not about a speech you make. It's about working hard. I'm not just running on a promise for change. I'm running on 35 years of change. What we need is somebody who can deliver change. We don't need to be raising false hopes."[35] It came to be seen as the defining statement for her candidacy. The morning before the primary, Clinton became "visibly emotional" in response to a friendly question from a voter.[36] Video of the moment was replayed on cable news television throughout the day, accompanied by pundit commentary that ranged from sympathetic to callous in tone. Voters rallied to Clinton's defense, and she won a surprising three-percent victory over Obama in the popular vote. They tied in the delegate count. Richardson withdrew from the race on January 10. is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... discussion redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Cable News be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Momentum shifted in Clinton's favor, and she won the popular vote in the Nevada caucuses eleven days later, despite Obama's endorsement from the influential Culinary Workers Union. However, Obama ran strongly in rural areas throughout the state and beat Clinton in the delegate count. Edwards's support collapsed in Nevada, as voters coalesced around the two apparent frontrunners. Dennis Kucinich withdrew from the race. In the following week, issues of race came to the fore as campaigning began for the South Carolina primary, the first to feature a large proportion of African Americans in the Democratic electorate. Behind in the state polls, Hillary Clinton left to campaign in some Super Tuesday states,[37] while her husband, former president Bill Clinton, stayed in South Carolina and engaged in a series of exchanges with Obama.[38] CBS News reported, "By injecting himself into the Democratic primary campaign with a series of inflammatory and negative statements, Bill Clinton may have helped his wife's presidential hopes in the long term but at the cost of his reputation with a group of voters African Americans that have long been one of his strongest bases of political support."[39] Obama won by a more than two-to-one margin over Clinton, gaining 55% of the vote to her 27% and Edwards's 18%.[40] The day of the primary, Bill Clinton compared Obama's expected win to Jesse Jackson's victory in the 1988 South Carolina primary. His comments were widely criticized as an apparent attempt to dismiss the primary results and marginalize Obama by implying that he was "the black candidate."[41] The momentum generated by Obama's larger-than-expected win in South Carolina was deflated somewhat by the win Clinton claimed in the nullifed Florida primary the following week. John Edwards suspended his candidacy on January 30. He did not immediately endorse either Clinton or Obama, but said they both had pledged to carry forward his central campaign theme of ending poverty in America. Neither Clinton nor Obama had a clear advantage heading into the Super Tuesday primaries, with 23 states and territories and 1,681 delegates at stake and more media attention than any primary election day in American history. // Main article: Racial demographics of the United States The United States is a diverse country racially. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Disputed primaries

Main articles: Florida Democratic primary, 2008 and Michigan Democratic primary, 2008

In August 2006, the Democratic National Committee adopted a proposal by its Rules and Bylaws Committee stating that only the four states of Iowa, New Hampshire, Nevada, and South Carolina would be permitted to hold primaries or caucuses before February 5, 2008.[42] In May 2007, the Florida Legislature passed a bill that moved the date of the state's primary to January 29, 2008, setting up a confrontation with the DNC.[43] In response, the DNC ruled that Florida's 185 pledged delegates and 26 superdelegates would not be seated at the Democratic National Convention, or, if seated, would not be able to vote.[44] In October 2007, Democrats from Florida's congressional delegation filed a federal lawsuit against the DNC to force a recognition of its delegates, but the suit was unsuccessful.[45][42] The presidential candidates promised not to campaign in Florida. is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The Florida Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Florida. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Florida to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ...


Meanwhile, Michigan moved its primary to January 15, 2008, also in violation of party rules. In October 2007, Obama, Richardson, Biden, and Edwards withdrew their names from the Michigan primary ballot, under pressure from the DNC and voters in Iowa and New Hampshire.[46] Kucinich unsuccessfully sought to remove his name from the ballot,[47] whereas Clinton and Dodd opted to remain on the ballot.[48] In December 2007, the DNC ruled that Michigan's 128 pledged delegates and 29 superdelegates would not count in the nominating contest unless it were held on a later date.[49] The Michigan Democratic party responded with a press release noting that the primary would proceed with Clinton, Dodd, Gravel, and Kucinich on the ballot. Supporters of Biden, Edwards, Richardson, and Obama were urged to vote "uncommitted" instead of writing in their candidates’ names because write-in votes for those candidates would not be counted.[50] is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


None of the top candidates campaigned in Florida or Michigan. The events were described in the media as "beauty contests,"[51] and voter turnout in both states was relatively low when compared with record-high turnout in other states.[52] Nevertheless, Clinton claimed wins in Florida and Michigan, and she flew to Fort Lauderdale on the night of the Florida election to thank supporters for what she called a "tremendous victory."[53] Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Broward Established 27 March 1911 Government  - Type Commission-Manager  - Mayor Jim Naugle Area [1]  - City 36. ...


As the primaries continued, various groups tried to negotiate a resolution to the standoff between the DNC and the state parties. The Clinton campaign advocated first for the results to stand and then for a new round of voting to take place in Michigan and Florida, while the Obama campaign deferred the matter to the DNC, while expressing a wish that the delegations be seated in some form.[54] On all sides, Democrats worried that a failure to resolve the problem could lead to a rules or credential fight at the convention and low Democratic turnout in the general election in November.[51]


On May 31, 2008 The DNC Rules and Bylaws Committee[55] [56] voted unanimously (27-0) to restore half-votes to all the Florida Delegates, including superdelegates. The Michigan delegates were also given half-votes, with 69 delegates pledged to Hillary Clinton and 59 to Barack Obama; this proposed change passing by 19-8.[57] The delegates will be so seated at the convention unless an appeal is subsequently filed with the Credentials Committee at the Convention itself, in Denver in late August.[58] [59] is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the principal organization governing the United States Democratic Party on a day to day basis. ...

