FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Dementia" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Dementia
Dementia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F00.-F07.
ICD-9 290-294
DiseasesDB 29283
MedlinePlus 000739

Dementia (from Latin de- "apart, away" + mens (genitive mentis) "mind") is the progressive decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the brain beyond what might be expected from normal aging. Although dementia is far more common in the geriatric population, it may occur in any stage of adulthood. This age cutoff is defining, as similar sets of symptoms due to organic brain dysfunction are given different names in populations younger than adulthood (see, for instance, developmental disorders). Dementia may refer to: Dementia, the cognitive disorder. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // F00-F99 - Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F09) Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00) Dementia in Alzheimers disease (F01) Vascular dementia (F011) Multi-infarct dementia (F02) Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere (F020) Dementia in Picks disease (F021) Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F022) Dementia in Huntingtons... // F00-F99 - Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F09) Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00) Dementia in Alzheimers disease (F01) Vascular dementia (F011) Multi-infarct dementia (F02) Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere (F020) Dementia in Picks disease (F021) Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F022) Dementia in Huntingtons... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the figure in Roman mythology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... Geriatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on health promotion and the prevention and treatment of disease and disability in later life. ... Developmental disorders are disorders that occur at some stage in a childs development, often retarding the development. ...


In dementia, affected areas in cognition may be memory, attention, language, and problem solving. Higher mental functions are affected first in the process. Especially in the later stages of the condition, affected persons may be disoriented in time (not knowing what day of the week, day of the month, month, or even what year it is), in place (not knowing where they are), and in person (not knowing who they are). For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... This article is about psychological concept of attention. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: (1) time, (2) place and (3) person. ...


Symptoms of dementia can be classified as either reversible or irreversible depending upon the etiology of the disease. Less than 10 percent of cases of dementia are due to causes which may presently be reversed with treatment. Of these cases almost 100% are elderly people. Dementia is a term for a non-specific illness syndrome (set of symptoms) which is caused by many different specific disease processes, in the same way that symptoms of organ dysfunction such as shortness of breath, jaundice, or pain are attributable to many etiologies. This article is about the medical term. ... Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Without careful assessment of history, the short-term syndrome of delirium can easily be confused with dementia, because many of the symptoms of these are also present in dementia. Some mental illnesses including depression and psychosis may also produce symptoms which must be differentiated from both delirium and dementia.[1] This article is about the mental state and medical condition. ... The term symptom (from the Greek syn = con/plus and pipto = fall, together meaning co-exist) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: A symptom can be a physical condition which shows that one has a particular illness or disorder (see e. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... For other uses, see Depression. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Diagnosis

Proper differential diagnosis between the types of dementia (see below) will require, at the least, referral to a specialist, e.g. a geriatric internist, geriatric psychiatrist, neurologist, neuropsychologist or geropsychologist. However, there exist some brief tests (5-15 minutes) that have reasonable reliability and can be used in the office or other setting to screen cognitive status for deficits which are considered pathological. Examples of such tests include the abbreviated mental test score (AMTS), the mini mental state examination (MMSE), Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS),[2] the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI),[3] and the clock drawing test.[4]. An AMTS score of less than six (out of a possible score of ten) and an MMSE score under 24 (out of a possible score of 30) suggests a need for further evaluation. Scores must be interpreted in the context of the person's educational and other background, and the particular circumstances; for example, a person highly depressed or in great pain will not be expected to do well on many tests of mental ability. Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system and disorders affecting it. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes. ... The abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) was introduced by Hodkinson in 1972 to rapidly assess elderly patients for the possibility of dementia. ... The mini mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ... The abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) was introduced by Hodkinson in 1972 to rapidly assess elderly patients for the possibility of dementia. ... The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ...


Mini-mental state examination

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) reviewed tests for cognitive impairment and concluded:[5] The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ...

sensitivity 71% to 92%
specificity 56% to 96%

A copy of the MMSE can be found in the appendix of the original publication.[6] The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ... The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ... The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ...


Modified Mini-Mental State examination (3MS)

A copy of the 3MS is online.[7] A meta-analysis concluded that the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination has:[8] A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ...

sensitivity 83% to 94%
specificity 85% to 90%

The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ...

