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Encyclopedia > Deluge (mythology)
The Deluge by Gustave Doré.

The story of a Great Flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme among many cultural myths. Though it is best known by the Biblical story of Noah, it is also well known in other versions, such as stories of Matsya in the Hindu Puranas, Deucalion in Greek mythology and Utnapishtim in the Epic of Gilgamesh. A large percentage of the world's cultures past and present have stories of a "great flood" that devastated earlier civilization. Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... Look up deluge in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Central New York City. ... Divine retribution is a supernatural punishment usually directed towards all or some portions of humanity by a deity. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Incarnation of Vishnu as a Fish, from a devotional text. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim (also known as the Sumerian character Ziusudra) is the wise king of the Sumerian city state of Shuruppak who, along with his wife, whose name was not mentioned in the story, survived a great flood sent by Enlil to drown every living thing on... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ...

Contents

Flood myths in various cultures

Ancient Near East

Sumerian

Fertile Crescent
myth series
Mesopotamia
Levantine myth
Arabian myth
Yazidic religion
Mesopotamian mythology
Topics

Gods Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Palm_tree_symbol. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... In the Levantine pantheon, the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam) assembled on the divine holy place, Mount Zephon (Jebel Aqra). ... Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... Malak Ta’us, the peacock angel The Yazidi or Yezidi (Kurdish: Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ...

Heroes
In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ... The history of astrology encompasses a great span of human history and many cultures. ... For other uses, see Tiamat (disambiguation). ... In Mesopotamian mythology, the Tablet of Destinies (not, as frequently misquoted in general works, the Tablets of Destiny) was envisaged as a clay tablet inscribed with cuneiform writing, also impressed with cylinder seals, which, as a permanent legal document, conferred upon the god Enlil his supreme authority as ruler of... In Sumerian mythology, the Annuna, the fifty great gods, whose domain appears to be principally but not exclusively the underworld. ... Zecharia Sitchins photograph from The 12th Planet Zecharia Sitchin (born 1922)[1] is a best-selling author of books promoting the ancient astronaut theory for human origins. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mesopotamian mythology. ...

Monsters In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim (also known as the Sumerian character Ziusudra) is the wise king of the Sumerian city state of Shuruppak who, along with his wife, whose name was not mentioned in the story, survived a great flood sent by Enlil to drown every living thing on... Northwest Semitic Tammuz (Hebrew תַּמּוּז, Standard Hebrew Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew Tammûz), Arabic تمّوز Tammūz; Akkadian Duʾzu, Dūzu; Sumerian Dumuzid (DUMU.ZID the true son) was the name of an Ancient Near Eastern deity. ... The category life-death-rebirth deity also known as a dying-and-rising god is a convenient means of classifying the many divinities in world mythology who are born, suffer death or an eclipse or other death-like experience, pass a phase in the underworld among the dead, and are... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... The Cedar Forest is the glorious realm of the gods of Mesopotamian mythology. ... Enkidu (𒂗𒆠𒆕 EN.KI.DU3 Enkis creation) appears in Sumerian mythology as a mythical wild-man raised by animals. ... Therianthropy (from n. ...

Related In Akkadian mythology, Zu (called Anzu in Persia and Sumer) was a lesser god, the son of the bird goddess Siris. ... For the town in Pakistan, see Shedu (town). ... Kingu, also spelled Qingu, was a demon in Babylonian mythology, and the consort of the goddess Tiamat before she was slain by Marduk. ... Bill Reids sculpture The Raven and The First Men, showing part of a Haida creation story. ... Resheph was a Semitic god of plague and war. ... Look up pestilence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian mythology Namtar was a hellish deity, god of death, and the messenger of An, Ereshkigal and Nergal; he was considered responsible for diseases and pests, because it was said that he commanded sixty diseases in the form of demons that could penetrate different parts of...

The Sumerian myth of Ziusudra tells how the god Enki warns Ziusudra (meaning "he saw life," in reference to the gift of immortality given him by the gods), king of Shuruppak, of the gods' decision to destroy mankind in a flood - the passage describing why the gods have decided this is lost. Enki instructs Ziusudra to build a large boat - the text describing the instructions is also lost. After a flood of seven days, Ziusudra makes appropriate sacrifices and prostrations to An (sky-god) and Enlil (chief of the gods), and is given eternal life in Dilmun (the Sumerian Eden) by Anu and Enlil. In Sumerian mythology, a me (Sumerian, (IPA: ) or Å‹e (IPA: ) or parsu (Akkadian) is one of the decrees of the gods foundational to those social institutions, religious practices, technologies, behaviors, mores, and human conditions that make civilization, as the Sumerians conceived of it, possible. ... Ma is a Sumerian word meaning land that in Sumerian mythology was also used to design the primeval land. ... Irkalla - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ancient Near Eastern religion. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Ancient sumerian city. ... Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) is associated with ancient sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Sumerian king list, a genealogy of traditional, legendary and mythological Sumerian kings, also mentions a great flood. The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ...


