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Encyclopedia > Demeter
Ceres (Demeter), allegory of August: detail of a fresco by Cosimo Tura, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 1469-70.
Ceres (Demeter), allegory of August: detail of a fresco by Cosimo Tura, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 1469-70.

In Greek mythology Dêmêtêr /də'miː.tɚ/ (Greek: Δημήτηρ, "mother-earth" or possibly "distribution-mother" from the noun of the Indo-European mother-earth *dheghom *mater, also called simply Δηώ) is the goddess of grain and fertility, the pure nourisher of the youth and the green earth, the health-giving cycle of life and death, and preserver of marriage and the sacred law. She is invoked as the "bringer of seasons" in the Homeric hymn, a subtle sign that she was worshipped long before the Olympians arrived. Another story states that she was one of the twelve Olympians. The Homeric Hymn to Demeter has been dated to sometime around the Seventh Century BC.[1] She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that also predated the Olympian pantheon. When Demeter does not denote the Greek grain goddess Demeter, it may denote an alternate name for Lysithea, a moon of Jupiter. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2456, 624 KB) Description: Title: de: Fresken mit Monatsdarstellungen im Palazzo Schifanoia, Szene: August-Triumphzug der Demeter, Detail: Allegorie des Segens Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Ferrara Current location (gallery): de: Palazzo Schifanoia... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2456, 624 KB) Description: Title: de: Fresken mit Monatsdarstellungen im Palazzo Schifanoia, Szene: August-Triumphzug der Demeter, Detail: Allegorie des Segens Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Ferrara Current location (gallery): de: Palazzo Schifanoia... An Allegorical Figure, c. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... For the 1934 film, see, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... This article is about cereals in general. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... Proserpine by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, PersephónÄ“) was the Queen of the Underworld of epic literature. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ...


The Roman equivalent is Ceres, from whom the word "cereal" is derived. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ...


Demeter is easily confused with Gaia or Rhea, and with Cybele. The goddess's epithets reveal the span of her functions in Greek life. Demeter and Kore ("the maiden") are usually invoked as to theo ('"The Two Goddesses"), and they appear in that form in Linear B graffiti at Mycenaean Pylos in pre-classical times. A connection with the goddess-cults of Minoan Crete is quite possible. For other uses, see Gaia. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... An epithet (Greek - επιθετον and Latin - epitheton; literally meaning imposed) is a descriptive word or phrase. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... This article is about the Greek archaeological site. ... This article is about the Greek geographical feature and town. ... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


According to the Athenian rhetorician Isocrates, the greatest gifts which Demeter gave were cereal (also known as corn in modern Britain) which made man different from wild animals; and the Mysteries which give man higher hopes in this life and the afterlife.[2] Rhetoric (from Greek &#961;&#951;&#964;&#969;&#961;, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar). ... Isocrates (436&#8211;338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... This article is about cereals in general. ...

Contents

Titles and functions

Colossal Statue of Ceres, Vatican Museums, Rome, Italy. Demeter and Ceres are identified in art as holding a tuft of grain.
Colossal Statue of Ceres, Vatican Museums, Rome, Italy. Demeter and Ceres are identified in art as holding a tuft of grain.

In various contexts, Demeter is invoked with many epithets: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 815 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Colossal Statue of Ceres, identified by harvest grain in her right hand, Vatican Museums, Rome, Italy I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 815 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Colossal Statue of Ceres, identified by harvest grain in her right hand, Vatican Museums, Rome, Italy I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into... Look up Ceres in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Entrance to the museum Staircase of the Vatican Museum The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) are the public art and sculpture museums in the Vatican City, which display works from the extensive collection of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...

