FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Demiurge" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Demiurge

Demiurge (from the Greek δημιουργός dēmiourgós, Latinized demiurgus, meaning "artisan" or "craftsman", literally "worker in the service of the people", from δήμιος "of the people" + έργον "work") is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with create. ... In religion the term physical universe or material universe is used to distinguish the physical matter of the universe from its spiritual essence. ...


In the sense of a divine creative principle, the word was first introduced by Plato in Timaeus, 41a (ca. 360 BC). It subsequently appears in a number of different religious and philosophical systems of Late Antiquity, besides Platonic realism most notably in Neoplatonism and Gnosticism: For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Timaeus (Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios) is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals after the Greek philosopher Plato who lived between c. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

  • For Plato, the demiurge is a benevolent creator of the laws or the heaven or of the world in Timaeus.
  • Plotinus identified the demiurge as nous (divine reason), the first emanation of "the One" (see monad). Neoplatonists personified the demiurge as Zeus.
  • In Gnosticism, the material universe is seen as evil, and the demiurge is the evil creator of the physical world.

Alternative Gnostic names for the Demiurge, include Yaldabaoth, Yao or Iao, Ialdabaoth and several other variants. The Gnostics identified the Demiurge with the Hebrew God Yahweh (see the Sethians and Ophites). He is known as Ptahil in Mandaeanism. Timaeus (Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios) is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... Nous (Νους) is a Greek word (pronounced noose), that corresponds to the English words intelligence, intellect, or mind. ... Look up the one in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up monad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... Yao can refer to: The name of the demiurge in Gnostic scripture. ... Alternate spelling of the Gnostic deity Ialdabaoth i. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... Sethian is also a Finnish progressive metal band. ... The Ophites is a blanket term for numerous gnostic sects in Syria and Egypt about 100 A.D. The common trait was that these sects would give great importance to the serpent of the biblical tale of Adam and Eve, connecting the Tree of Knowledge (of Good and Evil) to... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mandaeism. ...

Contents

Platonism and Neoplatonism

Part of a series on
Platonism
Platonic idealism
Platonic realism
Middle Platonism
Neoplatonism
Articles on Neoplatonism
Platonic epistemology
Socratic method
Socratic dialogue
Theory of forms
Platonic doctrine of recollection
Form of the Good
Individuals
Plato
Socrates
Alcibiades
Protagoras
Parmenides
Discussions of Plato's works
Dialogues of Plato
Metaphor of the sun
Analogy of the divided line
Allegory of the cave
Third Man Argument
Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?
This box: view  talk  edit

Plato has the speaker Timaeus refer to the Demiurge frequently in the Socratic dialogue Timaeus circa 360 BC. The title character refers to the demiurge as the entity who “fashioned and shaped” the material world. Timaeus describes the Demiurge as unreservedly benevolent and hence desirous of a world as good as possible. The world remains allegedly imperfect, however, because the Demiurge had to work on pre-existing chaotic matter. Image File history File links Plato-raphael. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals after the Greek philosopher Plato who lived between c. ... Middle Platonism refers to the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato during the first and second centuries A.D. One of the outstanding thinkers of Middle Platonism was Philo Judeaus (Philo the Jew) who synthesized Platos philosophy with Jewish scripture largely through allegorical interpretation of the latter. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Platonic epistemology is the belief that knowledge is innate, the development (often under the midwife-like guidance of an interrogator) of ideas buried deep in the soul. ... Socratic Method (or Method of Elenchus or Socratic Debate) is a dialectic method of inquiry, largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts and first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. ... Socratic dialogue (Greek Σωκρατικός λόγος or Σωκρατικός διάλογος), is a prose literary form developed in Greece at the turn of the fourth century BCE, preserved today in the dialogues of Plato and the Socratic works of Xenophon - either dramatic or narrative - in which characters discuss moral and philosophical problems. ... This article is about Platos Forms. ... The Platonic doctrine of recollection is the idea that we are born possessing all knowledge and our realization of that knowledge is contingent on our discovery of it. ... Plato describes The Form of the Good in his book, The Republic, using Socrates as his mouth piece. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... Parmenides of Elea (Greek: , early 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Hellenic city on the southern coast of Italy. ... Plato, in The Republic (507b-509c), uses the sun as a metaphor for the source of illumination, arguably intellectual illumination, which he held to be The Form of the Good, which is sometimes interpreted as Platos notion of God. ... Plato, in The Republic Book 6 (509D–513E), uses the literary device of a divided line to teach his basic views about four levels of existence (especially the intelligible world of the forms, universals, and the visible world we see around us) and the corresponding ways we come to know... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Third Man Argument (commonly refered to as TMA), first offered by Plato in his dialogue Parmenides, is a philosophical criticism of Platos own Theory of Forms. ... Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? is a Latin phrase that translates to Who will guard the guards? or Who shall watch the watchers themselves? The question was first asked by Plato in the Republic, his great work on government and morality. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Socratic dialogue (Greek Σωκρατικός λόγος or Σωκρατικός διάλογος), is a prose literary form developed in Greece at the turn of the fourth century BCE, preserved today in the dialogues of Plato and the Socratic works of Xenophon - either dramatic or narrative - in which characters discuss moral and philosophical problems. ... Timaeus (Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios) is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 365 BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357... For other uses, see Chaos (disambiguation). ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ...