Excavations in Iraq have shown evidence of a flood at Shuruppak about 2,900-2,750 BCE, which extended nearly as far as the city of Kish, whose king Etana, supposedly founded the first Sumerian dynasty after the flood. Ancient sumerian city. ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Ancient Sumerian king. ...


The myth of Ziusudra exists in a single copy, the fragmentary Eridu Genesis, datable by its script to the 17th century BC.[1]


Babylonian (Epic of Gilgamesh)

For more details on this topic, see Gilgamesh flood myth.
The "Deluge tablet" (tablet 11) of the Epic of Gilgamesh in Akkadian.
The "Deluge tablet" (tablet 11) of the Epic of Gilgamesh in Akkadian.

In the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, toward the end of the He who saw the deep version by Sin-liqe-unninn (tablet 11), there are references to a great flood. But this is a late addition to the Gilgamesh cycle, having been paraphrased or copied verbatim from the Epic of Atrahasis (see below), but in a way that turns a local river flood into an ocean deluge.[2] For the entire 12-tablet Epic see Epic of Gilgamesh. ... Deluge Tablet (Babylonian, Gilgamesh) http://www. ... Deluge Tablet (Babylonian, Gilgamesh) http://www. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ...


The hero Gilgamesh, seeking immortality, searches out Utnapishtim (whose name is a direct translation into Akkadian of the Sumerian Ziusudra) in Dilmun, a kind of paradise on earth. Utnapishtim tells how Ea (equivalent of the Sumerian Enki) warned him of the gods' plan to destroy all life through a great flood and instructed him to build a vessel in which he could save his family, his friends, and his wealth and cattle. After the Deluge the gods repented their action and made Utnapishtim immortal. This article is about living for infinite period of time. ... In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim (also known as the Sumerian character Ziusudra) is the wise king of the Sumerian city state of Shuruppak who, along with his wife, whose name was not mentioned in the story, survived a great flood sent by Enlil to drown every living thing on... Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) is associated with ancient sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. ...


Akkadian (Atrahasis Epic)

The Babylonian Atrahasis Epic (written no later than 1700 BC, the name Atrahasis means "exceedingly wise"), gives human overpopulation as the cause for the great flood. After 1200 years of human fertility, the god Enlil felt disturbed in his sleep due to the noise and ruckus caused by the growing population of mankind. He turned for help to the divine assembly who then sent a plague, then a drought, then a famine, and then saline soil, all in an attempt to reduce the numbers of mankind. All these were temporary fixes. 1200 years after each solution, the original problem returned. When the gods decided on a final solution, to send a flood, the god Enki, who had a moral objection to this solution, disclosed the plan to Atrahasis, who then built a survival vessel according to divinely given measurements. The Atrahasis Epic was a story writted in the early 2nd mellennium B.C. deriving a people called the Akkadian. ... (Redirected from 1700 BC) (18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC - other centuries) (1690s BC - 1680s BC - 1670s BC - 1660s BC - 1650s BC - 1640s BC - 1630s BC - 1620s BC - 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1700... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Soil is a complex mixture of materials, principally ground up rock and water. ...


To prevent the other gods from bringing such another harsh calamity, Enki created new solutions in the form of social phenomena such as non-marrying women, barrenness, miscarriages and infant mortality, to help keep the population from growing out of control.


Hebrew

See also: Noah's Ark

Biblical: The story recorded in the book of Genesis, says that God is "grieved in His heart" by seeing that "every intent of the thoughts of his (man's) heart was only evil continually", and decides to destroy the earth. [3] He selects Noah, who alone with his family is righteous, and instructs him to build an ark, and preserve at least one breeding pair of each kind of animal. After Noah builds the ark, God makes the "fountains of the great deep burst open" and "the floodgates of the sky" open, making it rain [4]. The Flood story is considered by most modern scholars to consist of two slightly different interwoven accounts [1], hence the apparent uncertainty regarding the duration of the flood (40 or 150 days) and the number of animals taken on board Noah's Ark (2 of each kind, or 7 pairs of some kinds). Eventually the ark comes to rest on the mountains of Ararat, and Noah's family and the animals disembark to repopulate the Earth [5]. This article is about the vessel described in the Hebrew scriptures. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... In the Book of Genesis, the mountains of Ararat are the place where Noahs ark comes to rest on dry earth. ...