Abbreviated mental test score

A meta-analysis concluded:[8] The abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) was introduced by Hodkinson in 1972 to rapidly assess elderly patients for the possibility of dementia. ... A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ...

sensitivity 73% to 100%
specificity 71% to 100%

The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ...

Other examinations

Many other tests have been studied[9][10][11] including the clock-drawing test example form). Although some may emerge as better alternatives to the MMSE, presently the MMSE is the best studied. However, access to the MMSE is now limited by enforcement of its copyright (details). The mini mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ...


Another approach to screening for dementia is to ask an informant (relative or other supporter) to fill out a questionnaire about the person's everyday cognitive functioning. Informant questionnaires provide complementary information to brief cognitive tests. Probably the best known questionnaire of this sort is the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE).[12]


Further evaluation includes retesting at another date, and administration of other (and sometimes more complex) tests of mental function, such as formal neuropsychological testing. Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes. ...


Laboratory tests

Routine blood tests are also usually performed to rule out treatable causes. These tests include vitamin B12, folic acid, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), C-reactive protein, full blood count, electrolytes, calcium, renal function, and liver enzymes. Abnormalities may suggest vitamin deficiency, infection or other problems that commonly cause confusion or disorientation in the elderly. The problem is complicated by the fact that these cause confusion more often in persons who have early dementia, so that "reversal" of such problems may ultimately only be temporary. Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein, an acute phase protein produced by the liver. ... A full blood count (FBC) or complete blood count (CBC) is a test requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patients blood. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Calcium (Ca2+) plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. ... In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology. ... Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give a doctor or other health professional information about the state of a patients liver. ... Avitaminosis is any disease caused by chronic or long-term vitamin deficiency or caused by a defect in metabolic conversion, such as tryptophan to niacin. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...


Chronic use of substances such as alcohol can also predispose the patient to cognitive changes suggestive of dementia. Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ...


Imaging

A CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan) is commonly performed, although these modalities (as is noted below) do not have optimal sensitivity for the diffuse metabolic changes associated with dementia in a patient who shows no gross neurological problems (such as paralysis or weakness) on neurological exam. CT or MRI may suggest normal pressure hydrocephalus, a potentially reversible cause of dementia, and can yield information relevant to other types of dementia, such as infarction (stroke) that would point at a vascular type of dementia. However, the functional neuroimaging modalities of SPECT and PET have shown similar ability to diagnose dementia as clinical exam.[13] The ability of SPECT to differentiate the vascular cause from the Alzheimer disease cause of dementias, appears to be superior to differentiation by clinical exam.[14] CT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... MRI redirects here. ... Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a chronic type of communicating hydrocephalus whereby the increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) due to accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) becomes stable and that the formation of CSF equilibrates with absorption. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Functional neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions. ... SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. ... This article is about animals kept for companionship. ...


Types

Cortical dementias

Multi-infarct dementia, also known as vascular dementia, is a form of dementia resulting from brain damage caused by stroke or transient ischemic attacks (also known as mini-strokes). ... Binswangers disease is a rare form of multi-infarct dementia caused by damage to deep white brain matter. ... Dementia with Lewy bodies is the second most frequent cause of hospitalization for dementia, after Alzheimers disease. ... Alcohol dementia, which is sometimes associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, is a form of dementia caused by long-term or excessive drinking resulting in neurological damage and memory loss. ... Korsakoffs syndrome (Korsakoffs psychosis, amnesic-confabulatory syndrome), is a degenerative brain disorder caused by the lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the brain. ... This article describes the neurological syndrome Wernicke encephalopathy. ... Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a pathologic process involving degeneration of gray matter in the frontal lobe and anterior portion of the temporal lobe of the cerebrum, with sparing of the parietal and occipital lobes. ... Pick’s disease, also known as Pick disease and PiD, is a rare fronto-temporal neurodegenerative disease. ... Fronto-temporal dementias selectively affect the frontal lobe of the brain. ... Semantic dementia (SD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of semantic memory in both the verbal and non-verbal domains. ... Progressive nonfluent aphasia is a progressive nonfluent speech disorder assoicated with agrammatism, phonemic paraphasias, and/or anomia. ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ... Dementia pugilistica, also called chronic traumatic encephalopathy, pugilistic Parkinsons syndrome, boxers dementia, and punch-drunk syndrome, is a neurological disorder which affects some career boxers and others who receive multiple dazing blows to the head. ... Moyamoya disease is an extremely rare disorder in most parts of the world except in Japan. ...