Plato's Demiurge is a fleshing out of Hesiod's cosmology from Hesiod's work Theogeny, within the realm of dialectical discourse between Timaeus and the other guests at the gathering in the dialog of Timaeus (also see Symposium). The concept of artist or creator and even the Platonist conflict between the poet and philosopher (see Plato's Republic) has a link in Plato's expression of the demiurge in his works. Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Theogony is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins of the gods of ancient Greek religion. ... The Symposium is a philosophical dialogue written by Plato sometime after 385 BC. It is a discussion on the nature of love, taking the form of a series of speeches, both satirical and serious, given by a group of men at a symposium or drinking party at the house of... The Republic (Greek: ) is a Socratic dialogue by Plato, written approximately 360 BC. It is an influential work of philosophy and political theory, and perhaps Platos best known work. ...


For Neoplatonist writers like Plotinus, however, the demiurge represents a second creator or cause (see Dyad). The first and highest God is the One, the source or the Monad. The Monad emanated the Nous, which Plotinus referred to figuratively as the demiurge. In this he claimed to reveal Plato's true meaning, a doctrine he learned from Platonistic tradition that did not appear outside the academy or in Plato's text. Plotinus also elucidates the equation of matter with nothing or non-being in his Enneads[1] which is to express the concept of idealism in connection with the nous or contemplative faculty within man.[2] This tradition of creator God as nous can be validated in the works of pre Plotinus philosophers such as Numenius. As well as a connection between Hebrew cosmology and the Hellenic Platoistic one (see also Philo).[3] Their idea of clarification of Plato's teachings continued through the Middle Platonists such as Numenius to the Neoplatonists such as Plotinus. Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... The Dyad Dyad, according to the Pythagoreans, is the principle of twoness or otherness, .[1] Monad Triad Tetrad Pentad Decad Vesica piscis Ichthys Iamblichus of Chalcis ^ Hemenway, Priya – Divine Proportion pp. ... Look up monad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Emanationism is a component in the cosmology of certain religious or philosophical belief systems that claim that the supreme god did not create the physical universe, but instead emanated lower spiritual beings who consequently carried out the actual work. ... Nous (Νους) is a Greek word (pronounced noose), that corresponds to the English words intelligence, intellect, or mind. ... Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Numenius of Apamea was a Greek philosopher, who lived in Apamea in Syria and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century A.D. He was a Neo-Pythagorean and forerunner of the Neo-Platonists. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Numenius of Apamea was a Greek philosopher, who lived in Apamea in Syria and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century A.D. He was a Neo-Pythagorean and forerunner of the Neo-Platonists. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ...


The Demiurge is not the supreme deity of Plato or Neoplatonism. As Nous, the demiurge is part of the three ordering principles: Nous (Νους) is a Greek word (pronounced noose), that corresponds to the English words intelligence, intellect, or mind. ...

  1. arche - the source of all things,
  2. logos - the underlying order that is hidden beneath appearances,
  3. harmonia - numerical ratios in mathematics.

Plato in Timaeus states that it is "blasphemy to state that the universe was not created in the image of perfection or heaven". The Demiurge creates the Cosmos in the image of the eternal and transcendent Living Thing in the world of Forms. The cosmos being dynamic in essence and changeable since it is a copy of the world of forms. In the ancient Greek philosophy, arche (ἀρχή) is the beginning or the first principle of the world. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... Harmonia may refer to: Harmonia Music, a Cambridgeshire-based youth music organisation Harmonia (mythology), the Greek goddess of harmony and concord Harmonia, a genus of lady beetles Harmonia (band), a 1970s German band Harmonia Ensemble, an Italian chamber music group Harmonia Sacra, a music textbook Harmonia research project, building programming... In algebra, a ratio is the relationship between two quantities. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Timaeus (Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios) is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... Plato spoke of forms (sometimes capitalized: The Forms) in formulating his solution to the problem of universals. ...


Before Numenius of Apamea and Plotinus' Enneads, no Platonic works ontologically clarified the Demiurge from the allegory in Plato's Timaeus. The idea of Demiurge was however addressed before Plotinus in the works of Christian writer Justin Martyr who built his understanding of the demiurge on the works of Numenius.[4] Numenius of Apamea was a Greek philosopher, who lived in Apamea in Syria and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century A.D. He was a Neo-Pythagorean and forerunner of the Neo-Platonists. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Timaeus (Honour) (or Timæus) is a name that appears in several ancient (Greek) sources: Timaeus (dialogue), a Socratic dialogue by Plato Timaeus of Locri, the 5th-century Pythagorean philosopher, appearing in Platos s Timaeus. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ...


In relation to the Gods familiar from mythology the Demiurge is identified as Zeus within Plotinus' works.[5] For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


Iamblichus

The figure of the Demiurge also emerges in the theoretic of Iamblichus (a Neoplatonist), in which it acts as a conjunction between the transcendent, incommunicable “One” that resides at the summit of his system, and the material realm. Through the Neoplatonic theurgy of Iamblichus one unites with the demiurge and therefore the monad the end result of return is called henosis (see Theurgy, Iamblichus and henosis). Iamblichus, also known as Iamblichus Chalcidensis, (ca. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ...