Details Restored Votes to the Convention[60] Pledged Delegate Vote Count[23]
Awarded by the DNC[61] Change
Notes
Current Estimate
Date Election link Pledged Super Total Obama Clinton Edwards Obama Clinton Edwards
January 15 Michigan primary 64   14½[62]   78½   29½ 34½ 0 29½ 34½ 0
January 29 Florida primary   92½ 13[63] 105½ 34½ 52½ [64] 35 52½ 5
- Total 156½ 27½ 184 64 87 64½ 87 5

is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Super Tuesday

Main article: Super Tuesday (2008)
Staffers make phone calls to voters from Clinton's national campaign headquarters.

Traditionally, the Tuesday on which the greatest number of states hold primary elections is known as Super Tuesday. In 2007, many states moved their primaries or caucuses early in the calendar to have greater influence over the race. As February 5 was the earliest date allowed by the Democratic National Committee, 23 states and territories moved their elections to that date. This year's Super Tuesday became the date of the nation's first quasi-national primary. It was dubbed "Super Duper Tuesday"[65] or "Tsunami Tuesday,"[66] among other names. In the United States, Super Tuesday commonly refers to a Tuesday in early March of a presidential election year. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After Obama's win in South Carolina on January 26, he received high-profile endorsements from Caroline Kennedy, daughter of former President John F. Kennedy,[67] as well as Senator Ted Kennedy, the former President's brother.[68] Ted Kennedy's endorsement was considered "the biggest Democratic endorsement Obama could possibly get short of Bill Clinton or Al Gore."[69] On January 31, Obama and Clinton met for the first time in a one-on-one debate, and they struck a friendly tone, seeking to put the racially-charged comments of the previous week behind them.[70] Obama surged nationally in the polls and held campaign rallies that drew audiences of more than 15,000 people in several states.[71] is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Caroline Bouvier Kennedy Schlossberg (born November 27, 1957) is the daughter and only surviving child of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and his wife, Jacqueline. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... For other persons named Ted Kennedy, see Ted Kennedy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A total of 1,681 pledged delegate votes were at stake in the states that voted on February 5. The following table shows the pledged delegate votes awarded in the Super Tuesday states. is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Details Delegate Votes to the Convention Pledged Delegate Vote Count[23]
Election Result Change
Notes
Current Estimate
Election link Pledged Super Total Obama Clinton Obama Clinton
Alabama primary 52 8 60 27 25 27 25
Alaska caucuses 13 4 17 9 4 [72] 10 3
American Samoa caucuses 3 6 9 1 2 1 2
Arizona primary 56 11 67 25 31 25 31
Arkansas primary 35 12 47 8 27 8 27
California primary 370 71 441 166 204 166 204
Colorado caucuses 55 15 70 35 20 [73] 36 19
Connecticut primary 48 12 60 26 22 26 22
Delaware primary 15 8 23 9 6 9 6
Georgia primary 87 15 102 60 27 60 27
Idaho caucuses 18 5 23 15 3 15 3
Illinois primary 153 31 184 104 49 104 49
Kansas caucuses 32 9 41 23 9 23 9
Massachusetts primary 93 28 121 38 55 38 55
Minnesota caucuses 72 16 88 48 24 48 24
Missouri primary 72 16 88 36 36 36 36
New Jersey primary 107 20 127 48 59 48 59
New Mexico primary 26 12 38 12 14 12 14
New York primary 232 49 281 93 139 93 139
North Dakota caucuses 13 8 21 8 5 8 5
Oklahoma primary 38 10 48 14 24 14 24
Tennessee primary 68 17 85 28 40 28 40
Utah primary 23 6 29 14 9 14 9
Total 1,681 390 2,071 847 834 849 832

On election night, both Obama and Clinton claimed victories. In the popular vote, Obama won 13 states and territories to Clinton's 10, including states like Idaho and Georgia where he won by very wide margins. His wins in Connecticut and Missouri were considered upsets. However, Clinton won the large electoral prizes of California and Massachusetts, where some analysts had expected the Kennedy endorsements might carry Obama to victory. Although Obama gained significant ground from where he was polling in mid-January, it was not enough to close the gap in those states. In exit polls, Obama gained the overwhelming support of African American voters, and he strengthened his base among college-educated voters and voters younger than 45. Clinton found significant support among white women, Latinos, and voters over the age of 65. Obama ran strongest in caucus states, Rocky Mountain states, the South and the Midwest. Clinton ran strongest in the Northeast, the Southwest, and the states adjacent to Arkansas, where she served as first lady. When the delegate counting was finished, Obama won an estimated 847 pledged delegates to Clinton's 834. Early in the primary season, many observers had predicted that the nomination would be over after Super Tuesday, but the general verdict on election night was that the candidates had drawn to a virtual tie and that the race for the Democratic presidential nomination would not likely be settled for a month, at least.[74] An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Historic Southern United States. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Northeastern redirects here. ... A compass rose with Southwest highlighted. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... In the United States, Super Tuesday commonly refers to a Tuesday in early March of a presidential election year. ...