  • Potnia ("mistress" in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter)
  • Chloe ("the green shoot", Pausanias 1.22.3, for her powers of fertility and eternal youth)
  • Anesidora ("sending up gifts from the earth" Pausanias 1.31.4, as Demeter)
  • Malophoros ("apple-bearer" or "sheep-bearer", Pausanias 1.44.3)
  • Kidaria (Pausanias 8.13.3),
  • Chthonia ("in the ground", Pausanias 3.14.5)
  • Erinys ("implacable", Pausanias 8.25.50)
  • Lusia ("bathing", Pausanias 8.25.8)
  • Thermasia ("warmth", Pausanias 2.34.6)
  • Kabeiraia, a pre-Greek name of uncertain meaning
  • Achaea, the name by which she was worshipped at Athens by the Gephyraeans who had emigrated from Boeotia.[3][4][5]
  • Thesmophoros ("giver of customs" or even "legislator", a role that links her to the even more ancient goddess Themis. This title was connected with the Thesmophoria, a festival of secret women-only rituals in Athens connected with marriage customs.)

Theocritus remembered an earlier role of Demeter: The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... This article or section should be merged with Kabeiroi Greek fertility gods, the Cabari can be traced to Asia Minor. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... Thesmophoria was a festival held in Greek cities in honour of the twin goddesses Demeter and her daughter Persephone. ... The History of Athens is one of the longest of any city in Europe and in the world. ... Theocritus (Greek Θεόκριτος), the creator of ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of him beyond what can be inferred from his writings. ...

For the Greeks Demeter was still a poppy goddess
Bearing sheaves and poppies in both hands.Idyll vii.157

In a clay statuette from Gazi (Heraklion Museum, Kereny 1976 fig 15), the Minoan poppy goddess wears the seed capsules, sources of nourishment and narcosis, in her diadem. "It seems probable that the Great Mother Goddess, who bore the names Rhea and Demeter, brought the poppy with her from her Cretan cult to Eleusis, and it is certain that in the Cretan cult sphere, opium was prepared from poppies" (Kerenyi 1976, p 24). A Cucuteni culture statuette, 4th millennium BC. A mother goddess is a goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother, who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ...


In honor of Demeter of Mysia a seven-day festival was held at Pellené in Arcadia (Pausan. 7. 27, 9). Pausanias passed the shrine to Demeter at Mysia on the road from Mycenae to Argos but all he could draw out to explain the archaic name was a myth of an eponymous Mysius who venerated Demeter. She is the daughter of Cronus and Rhea. Arcadia or Arkadía (Greek Αρκαδία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ...


Major sites for the cult of Demeter were not confined to any localized part of the Greek world: there were sites at Eleusis, in Sicily, Hermion, in Crete, Megara, Celeae, Lerna, Aegila, Munychia, Corinth, Delos, Priene, Akragas, Iasos, Pergamon, Selinus, Tegea, Thorikos, Dion, Lykosoura, Mesembria, Enna, and Samothrace. In traditional usage, the cult of a religion, quite apart from its sacred writings (scriptures), its theology or myths, or the personal faith of its believers, is the totality of external religious practice and observance, the neglect of which is the definition of impiety. ... Eleusis (Game) The cardgame invented by Robert Abbott in 1962, and later popularized in 1977 by Martin Gardner in his Mathematical Games column in Scientific American magazine. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα (Big Houses); see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ... For the municipality, see Myloi (Argolida), Greece, the seat of the municipality of Lerna In classical Greece, Lerna was a region of springs and a former lake near the east coast of the Peloponnesus, south of Argos. ... Munichia is the ancient Greek name for a steep hill (86 m. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... Priene (mod. ... Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Agrigentum (modern Agrigento). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... Selinunte is an ancient Greek archaeological site in the south province of Trapani, in the island of Sicily. ... There is also an ancient Tegea near Kissamos in the island of Crete, see Tegea, Crete Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greek containing the Temple of Athena Alea. ... Euphimism for the word gay. ... Coordinates 37°23′ N 22°1′ E Country Greece Periphery Megalopolis Prefecture Arkadia Population 0 Elevation 568 m Lycosura (Greek, Ancient: Λυκόσουρα, Modern: Palaeokastro or Siderokastro) was a city of Arcadia reputed to be the most ancient city in Greece and, indeed, the world. ... Nessebar (&#1053;&#1077;&#1089;&#1077;&#1073;&#1098;&#1088;), previously known as Mesembria and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Obshtina Nessebar, Burgas Oblast. ... Enna, the ancient Haenna, is a city located in the center of Sicily in the province of Enna, towering above the surrounding countryside. ... Coordinates 40°29′ N 25°31′ E Country Greece Periphery East Macedonia and Thrace Prefecture Evros Population 2,723 source (2001) Area 178. ...