Subcortical dementias

Dementia and early onset dementia have been associated with neurovisceral porphyrias. Porphyria is listed in textbooks in the differential diagnosis of dementia. Because acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria and variegate porphyria are aggravated by environmental toxins and drugs the disorders should be ruled out when these etiologies are raised. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system. ... Signs of folic acid deficiency are often subtle. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a form of traumatic brain injury in which blood collects between the dura (the outer protective covering of the brain) and the arachnoid (the middle layer of the meninges). ... Hypercalcaemia (or Hypercalcemia) is an elevated calcium level in the blood. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Chronic renal failure (CRF, or chronic kidney failure, CKF, or chronic kidney disease, CKD) is a slowly progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years and defined as an abnormally low glomerular filtration rate, which is usually determined indirectly by the creatinine level in blood serum. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ...


Treatment

Except for the treatable types listed above, there is no cure to this illness, although scientists are progressing in making a type of medication that will slow down the process. Cholinesterase inhibitors are often used early in the disease course. Cognitive and behavioral interventions may also be appropriate. Educating and providing emotional support to the caregiver (or carer) is of importance as well (see also elderly care). A cholinesterase inhibitor or anticholinesterase is a chemical that inhibits a cholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, so increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... Caregiver may refer to: A voluntary caregiver An assisted living situation A nursing home A hospice care situation Category: ... Elderly care or simply eldercare is the fulfillment of the special needs and requirements that are unique to senior citizens. ...


A Canadian study found that a lifetime of bilingualism has a marked influence on delaying the onset of dementia by an average of four years when compared to monolingual patients. The researchers determined that the onset of dementia symptoms in the monolingual group occurred at the mean age of 71.4, while the bilingual group was 75.5 years. The difference remained even after considering the possible effect of cultural differences, immigration, formal education, employment and even gender as influences in the results.[15] Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history Canada has been inhabited by aboriginal peoples (known in Canada as First Nations) for at least 40,000 years. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... Monoglottism (Greek monos, alone, solitary, + glotta, tongue, language) or, more commonly, monolingualism or unilingualism is the condition of being able to speak only a single language. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ...


Medications

Tacrine (Cognex), donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Reminyl), and rivastigmine (Exelon) are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of dementia induced by Alzheimer disease. They may be useful for other similar diseases causing dementia such as Parkinsons or vascular dementia.[16] A cholinesterase inhibitor or anticholinesterase is a chemical that inhibits a cholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, so increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... Chemical structure of tacrine Tacrine is a parasympathomimetic and a centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitor (anticholinesterase). ... Donepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept® (Eisai), is a centrally acting reversible acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor. ... Galantamine (trade name Razadyne®) is a medication used in the treatment of Alzheimers disease. ... Exelon (rivastigmine tartrate) is a pharmaceutical product developed and marketed by Novartis for the treatment of Alzheimers disease. ...

  • N-methyl-D-aspartate Blockers. Memantine (Namenda) is a drug representative of this class. It can be used in combination with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

Off label

  • Amyloid deposit inhibitors

Minocycline and Clioquinoline, antibiotics, may help reduce amyloid deposits in the brains of persons with Alzheimer disease.[17] Minocycline hydrochloride, also known as minocycline, is a member of the broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotics, and has a broader spectrum than the other members. ... For other uses, see Amyloid (disambiguation). ...