Mid-February contests

In the following week, it became clear that a "tie" on Super Tuesday left Obama better positioned for the upcoming contests in February, where the demographics of several large states seemed to favor him.[75] The day after Super Tuesday, February 6, Clinton announced that she had personally loaned her campaign $5 million in January.[74] The news came as a surprise and set off another round of news stories about Clinton donors and supporters concerned about the campaign's strategy. It was particularly striking in contrast to Obama's announcement that he had raised a record-high $32 million in January, tapping 170,000 new contributors.[76] It became clear that Obama's financial advantage had allowed him to organize and compete in a broader set of states on Super Tuesday, an advantage which was likely to continue in the coming weeks and months. Clinton's supporters responded by raising $6 million online in 36 hours, but Obama's campaign upped the ante, announcing their own total of $7.5 million in 36 hours and starting a new goal of reaching 500,000 new contributors in 2008 by the end of February.[77] is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Details Delegate Votes to the Convention Pledged Delegate Vote Count[23]
Election Result Change
Notes
Current Estimate
Date Election link Pledged Super Total Obama Clinton Obama Clinton
February 9 Louisiana primary 56 11 67 33 23 33 23
Nebraska caucuses 24 7 31 16 8 16 8
U.S. Virgin Islands primary 3 6 9 3 0 3 0
Washington caucuses[78][79] 78 19 97 52 26 52 26
February 10 Maine caucuses 24 8 32 15 9 15 9
February 5-12 Democrats Abroad primary 7 4 11
February 12 D.C. primary 15 24 39 12 3 [80] 13 2
Maryland primary 70 28[81] 98 42 28 [82] 43 27
Virginia primary 83 18 101 54 29 54 29
February 19 Hawaii caucuses 20 9 29 14 6 14 6
Wisconsin primary 74 18 92 42 32 42 32
- Total 454 152 606 287½ 166½ 289½ 164½
An Obama rally in Seattle, Washington, draws 18,000 people.

As expected, Obama swept the three nominating events on February 9, which were thought to favor him based on the results in similar states that had voted previously. He then scored a convincing win in Maine, where Clinton had hoped to hold her ground.[83] The same day, Clinton's campaign announced the resignation of campaign advisor Patty Solis Doyle. Obama's momentum carried through the following week, as he scored large delegate gains in the Potomac Primaries, taking the lead in the nationwide popular vote, even under the projection most favorable to Clinton, with Florida and Michigan included. NBC News declared him "Mr. Frontrunner" on February 13.[84] Clinton attempted a comeback win in the demographically more favorable state of Wisconsin, but Obama won again by a larger margin than expected. In a span of 11 days, he swept 11 contests and extended his pledged delegate lead by 120. At the end of the month, Obama had 1,192 pledged delegates to Clinton's 1,035. He also began to close the gap in superdelegates, although Clinton still led among superdelegates, 240 to 191.[85] Clinton's campaign tried to downplay the results of the February contests, and the candidate refused to acknowledge the losses in her speeches on election nights. Her advisers acknowledged that she would need big wins in the upcoming states to turn the race around. is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


March

See also: Jeremiah Wright controversy and A More Perfect Union (speech)

With four states and 370 delegates at stake, March 4 was dubbed "Mini-Super Tuesday" or "Super Tuesday 2.0." Just as Obama had been favored in the mid-February states, Clinton was favored in Ohio, with its high proportion of working-class white voters and older voters, and Texas, with its high proportion of Latino voters. Exit polls in previous states showed that all three groups were a part of Clinton's base. In mid-February, Clinton held a 10-point lead in Texas and a 20-point lead in Ohio in RealClearPolitics polling averages.[86] The Clinton campaign set its sights on the Ohio-Texas "firewall," counting on a clear March 4 win to change the narrative and turn around her campaign for the nomination. Meanwhile, Obama hoped to score a win in one or both states that might be enough to knock Clinton out of the race. By February 25, they were in a statistical dead heat in Texas, according to a CNN poll.[87] is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statue of a coal miner in Charleston, WV, USA. Working class is a term used in academic sociology and in ordinary conversation. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... RealClearPolitics is a right-leaning Chicago based political website founded in 2000 by John McIntyre and Tom Bevan. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...

Clinton campaigns in Lorain, Ohio.

In the last week of February, Clinton's campaign seemed to be back on its feet. A Saturday Night Live sketch mocked the media for its supposedly biased coverage in favor of Obama, and Clinton used the sketch to argue that Obama had not received proper scrutiny. The media responded by taking a more critical look at Obama's campaign.[88] Meanwhile, Obama supporter and former fundraiser Tony Rezko went on trial in a political corruption case in Chicago. While Obama was not implicated, questions remained about how forthcoming he had been about his relationship with Rezko.[88] Controversy also erupted when it was reported in the Canadian press that Obama economic advisor Austan Goolsbee had privately offered assurances that Obama's anti-NAFTA rhetoric on the campaign trail was exaggerated. Obama's campaign denied the substance of the report, but their response was muddled by a series of missteps and may have hurt the candidate's standing with Ohio voters.[89] Clinton launched a five-point attack on Obama's qualifications, "unleashing what one Clinton aide called a 'kitchen sink' fusillade," according to The New York Times.[90] Perhaps the most damaging component was a campaign ad that aired in Texas, using the imagery of the White House "red phone" to suggest that Obama would not be prepared to handle a crisis as commander-in-chief when a phone call comes in to the White House at 3 a.m. The ad drew significant media attention in the four days before the election.[91] SNL redirects here. ... Austan D. Goolsbee is a leading bigot and is currently the Robert P. Gwinn Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. ... Nafta or NAFTA may refer to: an acronym for the North American Free Trade Agreement an acronym for the New Zealand Australia Free Trade Agreement the town/Tokyo of Nafta, Tunisia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...