She was associated with the Roman goddess Ceres. When Demeter was given a genealogy, she was the daughter of Cronos and Rhea, and therefore the elder sister of Zeus. Her priestesses were addressed with the title Melissa. A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... Rhea tricking Cronus with a wrapped stone. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Melissa (disambiguation). ...


Demeter taught mankind the arts of agriculture: sowing seeds, ploughing, harvesting, etc. She was especially popular with rural folk, partly because they most benefited directly from her assistance, and partly because rural folk are more conservative about keeping to the old ways. Demeter herself was central to the older religion of Greece. Relics unique to her cult, such as votive clay pigs, were being fashioned in the Neolithic. In Roman times, a sow was still sacrificed to Ceres following a death in the family, to purify the household.


Demeter and Poseidon

Demeter and Poseidon's names are linked in the earliest scratched notes in Linear B found at Mycenaean Pylos, where they appear as PO-SE-DA-WO-NE and DA-MA-TE in the context of sacralized lot-casting. The 'DA' element in each of their names is seemingly connected to an Proto-Indo-European root relating to distribution of land and honors (compare Latin dare "to give"). Poseidon (his name seems to signify "consort of the distributor") once pursued Demeter, in her archaic form as a mare-goddess. She resisted Poseidon, but she could not disguise her divinity among the horses of King Onkios. Poseidon became a stallion and covered her. Demeter was literally furious ("Demeter Erinys") at the assault, but washed away her anger in the River Ladon ("Demeter Lousia"). She bore to Poseidon a Daughter, whose name might not be uttered outside the Eleusinian Mysteries, and a steed named Arion, with a black mane. In Arcadia, Demeter was worshiped as a horse-headed deity into historical times: Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... This article is about the Greek geographical feature and town. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Ladon is the hundred-headed dragon that guarded the garden of the Hesperides in Greek mythology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Despina (mythology). ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... Arcadia or Arkadía (Greek Αρκαδία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. ...

The second mountain, Mt. Elaios, is about 30 stades from Phigaleia, and has a cave sacred to Demeter Melaine ["Black"]... the Phigalians say, they accounted the cave sacred to Demeter, and set up a wooden image in it. The image was made in the following fashion: it was seated on a rock, and was like a woman in all respects save the head. She had the head and hair of a horse, and serpents and other beasts grew out of her head. Her chiton reached right to her feet, and she held a dolphin in one hand, a dove in the other. Why they made the xoanon like this should be clear to any intelligent man who is versed in tradition. They say they named her Black because the goddess wore black clothing. However, they cannot remember who made this xoanon or how it caught fire; but when it was destroyed the Phigalians gave no new image to the goddess and largely neglected her festivals and sacrifices, until finally barrenness fell upon the land. Phigalia, or Phigaleia (Greek Φιγαλεία or Φιγάλεια) is an ancient Greek city in the south-west angle of Arcadia. ... Xoanon Publishing was founded in 1992 e. ... A Danaid, wearing a low-girded chiton A chiton was a piece of clothing in the Ancient Greek world. ... Xoanon Publishing was founded in 1992 e. ...

Pausanias, Description of Greece 8.42.1ff. Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...

Demeter and Persephone

The Return of Perspephone by Frederic Leighton, (1891).
The Return of Perspephone by Frederic Leighton, (1891).

