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Encyclopedia > Democracy (varieties)
Democracy

This series is part of
the Politics and the
Forms of government series Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Democracy (varieties) be merged into this article or section. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ...




Politics Portal · edit The history of democracy traces back from its origins in ancient world to its re-emergence and rise from the 17th century to the present day. ... It has been suggested that Democracy (varieties) be merged into this article or section. ... Anticipatory democracy is a theory of civics relying on democratic decision making that takes into account predictions of future events that have some credibility with the electorate. ... The speakers platform in the Pnyx, the meeting ground of the assembly where all the great political struggles of Athens were fought during the Golden Age. Here Athenian statesmen stood to speak, such as Pericles and Aristides in the 5th century BC and Demosthenes and Aeschines in the 4th... Consensus democracy is the application of consensus decision making to the process of legislation. ... Deliberative democracy, also sometimes called discursive democracy, is a term used by political theorists, e. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Technically speaking, an illiberal democracy could be any democracy that is not a liberal democracy. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Non-partisan democracy (also no-party democracy) is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections (by secret ballot) take place without reference to political parties or even the speeches, campaigns, nominations, or other apparatus commonly associated with democracy. ... Participatory democracy is a broadly inclusive term for many kinds of consultative decision making which require consultation on important decisions by those who will carry out the decision. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Republican democracy is a republic which has democracy. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... For the Soviet republics of the Soviet Union, see Republics of the Soviet Union. ... Demarchy is a term coined by Australian philosopher John Burnheim to describe a political system without the state or bureaucracies, and based instead on randomly selected groups of decision makers. ...

Here is a partial list of varieties of democracy. The types of democracy listed here are not mutually exclusive.

Contents

Direct democracy

Main article: Direct democracy

Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy[1], is any form of government based on a theory of civics in which all citizens can directly participate in the decision-making process. Some adherents want legislative, judicial, and executive powers to be handled by the people, but most extant systems only allow legislative decisions. Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Civics is the science of comparative government and means of administering public trusts—the theory of governance as applied to state institutions. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... Decision making is the cognitive process leading to the selection of a course of action among alternatives. ... Process (lat. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ...


Modern direct democracy, as it functions within representative democracy, is characterised by three pillars: Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ...

The second pillar can include the ability to hold a binding referendum on whether a given law should be scrapped. This effectively grants the populace a veto on government legislation. The third pillar gives the people the right to recall elected officials by petition and referendum. In political science, the initiative (also known as popular or citizens initiative) provides a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or ordinance. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ...


Switzerland provides the strongest example of modern direct democracy, as it exhibits the first two pillars at both the local and federal levels. In the past 120 years more than 240 initiatives have been put to referendum. The populace has been conservative, approving only about 10% of the initiatives put before them; in addition, they have often opted for a version of the initiative rewritten by government.


Another distinctive example comes from the United States, where, despite being a federal republic where no direct democracy exists at the federal level, over half the states (and many localities) provide for citizen-sponsored ballot initiatives (also called "ballot measures", "ballot questions" or "propositions") and the vast majority of the states have either initiatives and/or referenda. The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the...


With the advent of the Internet, there have been suggestions for e-democracy, which comprises various mechanisms for implementing direct democracy concepts. E-democracy (a neologism and contraction of electronic democracy) is the utilization of electronic communications technologies, such as the Internet, in enhancing democratic processes within a democratic republic or representative democracy. ...


Scaling to global democracy

Increasingly larger numbers of citizens places greater difficulties on the implementation of a direct democracy, where representation is not practiced and thus all citizens must be actively involved on all issues all of the time. This increases the need for representative democracy, as the number of citizens grows. Historically, the most direct democracies would include the New England town meeting, the political system of the ancient Greek city states and oligarchy of Venice. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... A town meeting is a meeting where an entire geographic area is invited to participate in a gathering, often for a political or administrative purpose. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around one thousand years. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, and usually having sovereignty. ... Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ...