Details Delegate Votes to the Convention Pledged Delegate Vote Count[23]
Election Result Change
Notes
Current Estimate
Date Election link Pledged Super Total Obama Clinton Obama Clinton
March 4 Ohio primary 141 21 162 67 74 67 74
Rhode Island primary 21 12 33 8 13 8 13
Texas primary[92] 126 35 228 61 65 61 65
Texas caucuses[92] 67 38 29 [93] 37 30
Vermont primary 15 8 23 9 6 9 6
March 8 Wyoming caucuses 12 6 18 7 5 7 5
March 11 Mississippi primary 33 8 41 20 13 20 13
- Total 415 90 505 210 205 209 206

On election night, Clinton scored convincing wins in Ohio and Rhode Island. She narrowly won the Texas primary, while losing the Texas caucus. She pitched her wins that night as a comeback: "For everyone here in Ohio and across America who's ever been counted out but refused to be knocked out, and for everyone who has stumbled but stood right back up, and for everyone who works hard and never gives up, this one is for you."[94] is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Obama focused on the "delegate math." He won the total delegate count in Texas, and he stayed close to Clinton on the delegate count in Ohio. "No matter what happens tonight," he said, "we have nearly the same delegate lead that we did this morning, and we are on our way to winning this nomination."[95] After winning contests in Wyoming and Mississippi the following week, Obama erased Clinton's March 4 gains. On March 15, he increased his lead by 10 delegates at the Iowa county conventions, when former supporters of withdrawn candidates switched their support to him. is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the March contests, the Democratic race entered a six-week period with no upcoming contests until April 22. As the campaigns settled in for the long haul, advisors for both candidates escalated their rhetoric and stepped up attacks in their daily conference calls. News reports described the tenor as increasingly "rancorous" and "vitriolic."[96] is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A conference call is a telephone call in which the calling party wishes to have more than one called party listen in to the audio portion of the call. ...

Obama delivers his speech on race, A More Perfect Union.

On March 14, clips of controversial sermons from Obama's former pastor, Jeremiah Wright, resurfaced on YouTube and received heavy airtime on cable news television. Among other things, Wright said, "God damn America for treating our citizens as less than human. God damn America for as long as she acts like she is God and she is supreme." Four days later, Obama responded to the controversy in a 37-minute speech, speaking openly about race and religion in the United States. He denounced Wright's remarks while refusing to condemn the pastor himself, and he attempted to pivot from the immediate circumstances to address the larger theme of "A More Perfect Union." The speech was regarded as "breathtakingly unconventional" in its political strategy and tone,[97] and it received generally positive reviews in the press. The New York Times weighed in with an editorial: "Senator Barack Obama, who has not faced such tests of character this year, faced one on Tuesday. It is hard to imagine how he could have handled it better."[98] Ten days later, the speech had been watched at least 3.4 million times on YouTube.[99] is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Reverend Dr. Jeremiah A. Wright, Jr. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ...


On March 21, former primary candidate Bill Richardson endorsed Barack Obama, a move that drew intense criticism from Clinton allies, including James Carville's Eastertime comparison of Richardson with Judas Iscariot.[100] On March 25, Mike Gravel announced that he would leave the Democrats and join the Libertarian Party, entering the race for the 2008 Libertarian presidential nomination the following day.[101] is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Carville James Carville (born October 25, 1944) is an American political consultant, commentator, media personality and pundit. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Iscariot redirects here. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party founded on December 11, 1971. ...


April and beyond

On May 18, Obama speaks to a crowd of 75,000 in Portland, Oregon.[102]

As the race continued to Pennsylvania, Indiana, and North Carolina, many observers concluded that Clinton had little chance to overcome Obama's lead in pledged delegates.[103] Even if she were to succeed changing the dynamics of the race, there would not be enough pledged delegates remaining for her to catch up under most realistic scenarios.[104] Some analysts believed Clinton could still win the nomination by raising doubts about Obama’s electability, fighting for Michigan and Florida delegates to be seated at the convention, and convincing superdelegates to support her despite her expected loss in the pledged delegate vote.[105] However, the window of opportunity for re-votes in Michigan and Florida appeared to close in late March,[104] and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, chair of the Democratic National Convention, said that it would be harmful to the party if superdelegates were to overturn the result of the pledged delegate vote.[106] The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Complicating the equation for Democrats, presidential candidate John McCain clinched the Republican nomination on March 4. With Obama and Clinton engaged in the Democratic primary, McCain was free to define his candidacy for the general election largely unchallenged. Some Democrats expressed concern that Clinton stayed in the campaign through March and April, when they felt she had little chance to win the nomination, but a much greater chance to damage Obama's candidacy in the general election. However, others defended Clinton's right to continue on, arguing that a sustained campaign was good for the Democratic Party and that Clinton still had a realistic shot at the nomination.[107] John McCain, the senior American United States Senator from Arizona, staged his second candidacy for the presidency of the United States for the 2008 presidential election. ... The 2008 Republican primaries will be the selection process by which the Republicans elect delegates who will then elect the GOP candidate in the 2008 election for President and Vice President of the United States. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On April 22, Clinton scored a convincing win in Pennsylvania. However, on May 6, Obama surprised many observers by winning North Carolina by almost 15 percentage points, effectively erasing Clinton's gains in Pennsylvania. Clinton won by only 1 point in Indiana. With Obama now leading by 164 pledged delegates and with only 217 pledged delegates left to be decided in the remaining contests, many pundits declared that the primary was effectively over. Obama gave an election night speech that looked forward to the general election campaign against McCain.[108] The pace of superdelegate endorsements increased. On May 10, Obama's superdelegate total surpassed Clinton's for the first time in the race, making the math increasingly difficult for a Clinton win.[109] is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Clinton vowed to continue campaigning, and her advisers said they would appeal to the DNC's Rules & Bylaws Committee[110][111] to have the Michigan and Florida delegations seated. However, even under the most favorable seating arrangement, she would not have been able to take a lead in pledged delegates and would have had to rely on superdelegates to win the nomination. On May 31, the rules committee accepted the Michigan state party's 69-59 pledged delegate and restored half votes to Florida's and Michigan's delegations. This resulted in a net gain for Clinton of 24 pledged delegates. Obama remained significantly ahead, with a lead of 137 pledged delegates before the Puerto Rico primary on June 1.