The initial dyad that Iamblichus describes consists of the One, a monad whose first principle is intellect (“nous”); between this monad and “the many” that follow it. Iamblichus posited a second, superexistent “One” that is the producer of intellect or soul (“psyche”), completing the dyad mentioned above. The former and superior “One” is further distinguished by Iamblichus as the spheres of the intelligible and the intellective; the latter sphere is the domain of thought, while the former comprises the objects of thought. Thus, a triad is formed of the intelligible nous, the intellective nous, and the psyche. Look up monad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Of this intellectual triad Iamblichus assigned the third rank to the Demiurge. The figure is thus identified with the perfected nous, the intellectual triad being increased to a hebdomad. As in the theoretic of Plotinus, nous produces nature by the mediation of the intellect, so here the intelligible gods are followed by a triad of psychic gods. A group of seven. ...


Gnosticism

A lion-faced deity found on a Gnostic gem in Bernard de Montfaucon’s L’antiquité expliquée et représentée en figures may be a depiction of the Demiurge.
A lion-faced deity found on a Gnostic gem in Bernard de Montfaucon’s L’antiquité expliquée et représentée en figures may be a depiction of the Demiurge.

Like Plato, Gnosticism also presents a distinction between the highest, unknowable “alien God” and the demiurgic “creator” of the material. However, in contrast to Plato, several systems of Gnostic thought present the Demiurge as antagonistic to the will of the Supreme Being: his act of creation occurs in unconscious imitation of the divine model, and thus is fundamentally flawed, or else is formed with the malevolent intention of entrapping aspects of the divine in materiality. Thus, in such systems, the Demiurge acts as a solution to the problem of evil. In the Apocryphon of John circa 200AD (several versions of which are found in the Nag Hammadi library), the Demiurge has the name “Yaltabaoth,” and proclaims himself as God: Image File history File links Lion-faced_deity. ... Image File history File links Lion-faced_deity. ... Bernard de Montfaucon (1655 - 1741) was a French Benedictine monk and scholar. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ... The Secret Book of John (Apocryphon of John)[1] is a second-century Sethian gnostic text of secret teachings. ... The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian Gnostic texts discovered near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. ...

“Now the archon (ruler) who is weak has three names. The first name is Yaltabaoth, the second is Saklas (“fool”), and the third is Samael. And he is impious in his arrogance which is in him. For he said, ‘I am God and there is no other God beside me,’ for he is ignorant of his strength, the place from which he had come.”[6]

Look up Archon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term Demiurge refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ... Samael is an important figure in Talmudic and post-Talmudic lore, a figure who is accuser, seducer, and destroyer. ...

Yaldabaoth

Gnostic myth recounts that Sophia (Greek, literally meaning “wisdom”), the Demiurge’s mother and a partial aspect of the divine Pleroma or “Fullness,” desired to create something apart from the divine totality, and without the receipt of divine assent. In this abortive act of separate creation, she gave birth to the monstrous Demiurge and, being ashamed of her deed, she wrapped him in a cloud and created a throne for him within it. The Demiurge, isolated, did not behold his mother, nor anyone else, and thus concluded that only he himself existed, being ignorant of the superior levels of reality that were his birth-place. Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... For the Gnostic Christians, the Sophia was a central element in their cosmological understanding of the Universe. ... Pleroma (Greek πληρωμα) generally refers to the totality of Gods powers. ...


The Gnostic myths describing these events are full of intricate nuances portraying the declination of aspects of the divine into human form; this process occurs through the agency of the Demiurge who, having stolen a portion of power from his mother, sets about a work of creation in unconscious imitation of the superior Pleromatic realm. Thus Sophia’s power becomes enclosed within the material forms of humanity, themselves entrapped within the material universe: the goal of Gnostic movements was typically the awakening of this spark, which permitted a return by the subject to the superior, non-material realities which were its primal source. (See Sethian Gnosticism.) Sethian is also a Finnish progressive metal band. ...


Under the name of Nebro, Yaldabaoth is called an angel in the apocryphal Gospel of Judas. He is first mentioned in “The Cosmos, Chaos, and the Underworld” as one of the twelve angels to come “into being [to] rule over chaos and the [underworld].” He comes from heaven, his “face flashed with fire and whose appearance was defiled with blood.” Nebro’s name means rebel. Nebro creates six angels in addition to the angel Saklas to be his assistants. These six in turn create another twelve angels “with each one receiving a portion in the heavens.” This article is about the supernatural being. ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... The Gospel of Judas is a Gnostic gospel. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... The term Demiurge refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ...


Samael

Samael” literally means “Blind God” or “God of the Blind” in Aramaic (Syriac sæmʕa-ʔel). But this being is considered not only blind, or ignorant of its own origins, but may in addition be evil; its name is also found in Judaica as the Angel of Death and in Christian demonology. This leads to a further comparison with Satan. Samael is an important figure in Talmudic and post-Talmudic lore, a figure who is accuser, seducer, and destroyer. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Grim Reaper redirects here. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ...


Another alternative title for the Demiurge, “Saklas,” is Aramaic for “fool” (Syriac sækla “the foolish one”).


Samael can also mean "Poison of God." (the el is "of God"). Sm or Sama is the word for poison or venom.[7] This is from Jewish folklore.