Non-Biblical: The 2nd century BC 1st Book of Enoch is a late apocryphal addition to the Hebrew flood legend, in which God sends the Great Flood to rid the earth of the Nephilim, the titanic children of the Grigori, the "sons of God" mentioned in Genesis and of human females. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Nephilim (disambiguation). ... The Grigori are a group of fallen angels told of in Biblical apocrypha who mated with mortal women, giving rise to a race of hybrids known as the Nephilim, who are described as giants in Genesis 6:4. ...


Asia-Pacific

China

There are many sources of flood myths in ancient Chinese literature. Some appear to refer to a worldwide deluge:

1) Shujing, or "Book of History", probably written around 700 BC or earlier, states in the opening chapters that Emperor Yao is facing the problem of flood waters that "reach to the Heavens". This is the backdrop for the intervention of the famous Da Yu, who succeeded in controlling the floods. He went on to found the first Chinese dynasty. (see: Shujing, Part 1 Tang Document, Yao Canon; James Legges translation)
2) Shanhaijing, "Classic of the Mountain & Seas", ends with the Chinese ruler Da Yu spending ten years to control a deluge whose "floodwaters overflowed [to] heaven". (see: Shanhaijing, chapter 18, second to last paragraph; Anne Birrells translation. note: Nuwa is not mentioned in this translation in the context of a flood)
3) Shiji, Chuci, Liezi, Huainanzi, Shuowen Jiezi, Siku Quanshu, Songsi Dashu, and others, as well as many folk myths, all contain references to a personage named Nüwa. Nuwa is generally represented as a female (although not always) who repairs the broken heavens after a great flood or calamity, and repopulates the world with people. There are many versions of this myth. (see Nüwa for additional detail)

The ancient Chinese civilization concentrated at the bank of Yellow River near present day Xian also believed that the severe flooding along the river bank was caused by dragons (representing gods) living in the river being angered by the mistakes of the people [citation needed]. The Classic of History, Shu Jing, Shang Shu (書經 traditional / 书经 simplified Shū Jīng, literally Book Classic, more commonly, Book of History, Classic of History) It is also frequently known as the 尚書 Shang4 Shu1, Esteemed Book. ... In the television series Stargate SG-1, Yu is portrayed as a Goauld System Lord. ... The Classic of the Seas and Mountains (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shānhǎi Jīng) is an ancient Chinese book. ... In the television series Stargate SG-1, Yu is portrayed as a Goauld System Lord. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Liezi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lieh Tzu; literally [Book of] Master Lie) is a Daoist text attributed to Lie Yukou, a circa 5th century BCE Hundred Schools of Thought philosopher, but Chinese and Western scholars believe it was compiled around the 4th century CE. // The first two references to... The Huainanzi (淮南子) is a Chinese classic from the 2nd century BC written under the patronage of the Han dynasty nobleman Liu An. ... a version of Shuowen Jiezi Shuōwén Jiězì (說文解字, Explaining Simple and Analyzing Compound Characters) was the first Chinese character dictionary, compiled by Xǔ Shèn between 100 CE and 121 CE in Han Dynasty China. ... Siku quanshu (Traditional Chinese: 四庫全書; Simplified Chinese: 四库全书; pinyin: si4ku4 quan2shu1), or encyclopedia of the four archives, is the largest collection of Chinese philopsophers, historians, and poets in Chinese History. ... The Four Great Books of Song (Chinese: ; pinyin: Sòngsì Dàshū) was compiled by Li Fang and others during the Song Dynasty. ... For the character Nu Wa in the Chinese novel Fengshen Yanyi, see Nu Wa Niang Niang Nüwa iconograph in Shan Hai Jing In Chinese mythology, Nüwa (Traditional Chinese: 女媧; Simplified Chinese: 女娲; Pinyin: nǚwā) is mythological character best known for reproducing people after a great calamity. ... For the character Nu Wa in the Chinese novel Fengshen Yanyi, see Nu Wa Niang Niang Nüwa iconograph in Shan Hai Jing In Chinese mythology, Nüwa (Traditional Chinese: 女媧; Simplified Chinese: 女娲; Pinyin: nǚwā) is mythological character best known for reproducing people after a great calamity. ... This article is about the Chinese civilization. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... 1) The city of Xian in China 2) An alternative spelling of Christian, by analogy with Xmas as an alternative spelling of Christmas. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ...