  • Antipsychotic drugs

Haloperidol (Haldol), risperidone (Risperdal), olanzapine (Zyprexa), and quetiapine (Seroquel) are frequently prescribed to help manage psychosis and agitation. Treatment of dementia-associated psychosis or agitation is intended to decrease psychotic symptoms (for example, paranoia, delusions, hallucinations), screaming, combativeness, and/or violence.[18][19] Haloperidol (sold under the tradenames Aloperidin, Bioperidolo, Brotopon, Dozic, Duraperidol (Germany), Einalon S, Eukystol, Haldol, Halosten, Keselan, Linton, Peluces, Serenace, Serenase, Sigaperidol) is a conventional, or typical, butyrophenone antipsychotic drug. ... Risperdal tablets Risperidone (pronounced Ris-PER-ǐ-dōn and sold under the trade name Risperdal in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Portugal and several other countries, Risperdal or Ridal in New Zealand, Rispolept in Eastern Europe, and Belivon, or Rispen elsewhere) is an atypical antipsychotic medication developed by... Olanzapine (oh-LAN-za-peen, sold as Zyprexa®, Zyprexa Zydis®, or in combination with fluoxetine, as Symbyax®) was the third atypical antipsychotic to gain approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and has become one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotics. ... Quetiapine (IPA: , kwe-TYE-a-peen), marketed by AstraZeneca with the brand name Seroquel, belongs to a series of neuroleptics known as atypical antipsychotics, which have, over the last two decades, become increasingly popular alternatives to typical antipsychotics, such as haloperidol. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Agitation may have the following special meanings Agitation, an emotional state Agitation, putting into motion (by shaking or stirring) Agitation, a term from the lexicon of Communists: political activities aimed at urging people to do something This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might...

Depression is frequently associated with dementia and generally worsens the degree of cognitive and behavioral impairment. Antidepressants may be helpful in alleviating cognitive and behavior symptoms by reuptaking neurotransmitter regulation through reuptake of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ... Behavior (U.S.) or behaviour (U.K.) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... Norepinephrine, known as noradrenaline outside the USA, is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ...

  • Antianxiety drugs

Many patients with dementia experience anxiety symptoms. Although benzodiazepines like diazepam (Valium) have been used for treating anxiety in other situations, they are often avoided because they may increase agitation in persons with dementia or are too sedating. Buspirone (Buspar) is often initially tried for mild-to-moderate anxiety. This article is about state anxiety. ... Benzodiazepine tablets The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs with hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... Buspirone (brand-names Ansial, Ansiced, Anxiron, Axoren, Bespar, BuSpar, Buspimen, Buspinol, Buspisal, Narol, Spitomin, Sorbon) is an anxiolytic agent and a serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. ...


Selegiline, a drug used primarily in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, appears to slow the development of dementia. Selegiline is thought to act as an antioxidant, preventing free radical damage. However, it also acts as a stimulant, making it difficult to determine whether the delay in onset of dementia symptoms is due to protection from free radicals or to the general elevation of brain activity from the stimulant effect. Selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl® or Anipryl® [veterinary]) is a drug used for the treatment of early-stage Parkinsons disease and senile dementia. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ...


Prevention

Since there is no cure for dementia, the best an individual can do is to prevent it from developing in the first place. Prevention of dementia is the attempt to avoid developing dementia. ...


The main method to prevent dementia is to live an active life, both mentally and physically. It appears that the regular moderate consumption of alcohol (beer, wine, or distilled spirits) may reduce risk.[20]


Furthermore, there are medications which might contribute to prevent the onset of dementia, including hypertension medications, anti-diabetic drugs, and NSAIDs.[21] Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ...


Studies published in US journals suggested that a Mediterranean diet or long-term beta-carotene supplements could ward off dementia.[22] For cuisine, see Cuisine of the Mediterranean. ...


Risk to self and others

Driving with Dementia could lead to severe injury or even death to self and others. Doctors should advise appropriate testing on when to quit driving.[23] For other uses, see Driving (disambiguation). ...


Florida's Baker Act allows law enforcement and the judiciary to force mental evaluation for those suspected of suffering from Dementia or other mental incapacities.[citation needed] Enacted in 1971, the Baker Act is a statute of the state of Florida aimed at protecting the rights of persons with mental illness along with maintaining public safety. ...