Yahweh

Some Gnostic philosophers (notably Marcion of Sinope, Sethians and the Ophites and their sect Naasseners) identify the evil Demiurge with Yahweh, the God of the Old Testament, in opposition and contrast to the God of the New Testament. Still others equated the being with Satan. Catharism apparently inherited their idea of Satan as the creator of the evil world directly or indirectly from Gnosticism. Nowhere in the New Testament is the creator of the world or the universe identified as Satan, although Yahweh declares in Isaiah 45:7 that He “makes light and creates darkness [Hebrew "choshekh"]. Though from the perspective of the text, this would appear as non sequitur since now Satan created himself and God and also the darkness or evil. This then making yet another Satan meaning there where now two Satans in creation the demiurge and his rebellious creation also referred to as Satan or the accuser. Nor in the Old (see the Septuagint) or New Testament is the cosmos, nature or earth created by the creator referred to as evil. Rather than presenting Satan as the creator of the world as we know it, the New Testament presents the view that creation has been subjected to his rule through mankind's defection from the Creator God, Yahweh. As a result, Satan is called "the god of this world" at (2 Cor. 4:4), and John states that "the whole world lies in the grip of the Wicked One." (1 John 5:19) This, in fact, is a crucial doctrine often overlooked by those who have difficulty harmonizing the goodness of Yahweh the Creator with the evil that is evident in the world (see the problem of evil).[8] In the case of Hellenistic philosophy though, the demiurge is defined as nous and is reconciled as Good. The demiurge is good because without the demiurge or mind, mankind can not perceive Good or Beauty (see Essentialism and idealism). Thus meaning that the demiurge, nous or mind inherits good and beauty from the source, Monad and or one. By doing so the demiurge is therefore an agent of the good and the beauty. Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... Sethian is also a Finnish progressive metal band. ... The Ophites is a blanket term for numerous gnostic sects in Syria and Egypt about 100 A.D. The common trait was that these sects would give great importance to the serpent of the biblical tale of Adam and Eve, connecting the Tree of Knowledge (of Good and Evil) to... The Ophites is a blanket term for numerous gnostic sects in Syria and Egypt about 100 A.D. The Naasseners, the Sethians, the Mandaeans, the Perates and the Borborites are the known gnostic sects known as The Ophites. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... Non sequitur is Latin for it does not follow. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... The word Accuser can mean:- Accuser (fictional Star Wars spaceship) Someone who accuses Category: ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For beauty as a characteristic of a persons appearance, see Physical attractiveness. ... In philosophy, essentialism is the view, that, for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics —all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Look up monad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up agent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


For some, Satan is in character being the Father of the original lie, as the creator of the physical world as we know it; having coerced the first sin representing humankind missing of the mark (see Sethianism and the ophites). This distinguishes the God of the Old Testament from the God of the New; the God of the New possessing a single purpose unblemished by the uncertainty that duality implies. While the concepts such as syzygies (see Valentinus) and the soul and spiritual as good and the body and the material universe as evil would indeed reflect a very distinct and clear duality as it is expressed within the Sethian and other gnostic traditions (also see Mind-body dichotomy). The vilification of the creator (demiurge) of the material world, rather than being the faculty of perception as in nous (Essentialism and idealism) and or an actual being as in the case of Yahweh and Judaeo Christianity is to both traditions foreign and not documented as a traditional perspective in either.[9] Sethian is also a Finnish progressive metal band. ... The Ophites is a blanket term for numerous gnostic sects in Syria and Egypt about 100 A.D. The common trait was that these sects would give great importance to the serpent of the biblical tale of Adam and Eve, connecting the Tree of Knowledge (of Good and Evil) to... Look up Syzygy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Gnostic Valentinus. ... René Descartes illustration of dualism. ... René Descartes illustration of mind/body dualism. ... In philosophy, essentialism is the view, that, for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics —all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ...


Neoplatonism and Gnosticism

It appears that Gnosticism attributed falsehood, fallen or evil, to the concept of a creator in at least the Judeo-Christian and Hellenic paganism traditions, though sometimes the creator is from a fallen, ignorant or lesser rather than evil perspective in some Gnosticism traditions (see Valentinian). The Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus addressed within his works what he saw as un-Hellenic and blasphemous to the demiurge of Plato. An example of vilifying the Judeo-Christian creator would be to attribute the term “Kosmokrator” (found in the New Testament) to the Old Testament creator as the fallen Gnostic demiurge (see Marcion and the Cathars). Though this would be at one point also to diverge from Philo and Plato as well as the New Testament. If one sees the attribute of Creatorship as inherent in the concept of “God,” then the title “The God of this Age” applied to Satan becomes a powerful indicator that Satan is indeed the creator. Other modern-day Cathars see a further indication of this in the epithet “Kosmokrator” Koine Greek, kosmokratoras, which literally means cosmos-sovereign, or even cosmos-might, which is applied to Satan in Ephesians 6:12, as a possible further indication of the creatorship of Satan and his identity with the Demiurge.
The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Valentinian was the name of several Roman emperors: Valentinian I Valentinian II Valentinian III This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The literal meaning of the Greek word koine (κοινή) is common. It is used in several senses: Koiné Greek (Κοινή Ἑλληνική), a Greek dialect that developed from the Attic dialect (of Athens) and became the spoken language of Greece at the time of the Empire of Alexander the Great. ...