India

Incarnation of Vishnu as a Fish, from a devotional text.
Incarnation of Vishnu as a Fish, from a devotional text.

Matsya (Fish in Sanskrit) was the first Avatara of Vishnu. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (700x977, 218 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (700x977, 218 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Incarnation of Vishnu as a Fish, from a devotional text. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... See Avatar (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ...


According to the Matsya Purana and Shatapatha Brahmana (I-8, 1-6), the mantri to the king of pre-ancient Dravida, Satyavata who later becomes known as Manu was washing his hands in a river when a little fish swam into his hands and begged him to save its life. He put it in a jar, which it soon outgrew; he successively moved it to a tank, a river and then the ocean. The fish then warned him that a deluge would occur in a week that would destroy all life. Manu therefore built a boat which the fish towed to a mountaintop when the flood came, and thus he survived along with some "seeds of life" to re-establish life on earth. It’s the sixteenth Purana. ... Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ... Mantri is a word of Sanskrit origin, used in Asian cultures with a Hindu tradition (even if later converted, usually to buddhism or Islam), for various public offices, from fairly humble to ministerial rank, either alone or in a pleiad of compounds. ... In Hinduism, Manu is a title accorded the progenitor of humankind, first king to rule this earth, who saves mankind from the universal flood. ...


Archaeologist MS Dhingra links this myth to a possible meteor impact event in the Indian Ocean. This impact may have occurred in 2084 BC.


Andaman Islands

In myths of the aboriginal tribes inhabitating the Andaman Islands people became remiss of the commands given to them at the creation. Puluga, the god creator, ceased to visit them and then without further warning sent a devastating flood. Only four people survived this flood: two men, Loralola and Poilola, and two women, Kalola and Rimalola. When they landed they found they had lost their fire and all living things had perished. Puluga then recreated the animals and plants but does not seem to have given any further instructions, nor did he return the fire to the survivors[6]. This article is on the social structure. ... Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ... PÅ«luga (or Puluga) is the creator in the mythology of the indigenous inhabitants of the Andaman Islands. ...


Indonesia

In Batak traditions, the earth rests on a giant snake, Naga-Padoha. One day, the snake tired of its burden and shook the Earth off into the sea. However, the God Batara-Guru saved his daughter by sending a mountain into the sea, and the entire human race descended from her. The Earth was later placed back onto the head of the snake. For other uses, see Batak (disambiguation). ...


Australia

According to the Australian aborigines, in the Dreamtime a huge frog drank all the water in the world and a drought swept across the land. The only way to finish the drought was to make the frog laugh. Animals from all over Australia have gathered together and one by one attempted to make the frog laugh. When finally eel succeeded, the frog opened his sleepy eyes, his big body quivered, his face relaxed, and, at last, he burst into a laugh that sounded like rolling thunder. The water poured from his mouth in a flood. It filled the deepest rivers and covered the land. Only the highest mountain peaks were visible, like islands in the sea. Many men and animals were drowned. The pelican who was blackfellow at that time painted himself with white clay and went from island to island in a great canoe, rescuing other blackfellows. Since that time pelicans have been black and white in remembrance of the Great Flood[7]. Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... opens chapter nine of The Dreaming Universe (1994) entitled The Dreamtime with a quote from The Last Wave, a film by Peter Weir: Aboriginals believe in two forms of time. ...


Europe

Greek

Greek mythology knows three floods. The flood of Ogyges, the flood of Deucalion and the flood of Dardanus, two of which ending two Ages of Man: the Ogygian Deluge ended the Silver Age, and the flood of Deucalion ended the First Brazen Age. Ogyges (Ogygus, Ogygos, Ho Gygos, Ωγύγος in Greek) is a primeval mythological ruler in ancient Greece, generally of Boeotia. ... Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ... In Greek mythology, Dardanus (burner up) was a son of Zeus by Electra, daughter of Atlas, and founder of the city of Dardania on Mount Ida in the Troad. ... The Ages of Man are the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Classical mythology. ... The Ogygian Deluge is a theoretical flood from Greek mythology. ... Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ...


Ogyges
"The consequence is, that in comparison of what then was, there are remaining only the bones of the wasted body, as they may be called, as in the case of small islands, all the richer and softer parts of the soil having fallen away, and the mere skeleton of the land being left."
Plato’s Critias (111b)

The Ogygian flood is so called because it occurred in the time of Ogyges,[8] a mythical king of Attica. Ogyges is somewhat synonymous to "primeval", "primal", "earliest dawn". Others say he was founder and king of Thebes. In many traditions the Ogygian flood is said to have covered the whole world and was so devastating that Attica remained without kings until the reign of Cecrops.[9] Ogyges (Ogygus, Ogygos, Ho Gygos, Ωγύγος in Greek) is a primeval mythological ruler in ancient Greece, generally of Boeotia. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... For the ancient capital of Upper Egypt, see Thebes, Egypt. ... The name Cecrops (Greek: ) means face with a tail and it is said that this mythical Greek king, born from the earth itself, had his top half shaped like a man and the bottom half in serpent or fish-tail form. ...