On June 3, the day of the final primaries in South Dakota and Montana, Obama rolled out about sixty superdelegate endorsements. Those endorsements, together with the pledged delegates awarded in the final primaries, put him well over the "magic number" of 2,117 delegate votes necessary for a majority at the Democratic National Convention. By early in the evening, all major news organizations had announced that Obama had clinched the Democratic nomination, and Obama claimed the status of presumptive nominee in a speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton did not concede the nomination in her election night speech, saying that she would be "making no decisions tonight".[112] State capitol building in Saint Paul Saint Paul is the capital and second-largest city of the state of Minnesota in the United States of America. ...

Details Delegate Votes to the Convention Pledged Delegate Vote Count[23]
Election Result Change
Notes
Current Estimate
Date Election link Pledged Super Total Obama Clinton Obama Clinton
April 22 Pennsylvania primary 158 29 187 73 85 73 85
May 3 Guam caucuses 4 5 9 2 2 2 2
May 6 Indiana primary 72 13 85 34 38 34 38
North Carolina primary 115 19 134 67 48 67 48
May 13 West Virginia primary 28 11 39 8 20 8 20
May 20 Kentucky primary 51 9 60 14 37 14 37
Oregon primary 52 13 65 31 21 31 21
June 1 Puerto Rico primary 55 8 63 17 38 17 38
June 3 Montana primary 16 9 25 9 7 9 7
South Dakota primary 15 8 23 7 8 7 8
- At-large vacancies* - 2 2
- Total 566 126 692 262 304 262 304

* Two at-large DNC superdelegate seats are vacant, see: History of superdelegate composition changes. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Voter turnout

Democratic primary turnout exceeded Republican turnout in most states through March 4 (when John McCain clinched the Republican nomination). The six exceptions were Arizona, McCain's home state; Florida and Michigan, where Democratic primaries were nullified; and Alabama, Alaska, and Utah, states that vote reliably Republican in general presidential elections.

Voter turnout was at historically high levels in the 2008 primaries and caucuses, with many contests setting all-time records for turnout. Voter turnout on Super Tuesday was at 27% of eligible citizens, breaking the previous record of 25.9% set in 1972.[113] Turnout was higher among Democrats than Republicans, with Democratic turnout surpassing Republican turnout even in traditionally red states where the number of registered Democrats is proportionally low.[114] Many states reported high levels of Democratic voter registration in the weeks before primaries.[115] From January 3 through February 5, Democratic turnout exceeded Republican turnout, 19.1 million to 13.1 million.[116] is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Voters lining up outside a Baghdad polling station during the 2005 Iraqi election. ... GOP redirects here. ... ... Voter registration is the shit in some democracies for citizens to check in with some central registry before being allowed to vote in elections. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

In the first five weeks of 2008, 'voter turnout' was a phrase that was used almost exclusively in connection with the Democratic Party. There were routine stories of precincts running short on ballots, poll hours being extended, and voters packing haunch to paunch inside community centers and local churches. Crowd sizes were described, often with growing awe, as 'staggering,' 'record breaking,' or 'unprecedented.'

Kent Garber, U.S. News & World Report[116]

The high Democratic turnout has been attributed to several factors:[117]

  • media interest and voter excitement generated by the first viable African American and female presidential contenders.
  • the early emergence of John McCain as the presumptive nominee of the Republican Party.
  • the compressed primary calendar, which has given voters in more states an opportunity to participate in the nomination.
  • the first close nomination race since 1992 on the Democratic side.
  • dissatisfaction with presidential candidates on the Republican side.
  • open primaries in some states, which have allowed Republicans and independent voters to participate in Democratic contests.
  • dissatisfaction with President George W. Bush and Iraq War policy.
  • cyclical party realignment or realigning election.