However, “Kosmokrator”—with cosmos (Greek κόσμο) and κράτορας ("kratia"), as in dēmokratikós, or "democratic" does not mean to create but to rule, direct or influence. Koine Greek κοσμοκράτορας, which literally means "world-ruler" and is applied to Satan in Ephesians 6:12, ("against the world-rulers (κοσμοκράτορας/Δείτε επίσης) the darkness of age") would, by this Gnostic interpretation, lead to an indication of the power of Satan and his identity with the Demiurge. This usage would according to some vilify the logos[10] as it was used by Heraclitus, meaning the ruling or guiding principle of the universe. This would also be a different understanding of St Paul's passage which was referring to men of power falling under the influence of evil as in the world-rulers (since the word Kosmokrators in Ephesians is plural meaning many rulers not one ruler) of the darkness of the age this then meaning many evil rulers not just one. Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... The Epistle to Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament, written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ...


Neoplatonic Criticism

See also: Plotinus and Neoplatonism and Gnosticism

Gnosticism's conception of the Demiurge was criticised by the Neoplatonist philosopher Plotinus. Plotinus is noted as the founder of Neoplatonism, a movement noted as being orthodox (Neo)Platonism. His criticism is contained in the ninth tractate of the second of the Enneads. Therein, Plotinus criticizes his opponents for their appropriation of ideas from Plato: Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

From Plato come their punishments, their rivers of the underworld and the changing from body to body; as for the plurality they assert in the Intellectual Realm—the Authentic Existent, the Intellectual-Principle, the Second Creator and the Soul—all this is taken over from the Timaeus. (Ennead 2.9.vi; emphasis added from A. H. Armstrong's introduction to Ennead 2.9)

Of note here is the remark concerning the second Creator and Soul. Plotinus criticizes his opponents for “all the novelties through which they seek to establish a philosophy of their own” which, he declares, “have been picked up outside of the truth”; they attempt to conceal rather than admit their indebtedness to ancient philosophy, which they have corrupted by their extraneous and misguided embellishments. Thus their understanding of the Demiurge is similarly flawed in comparison to Plato’s original intentions. Where as Plato's demiurge is good wishing good on his creation, gnosticism contends that the demiurge is not only the originator of evil but is evil as well. Hence the title of Plotinus' refutation "Enneads" The Second Ennead, Ninth Tractate - Against Those That Affirm the Creator of the Kosmos and the Kosmos Itself to be Evil: [Generally Quoted as "Against the Gnostics"]. Plotinus marks his arguments also with the disconnect or great barrier that is created between the nous or mind's noumenon (see Heraclitus) and the material world (phenomenon) by believing the material world is evil. This symptom of alienation or somnolence was also later expressed by Eric Voegelin in his critique of Gnosticism.[11] Arthur Hilary Armstrong (August 13, 1909–October 16, 1997) was an English educator and author. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The noumenon (plural: noumena) classically refers to an object of human inquiry, understanding or cognition. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... Somnolence (or drowsiness) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods. ... Eric Voegelin, born Erich Hermann Wilhelm Vögelin, (January 3, 1901 – January 19, 1985) was a political philosopher. ...


The majority view tends to understand Plotinus’ opponents as being a Gnostic sect—certainly, (specifically Sethian) several such groups were present in Alexandria and elsewhere about the Mediterranean during Plotinus’ lifetime, and several of his criticisms bear specific similarity to Gnostic doctrine (Plotinus pointing to the gnostic doctrine of Sophia and her emission of the Demiurge is most notable amongst these similarities). The Body and the cosmos as a prison or evil. Scholars of note who have held this view include A.H. Armstrong, who published a highly influential translation of the Enneads in 1966, through the Harvard University Press. As well as modern scholar John D Turner and scholar John M. Dillon. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Arthur Hilary Armstrong (August 13, 1909–October 16, 1997) was an English educator and author. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard redirects here. ... John D Turner is the professor for religious studies at the University of Nebraska. ... John Myles Dillon is an Irish classicist and philosopher who was Regius Professor of Greek in Trinity College, Dublin between 1980 and 2006. ...


However, other scholars such as Christos Evangeliou have contended that Plotinus’ opponents might be better described as simply “Christian Gnostics,” for the reason that several of Plotinus’ criticisms are as applicable to orthodox Christian doctrine as they are to Gnosticism. Also, considering the evidence from the time, Evangeliou felt the definition of the term “Gnostics” was unclear. Thus, though the former understanding certainly enjoys the greatest popularity, the identification of Plotinus’ opponents as Gnostic is not without some contention. Currently in the case of Christos Evangeliou it is yet to be seen if he still holds this view. One since Plotinus' teacher and founder of Neoplatonism Ammonius Saccas was a noted Christian and Plotinus never mentions Christianity in any of his works where as Plotinus' pupil Porphyry names Christians by name in Porphyrys' Against the Christians. Also later A. H. Armstrong identified the “Gnostics” that Plotinus was attacking as Jewish and Pagan in his introduction to the tract in his translation of the Enneads. Armstrong eluding to Gnosticism being a sort of Hellenic philosophy heresy of sorts, who later engaged Christianity and Neoplatonism. Armstrong did this by using Michelle Puerch’s study of the Sethian library found at Nag Hammadi as the basis that all Gnostic groups shared a “common” core or library of text from which they drew common or core beliefs. These core beliefs are defined in works like the Apocalypse of Adam. Ammonius Saccas (3rd century AD) was a Greek philosopher of Alexandria, often called the founder of the Neoplatonic school. ... Porphyry (Greek Πορφύριος purple-clad) may refer to: Porphyry of Tyros (c. ... Arthur Hilary Armstrong (August 13, 1909–October 16, 1997) was an English educator and author. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Hellenic may refer to: the Hellenic Republic (the modern Greek state) the Hellenes, itself a term for either ancient or modern Greeks anything related to Greece in general or Ancient Greece in particular. ... The town of Nag Hammadi in Egypt Nag Hammâdi (Arabic نجع حمادي; transliterated: Naj Hammādi) (26°03′N 32°15′E), is a town in the middle of Egypt, called Chenoboskion in classical antiquity, about 80 kilometres north-west of Luxor with some 30,000 citizens. ... The Apocalypse of Adam discovered in 1945 as part of the Nag Hammadi Library is a Gnostic work written in Coptic. ...