The central myth of Demeter, which is at the heart of the Eleusinian Mysteries is her relationship with Persephone, her daughter and own younger self. In the Olympian pantheon, Persephone became the consort of Hades (Roman Pluto, the underworld god of wealth). Demeter had a large scope of abilities. Besides being the goddess of the harvest, she also controlled the seasons, and because of that she was capable of destroying all life on earth. In fact, her powers were able to influence Zeus into making Hades bring her daughter Persephone up from the underworld. Persephone became the goddess of the underworld when Hades abducted her from the earth and brought her into the underworld. She had been playing with some nymphs, whom Demeter later changed into the Sirens as punishment for having interfered, and the ground split and she was taken in by Hades. Life came to a standstill as the depressed Demeter searched for her lost daughter. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (581x800, 118 KB) Frederic Leighton (1830–1896). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (581x800, 118 KB) Frederic Leighton (1830–1896). ... Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton Flaming June Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (3 December 1830–25 January 1896) was an English painter and sculptor. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... Proserpine by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, Persephónē) was the Queen of the Underworld of epic literature. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Pluto is an alternate name for the Greek god Hades, but was more often used in Roman mythology in their presentation of the god of the underworld. ...


Finally, Zeus could not put up with the dying earth and forced Hades to return Persephone by sending Hermes to retrieve her. But before she was released, Hades tricked her into eating six pomegranate seeds, which forced her to return for six months each year. When Demeter and her daughter were together, the earth flourished with vegetation. But for six months each year, when Persephone returned to the underworld, the earth once again became a barren realm. Summer, autumn, and spring by comparison have heavy rainfall and mild temperatures in which plant life flourishes. It was during her trip to retrieve Persephone from the underworld that she revealed the Eleusinian Mysteries. In an alternate version, Hecate rescued Persephone. In other alternative versions, Persephone was not tricked into eating the pomegranate seeds but chose to eat them herself, or ate them accidentally, that is, not knowing the effect it would have or perhaps even recognize it for what it was. In the latter version it is claimed that Ascalaphus, one of Hades' gardners, claimed to have witnessed her do so, at the moment that she was preparing to return with Hermes. Regardless, the result is the occurrence of the unfruitful seasons of the ancient Greek calendars. For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Attic calendar is the name of the calendar used in Ancient Athens. ...


According to controversial historian Robert Graves, Persephone is not only the younger self of Demeter, she is in turn also one of three guises of Demeter as the Triple Goddess. The other two guises are Kore (the younger one, signifying green young corn, the maiden) and Hekate (the elder of the three, the harvested corn, the crone) with Demeter in between, signifying the ripe ears, the nymph, waiting to be plucked, which to a certain extent reduces the name and role of Demeter to that of groupname. Before Persephone was abducted by Hades, an event witnessed by the shepherd Eumolpus and the swineherd Eubuleus (they saw a girl being carried of into the earth which had violently opened up, in a black chariot, driven by an invisible driver), she was called Kore. It is when she is taken that she becomes Persephone ('she who brings destruction'). Hekate was also reported to have told Demeter that she had heard Kore scream that she was being raped. (Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, 24. p 94-95, ISBN 0-14-001026-2) Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ...


Demeter's stay at Eleusis

The Eleusinian trinity: Persephone, Triptolemos and Demeter, on a marble bas-relief from Eleusis, 440-30 BCE.
The Eleusinian trinity: Persephone, Triptolemos and Demeter, on a marble bas-relief from Eleusis, 440-30 BCE.

Demeter was searching for her daughter Persephone (also known as Kore). Having taken the form of an old woman called Doso, she received a hospitable welcome from Celeus, the King of Eleusis in Attica (and also Phytalus). He asked her to nurse Demophon and Triptolemus, his sons by Metanira. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 415 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1308 × 1888 pixel, file size: 405 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to nl. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 415 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1308 × 1888 pixel, file size: 405 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to nl. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... Proserpine by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, Persephónē) was the Queen of the Underworld of epic literature. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... Eleusis (Game) The cardgame invented by Robert Abbott in 1962, and later popularized in 1977 by Martin Gardner in his Mathematical Games column in Scientific American magazine. ... In Greek mythology, Doso was an alias of Demeter. ... Celeus was a king in Greek mythology. ... Eleusis (Game) The cardgame invented by Robert Abbott in 1962, and later popularized in 1977 by Martin Gardner in his Mathematical Games column in Scientific American magazine. ... This article is about Attica in Greece. ... In Greek mythology, Phytalus gave Demeter hospitality when she was searching for her daughter, Persephone. ... In Greek mythology, Demophon referred to two different kings: one of Eleusis and the other, Athens Demophon was a son of King Celeus and Queen Metanira. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... In Greek mythology, Metanira was a Queen of Eleusis and wife of Celeus. ...