Services

Adult daycare centers as well as special care units in nursing homes often provide specialized care for dementia patients. Adult daycare centers offer supervision, recreation, meals, and limited health care to participants, as well as providing respite for caregivers. An adult daycare center is a non-residential health care facility specializing in providing activities for elderly and/or handicapped individuals. ...


Further reading

  • Caregiving and dementia

References

  1. ^ American Family Physician, March 1, 2003 Delirium
  2. ^ Teng E L, Chui H C. The Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination. J Clin Psychiatry 1987;48:314–18. PMID 3611032
  3. ^ Teng E L, Hasegawa K, Homma A, et al. The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI): a practical test for cross-cultural epidemiological studies of dementia. Int Psychogeriatr 1994;6:45–58. PMID 8054493
  4. ^ Royall, D.; Cordes J.; & Polk M. (1998). "CLOX: an executive clock drawing task". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 64 (5): 588-94. PMID 9598672. 
  5. ^ Boustani, M.; Peterson, B.; Hanson, L.; Harris, R.; & Lohr, K. (2003). "Screening for dementia in primary care: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force". Ann Intern Med 138 (11): 927-37. PMID 12779304. 
  6. ^ Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR (1975). ""Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician". Journal of psychiatric research 12 (3): 189-98. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6. PMID 1202204. 
  7. ^ Appendix: The Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS). Retrieved on 2007-09-06.
  8. ^ a b Cullen B, O'Neill B, Evans JJ, Coen RF, Lawlor BA. A review of screening tests for cognitive impairment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007 Aug;78(8):790-9. Epub 2006 Dec 18. PMID 17178826
  9. ^ Sager, M.; Hermann, B.; La Rue, A.; & Woodard, J. (2006). "Screening for dementia in community-based memory clinics". WMJ 105 (7): 25-9. PMID 17163083. 
  10. ^ Fleisher, A.; Sowell B.; Taylor C.; Gamst A.; Petersen R.; & Thal L.. "Clinical predictors of progression to Alzheimer disease in amnestic mild cognitive impairment". Neurology. PMID 17287448. 
  11. ^ Karlawish, J. & Clark, C. (2003). "Diagnostic evaluation of elderly patients with mild memory problems". Ann Intern Med 138 (5): 411-9. PMID 12614094. 
  12. ^ Jorm, A.F. (2004). The Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE): A review. International Psychogeriatrics, 16, 1-19.
  13. ^ Bonte, FJ; Harris TS, Hynan LS, Bigio EH, White CL 3rd (July 2006). "Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in the differential diagnosis of the dementias with histopathologic confirmation". Clinical Nuclear Medicine 31 (7): 376-8. PMID 16785801. Retrieved on 2007-12-21. 
  14. ^ Dougall, NJ; Bruggink S, Ebmeier KP (Nov-Dec 2004). "Systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT in dementia". The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12 (6): 554-70. PMID 15545324. Retrieved on 2007-12-21. 
  15. ^ Bilingualism Has Protective Effect In Delaying Onset Of Dementia By Four Years, Canadian Study Shows. Medical News Today (2007-01-11). Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  16. ^ Lleo A, Greenberg SM, Growdon JH. Current pharmacotherapy for Alzheimer's disease. Annu Rev Med. 2006;57:513-33. Review. PMID 16409164
  17. ^ Choi, Y., Kim, H.S., Shin, K.Y., Kim, E.M., Kim, M., Kim, H.S., Park, C.H., Jeong, Y.H., Yoo, J., Lee, J.P., Chang K.A., Kim S., & Suh, Y.H. Related Minocycline Attenuates Neuronal Cell Death and Improves Cognitive Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease Models. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Apr 4; PMID 17406652
  18. ^ Wei, Z., Mousseau, D.D., Dai, Y., Cao, X., Li, X.M. (2006). Haloperidol induces apoptosis via the sigma2 receptor system and Bcl-XS. Pharmacogenomics J. 6(4):279-88. Epub 2006 Feb 7. PMID 16462815
  19. ^ Wang, H., Xu, H., Dyck, L.E., & Li, X.M. (2005). Olanzapine and quetiapine protect PC12 cells from beta-amyloid peptide(25-35)-induced oxidative stress and the ensuing apoptosis. Journal Neuroscience Res, 81(4):572-80. PMID 15948179
  20. ^ Mulkamal, K.J., et al. Prospective study of alcohol consumption and risk of dementia in older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2003 (March 19), 289, 1405-1413; Ganguli, M., et al. Alcohol consumption and cognitive function in late life: A longitudinal community study. Neurology, 2005, 65, 1210-12-17; Huang, W., et al. Alcohol consumption and incidence of dementia in a community sample aged 75 years and older. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 2002, 55(10), 959-964; Rodgers, B., et al. Non-linear relationships between cognitive function and alcohol consumption in young, middle-aged and older adults: The PATH Through Life Project. Addiction, 2005, 100(9), 1280-1290; Anstey, K. J., et al. Lower cognitive test scores observed in alcohol are associated with demographic, personality, and biological factors: The PATH Through Life Project. Addiction, 2005, 100(9), 1291-1301; Espeland, M., et al. Association between alcohol intake and domain-specific cognitive function in older women. Neuroepidemiology, 2006, 1(27), 1-12; Stampfer, M.J., et al'. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive function in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 2005, 352, 245-253; Ruitenberg, A., et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia: the Rotterdam Study. Lancet, 2002, 359(9303), 281-286; Scarmeas, N., et al. Mediterranean diet and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Annals of Neurology, 2006 (published online April 18, 2006).
  21. ^ West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources (with further links to experiments respectively)
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ Drivers with dementia a growing problem, MDs warn, CBC News, Canada, September 19, 2007