John D. Turner professor of religious studies at University of Nebraska and famed translator and editor of the Nag Hammadi library stated that the text Plotinus and his students read was Sethian gnosticism which predates Christianity. It appears that Plotinus attempted to clarify how the philosophers of the academy had not arrived at the same erroneous conclusions (such as Dystheism or misotheism for the creator God as an answer to the problem of evil) as the targets of his criticism. Dystheism is the belief that God does exist but is not wholly good, or that he might even be evil. ... Misotheism-greek (μίσος miso-hate, theism- of God, from Greek Θεός theos)-literally hatred of God or Gods. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ...


Christian heresies

Cerinthus

According to the heresy of Cerinthus (who shows Ebionite influence), the ancient Hebrew term Elohim, the “uni-plural name,” often used for God throughout Genesis 1, can be interpreted as indicating that a hierarchy of ancient spirits (“angels or gods”) were co-creators with a Supreme Being, and were partially responsible for creation within the context of a “master plan” exemplified theologically by the Greek word Logos. Psalm 82.1 describes a plurality of gods (ʔelōhim), which an older version in the Septuagint calls the “assembly of the gods”; however, it does not indicate that these gods were co-actors in creation. (Unless one translates Genesis 1:1 literally as “in the beginning the gods [elohim] created the heaven and the earth.”) Also according to this theory, an abstract similarity can be found between the Logos (as applied to Jesus in the Gospel according to St John) and Plato’s Demiurge. However, in John 1:1, which reads: “in the beginning was the Word (Logos), and the Word was with God and the Word was God,” the Logos is clearly one single being, not an assembly or group. Further, typical Christian theology identifies Jesus as the second person in the holy and undivided Trinity, thus rejecting the notion that the world was created by an ignorant or even malevolent demiurge (“uni-plural” or not) in co-action with a separate, higher and unknowable god. Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... Cerinthus was the leader of a late first-century or early 2nd century sect, an offshoot of the Ebionites yet similar to Gnosticism in some respects, interesting in that it demonstrates the wide range of conclusions that could be drawn from the life and teachings of Jesus. ... The Ebionites (from Hebrew; Ebionim, the poor ones) were a sect of Judean followers of John the Baptizer and later Jesus (Yeshua in Aramaic) which existed in Judea and Palestine during the early centuries of the Common Era. ... This article is about the Hebrew word. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ...


Non-Western mythologies

Further information: Creator deity and creation myth

The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Creation beliefs and stories describe how the universe, the Earth, life, and/or humanity came into being. ...

Hinduism

In relation to Neoplatonism, the figure in which most closely appears to resemble the Demiurge in Hinduism is Isvara inasmuch as the Demiurge is a personal, creator God. In comparison with Brahman which equates with the transcendent and ineffable One. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Ishvara (ईश्वर in devanagari script, Classical pronunciation /i:ɕvərə/), also variously transliterated (romanized) as Īshvara, Īshwara, Īshwar, Īśvara, etc. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ...


Brahma, a member of the Trimurti, figures as the creator of the universe in Hindu mythology. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Hindu gods. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ...


In the Matsya Purana, the actual act of creating the current material universe is performed by the human Manu after its last version is destroyed in pralaya while he is rescued by Vishnu. Manu then sings/chants the universe into existence and creates the various gods along the way. It’s the sixteenth Purana. ... In Hinduism, Manu is a title accorded the progenitor of humankind, first king to rule this earth, who saves mankind from the universal flood. ... Pralaya , in Hindu theosophy , is a period of time of the cycle of existence of the planets where activity does not occur. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... In Hinduism, Manu is a title accorded the progenitor of humankind, first king to rule this earth, who saves mankind from the universal flood. ...


Shamanism

In the shamanic religion of the ancient Turks and other Siberian nomads, Bai-Ulgan was the force behind creation. Inasmuch as Siberian shamanism may be said to parallel Gnostic cosmological beliefs, Bai-Ulgan has been compared to the Demiurge.[citation needed] The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Bai-Ulgan, also referred to as Bai-Ulgen, Ulgen, or Ulgan; a Siberian creator-deity, usually distinct from Tengri but sometimes identified with him in the same manner as Helios and Apollo. ...