As a gift to Celeus, because of his hospitality, Demeter planned to make Demophon as a god, by coating and anointing him with Ambrosia, breathing gently upon him while holding him in her arms and bosom, and making him immortal by burning his mortal spirit away in the family hearth every night. She put him in the fire at night like a firebrand or ember without the knowledge of his parents. In ancient Greek mythology, Ambrosia (Greek ) is sometimes the food, sometimes the drink, of the gods, often depicted as conferring immortality on whoever consumes it. ...


Demeter was unable to complete the ritual because his mother Metanira walked in and saw her son in the fire and screamed in fright, which angered Demeter, who lamented that foolish mortals do not understand the concept and ritual.


Instead of making Demophon immortal, Demeter chose to teach Triptolemus the art of agriculture and, from him, the rest of Greece learned to plant and reap crops. He flew across the land on a winged chariot while Demeter and Persephone cared for him, and helped him complete his mission of educating the whole of Greece in the art of agriculture. For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ...


Later, Triptolemus taught Lyncus, King of the Scythians the arts of agriculture but he refused to teach it to his people and then tried to murder Triptolemus. Demeter turned him into a lynx. In Greek mythology, King Lyncus (lynx) of the Scythians was taught the arts of agriculture by Triptolemus but he refused to teach it to his people and then tried to kill Triptolemus. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... For other uses, see Lynx (disambiguation). ...


Some scholars believe the Demophon story is based on an earlier prototypical folk tale.[6]


Children

Proserpine by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, Persephónē) was the Queen of the Underworld of epic literature. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Zagreus was sometimes used as a name for Dionysus. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Despina (mythology). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Greek mythology, Plutus (wealth Πλοῦτος) was a son of Demeter and the Titan Iasion and was the personification and god of wealth and money. ... In Greek mythology, Iasion or Iasus was usually the son of Electra and Zeus and brother of Dardanus. ... Philomelus or Philomenus is a minor Greek demi-god, the son of Demeter and Iasion, and the brother of Plutus. ...

Portrayals

  • Demeter was usually portrayed on a chariot, and frequently associated with images of the harvest, including flowers, fruit, and grain. She was also sometimes pictured with Persephone.
  • The Black Demeter, a sculpture made by Onatas.
  • Demeter is not generally portrayed with a consort: the exception is Iasion, the youth of Crete who lay with Demeter in a thrice-ploughed field, and was sacrificed afterwards – by a jealous Zeus with a thunderbolt, Olympian mythography adds, but the Cretan site of the myth is a sign that the Hellenes knew this was an act of the ancient Demeter. [citation needed]
  • Demeter placed Aethon, the god of famine, in Erysichthon's gut, making him permanently famished. This was a punishment for cutting down trees in a sacred grove. [citation needed]

Onatas, a Greek sculptor of the time of the Persian wars, a member of the flourishing school of Aegina. ... In Greek mythology and Roman mythology there are three characters known as Aethon According to Ovid (II, 153), one of Helios horses. ... In Greek mythology, King Erysichthon of Thessaly was the son of Triopas. ...

Demeter in astronomy

Demeter is a main belt asteroid 26km in diameter, which was discovered in 1929 by K. Reinmuth at Heidelberg. 1108 Demeter is an asteroid named after the Greek goddess of fertility, Demeter. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Karl Wilhelm Reinmuth (April 4, 1892 &#8211; May 6, 1979) was a German astronomer. ... Heidelberg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...