An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... McCain redirects here. ... The 1992 Democratic presidential primary chose the Democratic nominee for the general election. ... An Open Primary is a type of direct primary open to voters regardless of their party affiliation. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Realigning election or political realignment are terms from political science and political history describing a dramatic change in the political system. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Barack Obama campaigning in New Hampshire, August 2007 U.S. Senator Barack Obama (D-IL), a candidate in the 2008 U.S. Presidential election, has taken positions on many political issues through his public comments and his senatorial voting record. ... These are some of Senator and former First Lady Hillary Rodham Clintons positions, votes, and remarks on various issues. ... The 2008 Republican primaries will be the selection process by which the Republicans elect delegates who will then elect the GOP candidate in the 2008 election for President and Vice President of the United States. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Weisman, Jonathan, et al.. "Strategy Was Based On Winning Delegates, Not Battlegrounds", Washington Post, 2008-06-04. Retrieved on 2008-06-04. 
  2. ^ a b c 2008 Democratic Convention Watch, 2008-05-31, <http://demconwatch.blogspot.com/>. Retrieved on 3 June 2008 
  3. ^ The pledged delegate estimates come from the sum of the states listed in the Chronicle section in this article.
  4. ^ "Edwards to Endorse Obama", CNN, 2008-05-14. Retrieved on 2008-05-14. 
  5. ^ Democratic Delegate Allocation - 2008. Retrieved on 2008-03-14.
  6. ^ a b c Delegate Selection Rules for the 2008 Democratic National Convention. Democratic National Committee (2006-08-19). Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  7. ^ Why delegates matter in the presidential race. CNN.
  8. ^ Teitelbaum, Michael. "Maryland's Edwards Gets Nod for House Special to Succeed Primary Rival", CQ Politics, 2008-04-25. "Donna Edwards... will be the Democratic nominee, and the almost certain winner..." 
  9. ^ FAQ's. Nevada State Democratic Party. See also: Iowa Democratic Party Precinct Caucus Fact Sheet. Iowa Democratic Party. Archived from the original on 2007-07-03.
  10. ^ Tibbetts, Ed. "So why DO we caucus, anyway?", Quad-City Times, 2007-12-15. 
  11. ^ Brooks, David. "After Super Tuesday, Long Haul Remains for '08 Hopefuls", Newshour with Jim Lehrer, PBS, 2008-02-06. Retrieved on 2008-02-06. 
  12. ^ Barone, Michael. "Puerto Rican Poll Power", US News & World Report, 2008-02-06. Retrieved on 2008-02-06. 
  13. ^ Summary of State Delegate Selection Plan (2008-02-08). Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  14. ^ Dobbs, Michael. "Will Puerto Rico decide everything?", Washington Post: Fact Checker, 2008-02-11. Retrieved on 2008-03-05. 
  15. ^ McIntire, Mike. "Media and Candidate Methods of Counting Delegates Vary and So Do Totals", New York Times, 02-09-2008. 
  16. ^ Call for the 2008 Democratic National Convention p.33. Democratic National Committee (2008-03-17). Retrieved on 2008-03-17.
  17. ^ "Campaign Finance: First Quarter 2007 FEC Filings", Washington Post, 2007.
  18. ^ Balz, Dan. "Candidates Unite in Criticizing Bush", Washington Post, 2007-04-27. Retrieved on 2007-05-30. 
  19. ^ Rasmussen Reports: Daily Presidential Tracking Polling History.
  20. ^ RealClear Politics, Final Polls, Iowa Democratic Caucus.
  21. ^ Highlights of the 2008 Rules. The Democratic Party.
  22. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7429706.stm
  23. ^ a b c d e f Sources are indicated at each state's primary or caucus article, reached by following the appropriate "Election link."
  24. ^ Several candidates have withdrawn their nomination bids since the Iowa caucuses on January 3. At the Iowa county conventions on March 15 and the district conventions on April 26, some delegates supporting the withdrawn candidates moved their support to Obama.
  25. ^ After John Edwards withdrew from the race and subsequently endorsed Barack Obama on May 14, a delegate supporting Edwards announced an intention to support Obama at the national convention.
  26. ^ Higher turnout from Obama supporters at the Nevada state convention on May 17 resulted in a 14-11 delegate split, in contrast to the 13-12 split predicted by the precinct caucuses on January 19. See: Obama flips Clinton's Nevada win; captures more national delegates, Inside Nevada Politics, May 17, 2008.
  27. ^ After John Edwards withdrew from the race and subsequently endorsed Barack Obama on May 14, some delegates supporting Edwards announced their intention to support Obama at the national convention
  28. ^ Foon Rhee. "Obama says time for change has come", The Boston Globe, 2008-01-03. Retrieved on 2008-01-04. 
  29. ^ a b Bill Nichols. "Obama and Huckabee win big in Iowa", politico.com, 2008-01-03. Retrieved on 2008-01-03. 
  30. ^ Karen Tumulty. "Clinton Machine Shaken By Setback", Time, 2008-01-05. Retrieved on 2008-01-05.  See also: Kornblut, Anne E.; Jonathan Weisman, Paul Kane. "Clinton's Supporters Question Her Strategy", Washington Post, 2008-01-05. Retrieved on 2008-01-05. 
  31. ^ Kornblut, Anne E.. "A Clinton Campaign Shakeup?", Washington Post, 2008-01-08. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. 
  32. ^ E. J. Dionne, Jr.. "A Candidacy's Prose and Cons", Washington Post, 2008-01-08. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. 
  33. ^ RealClearPolitics New Hampshire Polling Average.
  34. ^ Patrick Healy, Jeff Zelaney. "At Debate, Two Rivals Go After Defiant Clinton", New York Times, 2008-01-06. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. 
  35. ^ Mark Memmott, Jill Lawrence. "Edwards: He & Obama share a 'conviction alliance'", USA Today, 2008-01-06. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. 
  36. ^ "Clinton chokes up, is applauded, at campaign stop", CNN, 2008-01-07. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. 