Pirahã cosmology

Among the Pirahã of Amazonas, Brazil, the demiurge Igagai recreated the world after its destruction in a cataclysm that came about when the moon was destroyed. In the cataclysm, all the animals died and all light disappeared from the world, and the higher levels of the cosmos almost fell on top of the earth. Igagai restored the structure of the cosmos, and created the animals that the Pirahã know today.[12] The Pirahã people are an indigenous hunter-gatherer tribe of Amazon natives, who mainly live on the banks of the Maici River in Brazil. ... Amazonas is the name of four subnational entities in various South American nations. ...


References in popular culture

  • In the Philip K. Dick novel, Deus Irae there are implicit references to the architect of the Third World War, Carleton Leufteufel, as a demiurge, with his death resultant in temporary reversion of the desolate landscape of post-apocalyptic America. In Valis, there is a more explicit acknowledgement of gnostic theological concepts, such as the demiurge and sophia.
  • In the 1996 LucasArts game Afterlife, the player is referred to as the Demiurge. The goal of the game is to build and manage both a Heaven and a Hell to provide rewards and punishments for the inhabitants of the local planet.
  • In the animated series Æon Flux, the Demiurge is a god-like entity that Aeon Flux and the Monican resistance want to release into space in order to free the planet from its influence while Trevor Goodchild hopes to use the Demiurge to bring "peace" to the world in his own image. All the while, the Demiurge is using supernatural delusion to pit the two sides against each other.
  • Michael Demiurgos is a principal character in the DC/Vertigo comic book series Lucifer. In this depiction, Michael was created by Yahweh with the demiurgic power to enable the physical creation of the universe. Michael was eventually taken outside of creation by Lucifer, where he released his demiurgic power, allowing Lucifer to create a second universe. Later, Michael's daughter Elaine Belloc became the demiurge.
  • Demiurg (Демиург in Russian) is one of the primary characters of "Overburdened with Evil" (Отягощенные злом, 1988), a novel by Arkady and Boris Strugatsky. The origin of the name is referred to a Gnostic belief system, in which Demiurge is an entity that produces matter which is inherently overburdened with evil.
  • Demiurge is a central concept in the role-playing game Nine Worlds. Players portray Archons, mortals with special powers whose actions as a group represent the will of the Demiurge.
  • In the role-playing game Kult, the Demiurge is an evil being who imprisoned humanity in a world of illusions in order to keep them ignorant of their true nature and power, so that he might rule over them. At the time where the game takes place, the Demiurge has vanished and as a result the illusion-prison is crumbling.
  • Marvel Comics has an entity known as the Demiurge that was responsible for creating the life on Earth. Mating with Gaea during a demon crisis, Demiurge fathered Atum, who in turn destroyed or defeated many evil primordial gods such as Set and Chthon.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ... Cover of Deus Irae, published by Doubleday in 1976. ... Apocalyptic science fiction is a sub-genre of science fiction that is concerned with the end of the world or civilization, through nuclear war, plague, or some other general disaster. ... VALIS is a 1981 science fiction novel by Philip K. Dick. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... Look up Sophia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jack Womack (b. ... Elvissey (1993)is a Jack Womack science fiction novel, one of his DryCo quartet, set in a dystopian 2033 CE, dominated by a machiavellean multinational corporation and its plans for global domination of its world, beset by runaway climate change, unstable weather patterns and rising sea levels, which threaten to... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... Elvis redirects here. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... 20XX redirects here. ... Valentinian was the name of several Roman emperors: Valentinian I Valentinian II Valentinian III This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. ... The MIAs logo. ... LucasArts is an American video game developer and publisher. ... Afterlife is a game released by LucasArts in 1996 that places the player in the role of a semi-omnipotent being known as a Demiurge, with the job of creating a functional Heaven and Hell to reward or punish the citizens of the local planet. ... For other uses, see Æon Flux (disambiguation). ... Michael Demiurgos is a principal character in the Lucifer series by DC comics, and is a creation of Mike Carey. ... Lucifer is a comic book published by Vertigo, an imprint of DC Comics. ... Elaine Belloc is a principal character in the DC/Vertigo Comics series Lucifer. ... ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... For the Polish band see Kult (band) Kult is a contemporary fantasy horror role-playing game originally designed by Gunilla Jonsson and Michael Petersén, published in Sweden by Target Games in 1991. ... This article is about the comic book company. ... Gaea is a fictional comic book character, the Goddess of the Earth of the Marvel Universe. ... Atum is a fictional cosmic entity in the Marvel Comics universe, based loosely on the Atum of Egyptian mythology. ... In the Conan the Barbarian and Marvel continuities Set is a malevolent seven-headed serpent god. ... A long time ago, when the world was so new nothing had a name, something woke up. ... For the defunct company, see Game Designers Workshop. ... Warhammer 40,000 (informally known as Warhammer 40K, WH40K, W40K or just 40K) is a science fantasy game produced by Games Workshop. ... In the tabletop miniature wargame Battlefleet Gothic, the Demiurg are an alien race of squat semi-humanoids, who share many traits with the typical fantasy dwarf stereotype: they are avid miners, expert traders, and, in some ways, further technologically advanced than humans. ... The Ialdabaoth and Valefor are fictional robots in the Super Robot Wars series. ... Super Robot Wars OG: Original Generations (Japanese スーパーロボット大戦OG オリジナルジェネレーションズ, Romaji Suupaa Robotto Taisen OG Orijinaru Jenereeshionzu) is a tactical role-playing game for the Sony Playstation 2. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe, Middle-earth, the Valar are the Powers of Arda who live on the Western continent of Aman. ...