There are concerns about how such systems would scale to larger populations; in this regard there are a number of experiments being conducted all over the world to increase the direct participation of citizens in what is now a representative system:

  • The National Initiative for Democracy
  • Porto Alegre, Brazil
  • simpol.org — Plan to limit global competition and facilitate the emergence of a sustainable, sane global civilization.

Referenda and semi-direct democracy

We can view direct and indirect democracies as ideal types, with actual democracies approximating more closely to the one or the other.


A referendum or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may be the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. Certain kinds of referendums held in some states of the United States are referred to as ballot measures or propositions. The referendum or plebiscite is a form of direct democracy. Some modern political entities are closest to direct democracies, such as Switzerland or some U.S. states, where frequent use is made of referenda, and means are provided for referenda to be initiated by petition instead of by members of the legislature or the government. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Another form of semi-direct democracy is sortition, in which people's representatives are not elected but randomly drafted among the population. Sortition is the method of random selection, particularly in relation to the selection of decision makers also known as allotment. ...


Indirect democracy

Indirect democracy is a broad term describing a means of governance by the people through elected representatives.


The most common system found in today's democratic states is the representative democracy. The people elect government officials who then make decisions on their behalf. Essentially, a representative democracy is a form of indirect democracy in which representatives are democratically selected, and usually difficult to recall. Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ...


A doctrine often known as Edmund Burke's Principle states that representatives should act upon their own conscience in the affairs of a representative democracy. This is contrasted to the expectation that such representatives should consider the views of their electors—an expectation particularly common in states with strong constituency links, or with recall provisions (such as modern British Columbia). Edmund Burke (12 January 1729 – 9 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English de facto (none stated in law) Flower Pacific dogwood Tree Western Redcedar Bird Stellers Jay Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area...


Alternative models of democracy

Some believe that the distinction between direct and representative, or between broadly franchised majority rule, and more limited supervision of police and military primarily engaged in defending property rights, are not as important as the actual process by which decision making occurs. Some further consider the adversarial process implied by legalist mechanisms (e.g., Supreme Court challenges, election campaigns themselves, political party structures) to often obscure the larger opportunities the public may have, or the long-term dangers they may face, which are not amenable to the kind of quick-retort interplay that characterizes both direct and representative means of governing. Some of the models that are proposed to reform it include: Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... An adversarial process is one that sets up a specific and focused conflict, typically with rewards for prevailing, often in the form of a game. ... The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged. ... A political campaign is an effort to reach a certain political goal. ... // Political scientists have developed concepts of different ideal types of political parties in order to better compare them with each other. ...

  • Anticipatory democracy which relies on some degree of disciplined and usually market-informed anticipation of the future, to guide major decisions.
  • Bioregional democracy (or the "Bioregional State") is a set of electoral reforms designed to force the political process in a democracy to better represent concerns about the economy, the body and environmental concerns (e.g., water quality), toward developmental paths that are locally prioritized and tailored to different areas for their own specific interests of sustainability and durability. This movement is variously called bioregional democracy, watershed cooperation, bioregional representation or one of other similar names—all of which denote democratic control of a natural commons and local jurisdictional dominance in any economic developmental path decisions.
  • Deliberative democracy which focuses on hearing out every policy alternative, from every direction, and providing time to research them all.
  • Demarchy which has people randomly selected from the citizenry to either act as representatives, or to make decisions in specific areas of governance (defense, environment, etc.). One of the results of this would be the cessation of political parties and elections.
  • Grassroots democracy emphasizing trust in small decentralized units at the municipal government level, possibly using urban secession to establish the formal legal authority to make decisions made at this local level binding.
  • Participatory democracy which involves consensus decision making and offers greater political representation, e.g., wider control of proxies others trust them with, to those who get directly involved and actually participate.