  37. ^ Hillary Clinton Bill Clinton South Carolina.
  38. ^ "Hillary Largely Skipping South Carolina, Leaving The State To Bill", Talking Points Memo. 
  39. ^ Vaughn Ververs. "Analysis: Bill Clinton's Lost Legacy", CBS News. 
  40. ^ "Obama claims big win in South Carolina", CNN, 2008-01-26. Retrieved on 2008-01-26. 
  41. ^ "Bubba: Obama is like Jesse Jackson", ABCNews.com, 2008-01-26. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. 
  42. ^ a b Tomasky, Michael. "A Possibly Super Problem", New York Review of Books, 2008-03-20. Retrieved on 2008-03-15. 
  43. ^ "This bill does a lot more than advertised", 2007-05-08. Retrieved on 2008-03-11. 
  44. ^ "Orlando Sentinel Blogs", Orlando Sentinel, 2007-07-21. Retrieved on 2007-07-24. 
  45. ^ "Can the Democratic Party Ignore Florida's Primary", Christian Science Monitor, 2007-10-16. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  46. ^ Michigan Department of State (2007-10-09). "Four Candidates Withdraw from Michigan Primary Ballot". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-01-10.
  47. ^ Zachary Gorchow. "Kucinich says he'll come to Michigan after all", Detroit Free Press, 2008-01-03. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  48. ^ Kathy Barks Hoffman. "Clinton In, 5 Dems Out of Mich. Primary", Guardian Unlimited, Associated Press, 2007-10-10. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  49. ^ Stephen Ohlemacher. "Democrats Strip Michigan of Delegates", WKRN, Associated Press, 2007-12-02. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  50. ^ Michigan Democratic Party (2007-12-10). "MDP Releases Voter Guide To Help Voters Understand Presidential Primary". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-01-10.
  51. ^ a b Balz, Dan. "Sanctioned States Put Democrats in Quandary", Washington Post, 2008-02-09. Retrieved on 2008-03-20.  See also: Sheinin, Aaron Gould. "Thurmond backs re-voting in Florida, Michigan", The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 2008-03-06. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  52. ^ Krunholz, June. "Disenfranchising Non-Voters in Florida and Michigan?", Wall Street Journal, 2008-03-19. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  53. ^ Broder, John M.. "Clinton Wins in Florida, but Without Any Delegates to Sweeten the Victory", New York Times, 2008-01-30. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  54. ^ Luo, Michael. "Delegate Battles Snarl Democrats in Two States", New York Times, 2008-02-15. Retrieved on 2008-03-20.  See also: Mooney, Alexander. "Obama: Wright flap has 'shaken me up'", CNN, 2008-03-20. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  55. ^ Rules and Bylaws Committee membership. 2008 Democratic Convention Watch (2008-04-28). Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
  56. ^ Regulations of the Rules & Bylaws Committee For the 2008 Democratic National Convention (amended) (pdf). DNC (2007-02-01). Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
  57. ^ Florida and Michigan Votes Seated. 2008 Democratic Convention Watch (2008-05-31). Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
  58. ^ Happy Florida-Michigan week!. 2008 Democratic Convention Watch (2008-05-27). Retrieved on 2008-05-28.
  59. ^ Florida & Michigan Timeline - How we got here. mr. super.org (blog) (2008-05-27). Retrieved on 2008-05-28.
  60. ^ On May 31, the Rules and Bylaws Committee voted unanimously to restore half votes to the Florida and Michigan delegations
  61. ^ Welcome back. 2008 Democratic Convention Watch (2008-05-31). Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
  62. ^ +1 due to Brenda Lawrence becoming a DNC Member for National Conference of Democratic Mayors," filling a previous vacancy
  63. ^ Ken Curtis moved from Maine to Florida. (Florida +1; Maine -1)
  64. ^ Superdelegate endorsements for Tuesday, 6/3. 2008 Democratic Convention Watch (2008-06-03). Retrieved on 2008-06-03.
  65. ^ Schneider, Bill. "It could all be over after 'Super Tuesday'", CNN, 2007-02-07. Retrieved on 2007-06-03. 
  66. ^ Chuck Todd. "Will Tsunami Tuesday be an Afterthought?", MSNBC, 2007-05-10. 
  67. ^ Kennedy, Caroline. "A President Like My Father", New York Times, 2008-01-27. Retrieved on 2008-01-27. 
  68. ^ Allen, Mike; Brown, Carrie Budoff. "Ted Kennedy embraces Obama", Politico, 2008-01-27. Retrieved on 2008-01-27. 
  69. ^ Jeff Zeleny, Brian Knowlton. "Kennedy Plans to Back Obama Over Clinton", New York Times, 2008-01-27. Retrieved on 2008-01-27. 
  70. ^ Balz, Dan. "Head to Head, Clinton, Obama Shelve Rancor", Washington Post, 2008-02-01. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  71. ^ Rosenthal, Andrew. "Michelle, Maria, Caroline and Oprah on the Hustings in California", New York Times, 2008-02-04. Retrieved on 2008-03-20.  See also: Collins, Gail. "Four's a Crowd", New York Times, 2008-01-31. Retrieved on 2008-03-20.  See also: Zeleny, Jeff; Elisabeth Bumiller. "Candidates Scrambling As Wave of Votes Nears", New York Times, 2008-02-03. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  72. ^ The final result of the state convention on May 24 was a 10-3 split in pledged delegates. A 9-4 split had been predicted after the precinct caucuses on February 5. See Alaska Democratic caucuses, 2008 for details.
  73. ^ The final result of the state convention on May 17 and the district conventions was a 36-19 split. A 35-20 split had been predicted after the precinct caucuses on February 5. See Colorado Democratic caucuses, 2008 for details.
  74. ^ a b Hook, Janet; Mark Z. Barabak. "Obama, Clinton campaigns assess Super Tuesday results", Los Angeles Times, 2008-02-06. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  75. ^ Cillizza, Chris. "What's Next", The Fix, Washington Post, 2008-02-07. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  76. ^ Zeleny, Jeff; Leslie Wayne. "Enlisting New Donors, Obama Reaped $32 Million in January", New York Times, 2008-02-01. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  77. ^ Healy, Patrick; Jeff Zeleny. "Obama Outshines Clinton at Raising Funds", New York Times, 2008-02-08. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  78. ^ Washington Democrats use the February 9 caucuses to award delegates and ignore the February 19 primary. See Washington Democratic caucuses, 2008 for details.