References

  1. ^ Plotinus "Matter is therefore a non-existent" Ennead 2, Tractate 4 Section 16
  2. ^ Schopenhauer wrote of this Neoplatonist philosopher: "With Plotinus there even appears, probably for the first time in Western philosophy, idealism that had long been current in the East even at that time, for it taught (Enneads, iii, lib. vii, c.10) that the soul has made the world by stepping from eternity into time, with the explanation: 'For there is for this universe no other place than the soul or mind' (neque est alter hujus universi locus quam anima), indeed the ideality of time is expressed in the words: 'We should not accept time outside the soul or mind' (oportet autem nequaquam extra animam tempus accipere)." (Parerga and Paralipomena, Volume I, "Fragments for the History of Philosophy," § 7)Similarly, professor Ludwig Noiré wrote: "For the first time in Western philosophy we find idealism proper in Plotinus (Enneads, iii, 7, 10), where he says, "The only space or place of the world is the soul," and "Time must not be assumed to exist outside the soul." [5] It is worth noting, however, that like Plato but unlike Schopenhauer and other modern philosophers, Plotinus does not worry about whether or how we can get beyond our ideas in order to know external objects.
  3. ^ Numenius of Apamea was reported to have asked “What else is Plato than Moses speaking Greek?” Fr. 8 Des Places
  4. ^ "Plato is just the Greeks Moses Numenius", Frag. 8 (Des Places) The Neoplatonic Writings of Numenius Translated by Kenneth Guthrie Selene Books ISDN 0-933601-03-4
  5. ^ In Fourth Tractate 'Problems of the Soul' The Demiurge is identified as Zeus.10."When under the name of Zeus we are considering the Demiurge we must leave out all notions of stage and progress, and recognize one unchanging and timeless life."
  6. ^ The Nag Hammadi Library (see Nag Hammadi)
  7. ^ Ben-Yehuda's Pocket Dictionary, Pocket Books 1961, 1964.
  8. ^ Numenius of Apamea was reported to have asked “What else is Plato than Moses speaking Greek?” Fr. 8 Des Places
  9. ^ Against Heresies (St. Irenaeus) Adversus Haereses (Book III, Chapter 2) The heretics follow neither Scripture nor tradition. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0103302.htm
  10. ^ Irenaeus Against Heresies 3.11.8)
  11. ^ Voegelin used Nous or Demiurge to mean intellect that is a divinely creative substance. It is a point of contact between the human and the divine. Eric Voegelin The Restoration of Order by Micheal P. Federici pg 227
  12. ^ Gonçalves, Marco Antonio. 2001. O mundo inacabado. Ação e criação em uma cosmologia amazônica: Etnografia Pirahã. Rio de Janeiro: Editora da UFRJ. [pp. 39-41]

Numenius of Apamea was a Greek philosopher, who lived in Apamea in Syria and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century A.D. He was a Neo-Pythagorean and forerunner of the Neo-Platonists. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... The town of Nag Hammadi in Egypt Nag Hammâdi (Arabic نجع حمادي; transliterated: Naj Hammādi) (26°03′N 32°15′E), is a town in the middle of Egypt, called Chenoboskion in classical antiquity, about 80 kilometres north-west of Luxor with some 30,000 citizens. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ...

See also

Great Architect of the Universe (GAOTU) is a term used within Freemasonry to denominate the Supreme Being which each member individually holds an adherence to. ... Look up Archon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bythos was the name given by some Gnostics to the monadic first being and originator of the spiritual world of the Pleroma. ... Pantocrator or Pantokrator (from the Greek Παντοκράτωρ) is one of many titles ascribed to the divine in Western religion. ... Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dystheism is the belief that God does exist but is not wholly good, or that he might even be evil. ... Within the realm of Neoplatonic philosophy henosis is the divine work committed to by each individual toward the goal of union with the Monad, Source, or the One. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Johannites are a sect of Gnostics who reject Jesus Christ, and instead posit that the true savior of the world (sent to fulfill Old Testament prophecy) was in fact John the Baptist, as he was performing baptisms before Jesus birth. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... Melek Taus (The Peacock Angel, Arabic ملاك طاووس) is the Yazidis name for the central figure of their faith. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Sethian is also a Finnish progressive metal band. ... Świętowit (also Swantewit and, incorrectly, Światowit) is the Polabian deity of war, fertility and abundance. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Urizen is depicted in Blakes watercoloured etching The Ancient of Days. In the complex mythology of William Blake, Urizen was the embodiment of reason and law. ... Yam, Yamm, or Yaw (jaÊŠ) is the name of the Levantine god of chaos and mass-destruction, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Els) or sons of El. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Demiurge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2571 words)
The concept of a Demiurgic intervention between God and his creation is completely at odds with orthodox Christian theology as well as Plato himself since the Demiurge was but a being in time of the source or incomprehensible.
The Gnostic conception of the Demiurge was criticised by the philosopher Neoplatonism Plotinus.
The figure of the Demiurge also emerges in the theoretic of Iamblichus (a Neoplatonist), in which it acts as a conjunction between the transcendent, incommunicable “One” that resides at the summit of his system, and the material realm.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m