Demeter in popular culture

  • In Bram Stoker's novel Dracula, the sailing ship Demeter is taken over and its crew killed by the Count before running aground on the English coast.
  • Demeter appeared in the 1997 Disney movie, Hercules and the animated series based on it, as one of the gods upon Mount Olympus.
  • Demeter is also one of the poems in Carol Ann Duffy's collection The World's Wife.
  • Demeter (together with Dionysius) was used as an archetype for the character Tori by contemporary artist Tori Amos in her 2007 album American Doll Posse. Amos created five personalities for the album, each representing a different Greek god or goddess.
  • In the computer game Zeus: Master of Olympus, Demeter is one of the gods to whom the player can build a temple. The completion of the sanctuary to Demeter provides the city with arable farmland suitable for raising crops or livestock; the goddess provides blessings and sanctification of buildings associated with produce, and can be appealed to for a supply of food.

Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... This article is about the novel. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Hercules is a 1997 animated feature produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures on June 14, 1997. ... Carol Ann Duffy Carol Ann Duffy (born December 23, 1955) is a British poet, playwright and freelance writer born in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The Worlds Wife is a collection of poems by Carol Ann Duffy published in 1999. ... Several people in history have been known by the name Dionysius: Dionysius of Syracuse, a tyrant Dionysius the Elder, a Greek mythological figure Dionysius the Areopagite, a citizen of Corinth who was converted by Paul of Tarsus Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, identified by some with a Georgian theologist Peter the... Tori Amos (born Myra Ellen Amos on August 22, 1963) is an American pianist and singer-songwriter. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... American Doll Posse is the ninth studio album by singer-songwriter Tori Amos. ...

References

  1. ^ Nilsson, p.45: "We have a document concerning the Eleusinian cult which is older and more comprehensive than anything concerning any other Greek cult, namely, the Homeric Hymn to Demeter composed in Attica before Eleusis was incorporated into the Athenian state, not later than the end of the seventh century B.C. We know that the basis of the Eleusinian Mysteries was an old agrarian cult celebrated in the middle of the month Boedromion (about October) and closely akin to the Thesmophoria, a festival of the autumn sowing celebrated by the women not quite a month later. I need not dwell upon this connection, which is established by internal evidence as well as by direct information."
  2. ^ Isocrates, Panegyricus4.28: "When Demeter came to our land, in her wandering after the rape of Kore, and, being moved to kindness towards our ancestors by services which may not be told save to her initiates, gave these two gifts, the greatest in the world — the fruits of the earth, which have enabled us to rise above the life of the beasts, and the holy rite, which inspires in those who partake of it sweeter hopes regarding both the end of life and all eternity".
  3. ^ Herodotus, v. 61
  4. ^ Plutarch Isis et Osiris p. 378, d
  5. ^ Smith, William (1867), "Achaea (1)", in Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 1, Boston, pp. 8
  6. ^ Nilsson, p.50: "The Demophon story in Eleusis is based on an older folk-tale motif which has nothing to do with the Eleusinian Cult. It is introduced in order to let Demeter reveal herself in her divine shape".
  • Walter Burkert (1985) Greek Religion, Harvard University Press, 1985.
  • Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire, D'Aulaire's Book of Greek Myths, 1962. An illustrated book of Greek myths retold for children.
  • Jane Ellen Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion, 1903
  • Karl Kerenyi, Eleusis: archetypal image of mother and daughter, 1967.
  • Karl Kerenyi, Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life, 1976
  • Martin P. Nilsson, Greek Popular Religion, 1940. [1]
  • Carl Ruck and Danny Staples, The World of Classical Myth, 1994.

Isocrates (436&#8211;338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ... Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is a encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. ... Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jane Ellen Harrison (September 9, 1850&#8211;April 5, 1928) was a ground-breaking English classical scholar and feminist. ... One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... Carl A. P. Ruck is a professor in the Classical Studies department at Boston University. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Demeter
Greek deities series
Primordial deities | Titans | Aquatic deities | Chthonic deities
Twelve Olympians
Zeus | Hera | Poseidon | Hades | Hestia | Demeter | Aphrodite
Athena | Apollo | Artemis | Ares | Hephaestus | Hermes | Dionysus
Chthonic deities
Hades | Persephone | Gaia | Demeter | Hecate | Iacchus | Trophonius | Triptolemus | Erinyes

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