  79. ^ Yardley, William. "In Washington State Vote, Relevance Is an Issue", New York Times, 2008-02-18. 
  80. ^ Clinton pledged delegate Jack Evans has announced an intention to vote for Obama at the national convention. See Washington City Paper and Washington Post articles. See District of Columbia Democratic primary, 2008 for details.
  81. ^ Albert Wynn announced his resignation as U.S. Representative on March 28, 2008. (Maryland -1) See Helderman, Rosalind S.; Jeffrey H. Birnbaum. "Wynn Decides to Leave Congress Months Before His Term Expires", Washington Post, 2008-03-28. Retrieved on 2008-03-30. 
  82. ^ In May, pledged Clinton delegate Jack B. Johnson said he would vote for Obama, and urge the entire Maryland delegation to do so also. See "Pr. George's Executive Switches To Obama", Washington Post, May 13, 2008. See Maryland Democratic primary, 2008 for details.
  83. ^ Seelye, Katharine Q.. "Maine to Obama; Clinton Replaces Campaign Leader", New York Times, 2008-02-11. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  84. ^ Todd, Chuck; et. al.. "First Thoughts: Mr. Front-Runner", First Read, NBC News, 2008-02-13. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  85. ^ Wikipedia page history for this article.
  86. ^ RealClearPolitics, Texas Polling Average, RealClearPolitics, Ohio Polling Average
  87. ^ Steinhauser, Paul. "Poll: It's all tied up for Dems in Texas", CNN, 2008-02-25. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  88. ^ a b Seelye, Katharine Q.. "News Coverage Changes, and So Does Tone of the Campaign", New York Times, 2008-03-05. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  89. ^ Brown, Carrie Budoff. "Conflicting Obama answers on NAFTA meeting", Politico, 2008-03-04. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  90. ^ Healy, Patrick and Julie Bosman. "Clinton Campaign Starts 5-Point Attack on Obama", New York Times, 2008-02-26. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  91. ^ Seelye, Katharine Q.; Jeff Zeleny. "Clinton Questions Role of Obama in a Crisis", New York Times, 2008-03-22. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  92. ^ a b Under the rules of Texas's unique "two-step" system, 126 pledged delegates are chosen during the primary on March 4. The remaining 67 pledged delegates are chosen during a caucus process beginning March 4 and culminating in a state convention June 6–7.
  93. ^ The results from the Texas county conventions on March 29 predict a 37-30 split, in contrast to the precinct conventions on March 4, which predicted a 38-29 split. See Texas Democratic primary and caucuses, 2008 for details.
  94. ^ "Hillary Clinton's Ohio Primary Victory Speech". 
  95. ^ Nagourney, Adam. "Big Wins for Clinton in Texas and Ohio; McCain Clinches Race as Foe Concedes", New York Times, 2008-03-05. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  96. ^ Seeyle, Katherine Q.; Julie Bosman. "Carrying Primary Scars Into the General Election", New York Times, 2008-04-01. Retrieved on 2008-04-01.  See also: Cillizza, Chris. "FixCam: Obamacains and McClintons", The Fix, Washington Post, 2008-03-27. Retrieved on 2008-04-01. 
  97. ^ Carney, James. "Obama's Bold Gamble on Race", Time, 2008-03-18. Retrieved on 2008-04-01. 
  98. ^ "Mr. Obama's Profile in Courage", New York Times, 2008-03-19. Retrieved on 2008-03-19. 
  99. ^ Stelter. "Finding Political News Online, the Young Pass It On", New York Times, 2008-03-27. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. 
  100. ^ Adam Nagourney, Jeff Zeleny (2008-03-22). First a Tense Talk With Clinton, Then Richardson Backs Obama. New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
  101. ^ Sarah Elkins. "Maverick Mike", Newsweek, 2008-03-31. Retrieved on 2008-04-01. 
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  104. ^ a b Nagourney, Adam. "Clinton Facing Narrower Path to Nomination", New York Times, 2008-03-20. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  105. ^ Cillizza, Chris. "Clinton's Blueprint for Victory", The Fix, Washington Post, 2008-03-06. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  106. ^ "Pelosi's Delegate Stance Boosts Obama", ABC News, 2008-03-14. Retrieved on 2008-04-01. 
  107. ^ Nagourney, Adam; Carl Hulse. "Clinton Success Changes Dynamic In Delegate Hunt", New York Times, 2008-03-06. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. 
  108. ^ Rutenberg, Jim. "Pundits Declare the Race Over", New York Times, 2008-05-08. Retrieved on 2008-05-08. 
  109. ^ "Obama Takes Superdelegate Lead for the First Time", FOX News, 2008-05-10. Retrieved on 2008-05-11. 
  110. ^ 2008 Democratic Convention Watch: Rules and Bylaws Committee membership. 2008 Democratic Convention Watch (2008-04-28). Retrieved on 2008-05-09.
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  114. ^ Herszenhorn, David. "Senate Democrats Hope for a Majority Not Seen in 30 Years: 60 Seats", New York Times, 2008-03-07. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. 
  115. ^ Kaplan, Thomas. "Connecticut Sees Surge of Voters for Primary", New York Times, 2008-02-05. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. 
  116. ^ a b Garber, Kent. "High Democratic Turnout Sends a Mixed Signal for November", U.S. News & World Report, 2008-03-07. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. 
  117. ^ Michael, Laris. "Tight Race and Deep Interest Augur Big Turnout Today", Washington Post, 2008-02-12. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.  See also: Whoriskey, Peter. "GEORGIA: Low GOP Enthusiasm", Washington Post, 2008-02-06. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. 

 
 

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