There are also debates about street democracy and electoral reform which emphasize the more local and situated means by which the public comes to know the issues, and directly encounter the consequences of making major decisions. Some of these debates overlap with those about truth, anarchism, and the role of tolerances versus preferences in making major public decisions. Anticipatory democracy is a theory of civics relying on democratic decision making that takes into account predictions of future events that have some credibility with the electorate. ... Bioregional democracy (or the Bioregional State) is a set of electoral reforms designed to force the political process in a democracy to better represent concerns about the economy, the body, and environmental concerns (e. ... Deliberative democracy, also sometimes called discursive democracy, is a term used by political theorists, e. ... Demarchy is a term coined by Australian philosopher John Burnheim to describe a political system without the state or bureaucracies, and based instead on randomly selected groups of decision makers. ... For other meanings, see Grass roots (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Local government of the United States. ... Urban secession is a citys secession from its surrounding region, to form a new political unit (usually a state or district or province of the same country as its surroundings, but not always). ... Participatory democracy is a broadly inclusive term for many kinds of consultative decision making which require consultation on important decisions by those who will carry out the decision. ... Consensus decision-making is a decision process that not only seeks the agreement of most participants, but also to resolve or mitigate the objections of the minority to achieve the most agreeable decision. ... Electoral reform projects seek to change the way that public desires are reflected in elections through electoral systems. ... Common dictionary definitions of truth mention some form of accord with fact or reality. ... It has been suggested that Origins of anarchism and History of anarchism be merged into this article or section. ...


One may argue that the free market is also a form of democracy in that buying a product is a vote for the continued production of that product. This is also known as dollar voting. (Naturally, the wealthy have more voting power.) A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... In economics, dollar voting is an analogy used to explain how the purchasing choices of consumers affect which products will continue to be produced and supplied to the market. ...


World democracy

World democracy simultaneously comprises two approaches, both mutually reinforcing:

There has been a great deal of research about global trends of democracy. For example, over the last century, the percent of world population living in democracy has increased from 12% in 1900 to 63% in 2000. The majority of increase in democracy has been in developed countries, but about half of less developed countries are now democracies as well. Skeptics question these statistics (as well as the validity of democracy in various countries; democracy may be regarded as window-dressing over plutocracy, oligarchy, dictatorship or other forms of rule by the few). The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A presidential system, or a congressional system, is a system of government of a republic where the executive branch is elected separately from the legislative. ... Democratic globalization or mundialization is a movement towards an institutional system of global democracy that would give world citizens a say in world organizations. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... A plutocracy is a form of government where the states power is centralized in an affluent social class. ... Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


See also

Republics are often associated with democracy, which seems natural if one acknowledges the meaning of the expression from which the word republic derives (see: res publica). ... Emergent democracy refers to the Internet phenomenon change of the geopolitical landscape to increasingly reflect more democratic principles. ... Jacksonian democracy refers to the political philosophy of United States President Andrew Jackson and his followers in the new Democratic Party. ... It has been suggested that Democracy (varieties) be merged into this article or section. ... Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, or economic or social status. ...

References

  1. ^ A. Democracy in World Book Encyclopedia, World Book Inc., 2006. B. Pure democracy entry in Merriam-Webster Dictionary. C. Pure democracy entry in American Heritage Dictionary"

  Results from FactBites:
 
Democracy (varieties) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1400 words)
In bottom-up democracy, or indirect representative democracy nominations and elections are confined to small groupings of people who elect deputies (proxies, representatives) who, in turn, nominate and elect higher level officials.
One critique of indirect democracy, i.e., direct represntative democracy, is that it centralizes power into the hands of a few, thereby increasing the likelihood of corruption in and abuse of power by the government.
Moreover, while some contend that indirect democracy, i.e., indirect representative democracy, eliminates demagoguery, there is little reason to believe the elected representatives, for example in a direct representative democracy, are not themselves demagogues, or subject to the persuasive appeal of demagogues.
Democracy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5465 words)
Liberal democracy is a type of representative democracy where the power of the government is limited by the rule of law and separation of powers, while the people are guaranteed certain inviolable liberties and rights.
In modern democracies, the territory is the nation-state, and since this corresponds (in theory) with the homeland of the nation, the demos and the reach of the democratic process neatly coincide.
A persistent libertarian and monarchist critique of democracy is the claim that it encourages the elected representatives to change the law without necessity, and in particular to pour forth a flood of new laws.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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