is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... GPnotebook is a British medical database for general practitioners (GPs. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (often referred to simply as The Merck Manual) is one of the worlds most widely used medical textbooks. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... Mental disorder or mental illness are terms used to refer psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and is usually associated with distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development or culture. ... Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is a broad category which is mostly being used in an educational context to group a range of more specific perceived difficulties of children and adolescents. ... Multi-infarct dementia, also known as vascular dementia, is a form of dementia resulting from brain damage caused by stroke or transient ischemic attacks (also known as mini-strokes). ... Pick’s disease, also known as Pick disease and PiD, is a rare fronto-temporal neurodegenerative disease. ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... Fronto-temporal dementias selectively affect the frontal lobe of the brain. ... This article is about the mental state and medical condition. ... Post-concussion syndrome, also known as postconcussive syndrome or PCS, is a set of symptoms that a person may experience for weeks, months, or even years after a concussion, a mild form of traumatic brain injury. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini Drunkenness is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of alcohol to a degree that mental and physical facilities are noticeably impaired. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For the beer, see Delirium Tremens (beer). ... Korsakoffs syndrome (Korsakoffs psychosis, amnesic-confabulatory syndrome), is a degenerative brain disorder caused by the lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the brain. ... This article needs cleanup. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Opioid dependency is a medical diagnosis characterized by an individuals inability to stop using opioids even when objectively in his or her best interest to do so. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, caused by withdrawal or dosage reduction of benzodiazepines, is the symptoms which appear when a patient who has taken the drug for a period of time stops taking the drug. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Cocaine dependence (or addiction) is physical and psychological dependency on the regular use of cocaine. ... ... Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Disorganized schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. ... Schizophreniform disorder is characterized by the presence of criterion A symptoms of schizophrenia. ... Schizotypal personality disorder, or simply schizotypal disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a need for social isolation, odd behaviour and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs such as being convinced of having extra sensory abilities. ... Delusional disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis denoting a psychotic mental illness that involves holding one or more non-bizarre delusions in the absence of any other significant psychopathology (signs or symptoms of mental illness). ... Folie à deux (literally, a madness shared by two) is a rare psychiatric syndrome in which a symptom of psychosis (particularly a paranoid or delusional belief) is transmitted from one individual to another. ... A mood disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Cyclothymia is a mood disorder. ... Dysthymia is a mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. ... A neurosis, in psychoanalytic theory, is an ineffectual coping strategy that Sigmund Freud suggested was caused by emotions from past experience overwhelming or interfering with present experience. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of abnormal, pathological anxiety, fears, phobias. ... Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder precipitated by the fear of having a symptom attack or panic attack in a setting from which there is no easy means of escape. ... Panic Disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by recurring panic attacks in combination with significant behavioral change or at least a month of ongoing worry about the implications or concern about having other attacks. ... Panic attacks are sudden, discrete periods of intense anxiety, fear and discomfort that are associated with a variety of somatic and cognitive symptoms[1]. The onset of these episodes is typically abrupt, and may have no obvious trigger. ... Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry about everyday things, which is disproportionate to the actual source of worry. ... Social anxiety is an experience of fear, apprehension or worry regarding social situations and being evaluated by others. ... Social anxiety, sometimes known as social phobia or social anxiety disorder (SAD), is a common form of anxiety disorder that causes sufferers to experience intense anxiety in some or all of the social interactions and public events of everyday life. ... OCD redirects here. ... Acute stress reaction is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying event. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... In psychology, adjustment disorder refers to a psychological disturbance that develops in response to a stressor. ... Conversion Disorder is a DSM-IV diagnosis which describes neurological symptoms such as extreme weakness, paralysis, sensory disturbance, seizure and/or attacks that may resemble a known organic disease such as epilepsy or dystonia, but which cannot be currently attributed to neurological disease. ... Ganser syndrome is a psychiatric disorder characterised by approximate answers to questions. ... Somatization disorder (or Briquets disorder) is a type of mental illness in which a patient manifests a psychiatric condition as a physical complaint. ... Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental disorder that involves a distorted body image. ... Hypochondria (sometimes hypochondriasis) is the unfounded belief that one is suffering from a serious illness. ... The English suffix -phobia is used to describe fear or hatred (the latter is often ignored) of a particular thing or subject. ... Da Costas Syndrome is a type of anxiety disorder first observed in soldiers in the American Civil War. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikiquote. ... Neurasthenia was a term first coined by George Miller Beard in 1869 to describe a condition with symptoms of fatigue, anxiety and pessimism. ... For other uses, see Anorexia. ... Bulimia nervosa, commonly known as bulimia, is an eating disorder and psychological condition in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by feelings of guilt, depression, and self-condemnation and intentional purging to compensate for the excessive eating, usually to prevent weight gain (see anorexia nervosa). ... Dyssomnias are a broad classification of sleeping disorder that make it difficult to get to sleep, or to stay sleeping. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Hypersomnia, also known as excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), is excessive amount of sleepiness. ... A parasomnia is any sleep disorder such as sleepwalking, sleepeating, sleep sex, teeth grinding, night terrors, rhythmic movement disorder, REM behaviour disorder, restless leg syndrome, and somniloquy (or sleep talking), characterized by partial arousals during sleep or during transitions between wakefulness and sleep. ... For other uses, see Night Terror. ... The current usage of the term nightmare refers to a dream which causes the sleeper a strong unpleasant emotional response. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ... Premature ejaculation (PE), also known as rapid ejaculation, premature climax or early ejaculation, is the most common sexual problem in men, affecting 25%-40% of men. ... Vaginismus is a condition which affects a womans ability to engage in any form of vaginal penetration, including sexual penetration, insertion of tampons, and the penetration involved in gynecological examinations. ... Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse, due to medical or psychological causes. ... Satyriasis redirects here. ... Postnatal Depression (also called Postpartum Depression and referred throughout this article by the acronym PPD) is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. ... Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy Personality disorder, formerly referred to as a Character Disorder is a class of mental disorders characterized by rigid and on-going patterns of thought and action (Cognitive modules). ... Passive-aggressive behavior refers to passive, sometimes obstructionist resistance to following authoritative instructions in interpersonal or occupational situations. ... Kleptomania (Greek: κλέπτειν, kleptein, to steal, μανία, mania) is an inability or great difficulty in resisting impulses of stealing. ... Trichotillomania (TTM), or trich as it is commonly known, is an impulse control disorder characterized by the repeated urge to pull out scalp hair, eyelashes, facial hair, nose hair, pubic hair, eyebrows or other body hair. ... “Voyeur” redirects here. ... A factitious disorder or FD is a mental disorder where the ill individuals symptoms are either self-induced or falsified by the patient. ... This page refers to the self-inflicted factitious disorder. ... Egodystonic sexual orientation is an egodystonic condition. ... Two women in handcuffs and latex miniskirts and tops - Latex and PVC fetishism Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy Sexual fetishism is the sexual attraction for material and terrestrial objects while in reality the essence of the object is inanimate and sexless. ... Mental retardation is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. ... Developmental disorders are disorders that occur at some stage in a childs development, often retarding the development. ... Specific developmental disorders categorizes specific learning disabilities and developmental disorders affecting coordination. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Expressive language disorder (DSM 315. ... For other uses, see Aphasia (disambiguation). ... Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ... Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernickes aphasia, Fluent aphasia or sensory aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychology, is a type of aphasia often (but not always) caused by neurological damage to Wernickes area in the brain. ... Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), also called progressive epileptic aphasia, is a rare, childhood neurological syndrome characterized by the sudden or gradual development of aphasia (the inability to understand or express language) and an abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG). ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... Dysgraphia (or agraphia) is a deficiency in the ability to write, regardless of the ability to read, not due to intellectual impairment. ... Gerstmann syndrome is a neurological disorder. ... Developmental Dyspraxia is one or all of a heterogeneous range of psychological development disorders affecting the initiation, organization and performance of action[1]. It entails the partial loss of the ability to coordinate and perform certain purposeful movements and gestures in the absence of motor or sensory impairments. ... The diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of disorders characterized by delays in the development of multiple basic functions including socialization and communication. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Rett syndrome/ disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder by the DSM-IV. Many[1] argue that this is a misclassification just as it would be to include such disorders as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, or Down syndrome where one can see autistic... Asperger syndrome (also Aspergers syndrome, Aspergers disorder, Aspergers, or AS) is one of several autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by difficulties in social interaction and by restricted and stereotyped interests and activities. ... Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), is a neurobehavioural developmental disorder[1] [2] [3] affecting about 3-5% of the worlds population under the age of 19[4]. It typically presents itself during childhood, and is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity, as well as forgetfulness... In psychiatry, conduct disorder is a pattern of repetitive behavior where the rights of others or the social norms are violated. ... Oppositional defiant disorder is a controversial psychiatric category listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders where it is described as an ongoing pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures that goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. ... Separation Anxiety redirects here. ... Selective mutism is a social anxiety disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech is unable to speak in given situations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Attachment disorder. ... A tic is a repeated, impulsive action, almost reflexive in nature, which the actor feels powerless to control or avoid. ... “Tourette” redirects here. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... “Stutter” redirects here. ... Cluttering (also called tachyphemia) is a communicative disorder characterized by speech that is difficult for listeners to understand due to rapid speaking rate, erratic rhythm, poor syntax or grammar, and words or groups of words unrelated to the sentence. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
THE MERCK MANUAL OF GERIATRICS, Ch. 40, Dementia (3810 words)
Dementia is characterized by cognitive decline and a normal sensorium (ie, delirium is absent).
Dementia is the leading cause of institutionalization among the elderly; prevalence among elderly nursing home residents is estimated to be 60 to 80%.
Dementia should be distinguished from cognitive changes due to depression (so-called dementia of depression), which resolves when depression is treated.
Dementia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (869 words)
Dementia (from Latin de- "apart, away" + mens (genitive mentis) "mind") is the progressive decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the brain beyond what might be expected from normal aging.
Dementia is a non-specific term that encompasses many disease processes, just as fever is attributable to many etiologies.
The most common types of dementia are as follows and vary according to the history and the presentation of the disease: (Where available the ICD-10 codes are provided.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m