Plato in his Laws, Book III, estimates that this flood occurred 10,000 years before his time. Also in Timaeus (22) and in Critias (111-112) he describes the "great deluge of all" happening 9,000 years before the time of Solon, during the 10th millennium BCE. In addition, the texts report that "many great deluges have taken place during the nine thousand years" since Athens and Atlantis were preeminent.[10] For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The Laws is Platos last and longest dialogue. ... Timaeus (Honour) (or Timæus) is a name that appears in several ancient (Greek) sources: Timaeus (dialogue), a Socratic dialogue by Plato Timaeus of Locri, the 5th-century Pythagorean philosopher, appearing in Platos s Timaeus. ... Critias, a dialogue of Platos, speaks about a variety of subjects. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... (Redirected from 10th millennium BCE) (Pleistocene, Paleolithic – 10th millennium BC – 9th millennium BC – other millennia) Beginning of the Mesolithic, or Epipaleolithic time period, which is the first part of the Holocene epoch. ... For other uses, see Atlantis (disambiguation). ...

Map of eastern Mediterranean and Greece during 10.000 BCE.
Map of eastern Mediterranean and Greece during 10.000 BCE.

The theory of the flood in the Aegean Basin, proposed that a great flood occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or beginning of the Holocene. The Holocene is a geological period that began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (or about 9600 BCE) and continues to the present. This flood would coincide with the end of the last ice age, estimated approximately 10,000 years ago, when the sea level rose as much as 130 metres, particularly during Meltwater pulse 1A when sea level rose by about 25 metres in some parts of the northern hemisphere over a period of less than 500 years.[11] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Sea level measurements from 23 long tide gauge records in geologically stable environments show a rise of around 20 centimeters per century (2 mm/year). ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ... Image showing sea level change during the end of the last glacial period. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ...


The map on the right shows how the region would look about 12,000 years ago, or 10,000 BCE, when the sea level would have been 100 meters lower than today. The Peloponnese was connected to the mainland and the Corinthian Gulf was not formed. Islands around Attica, such as Aegina, Salamis and Euboea, were part of the mainland. The Cyclades formed a big island known as Aegeis, while Bosporous and Hellespont was not formed yet. Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... The Gulf of Corinth is the body of water separating Peloponnese from western mainland Greece. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα (Egina)) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 31 miles (50 km) from Athens. ... Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamína, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamís) is the largest Greek island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ... For the Greek mythological figures see Euboea Euboea, or Negropont or Negroponte (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Évia, Ancient Greek Eúboia), is the second largest of the Greek Aegean Islands and the second largest Greek island overall in area and population (after Crete). ... The Cyclades (Greek Κυκλάδες) are a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea, south-east of the mainland of Greece; and an administrative prefecture of Greece. ... This article is about the strait. ... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ...


These geological findings support the hypothesis that the Ogygian Deluge may well be based on a real event.


Deucalion

The Deucalion legend as told by Apollodorus in The Library has some similarity to Noah's Ark: Prometheus advised his son Deucalion to build a chest. All other men perished except for a few who escaped to high mountains. The mountains in Thessaly were parted, and all the world beyond the Isthmus and Peloponnese was overwhelmed. Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, after floating in the chest for nine days and nights, landed on Parnassus. An older version of the story told by Hellanicus has Deucalion's "ark" landing on Mount Othrys in Thessaly. Another account has him landing on a peak, probably Phouka, in Argolis, later called Nemea. When the rains ceased, he sacrificed to Zeus. Then, at the bidding of Zeus, he threw stones behind him, and they became men, and the stones which Pyrrha threw became women. Appollodorus gives this as an etymology for Greek laos "people" as derived from laas "stone". The Megarians told that Megarus, son of Zeus, escaped Deucalion's flood by swimming to the top of Mount Gerania, guided by the cries of cranes. Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ... Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... The Bibliotheke was renowned as the chief work of Apollodorus of Athens, a 2nd-century B.C. Greek historian and scholar. ... For other uses, see Prometheus (disambiguation). ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Deucalion and Pyrrha throwing rocks that become babies. ... Mount Parnassus (also Mount Parnassos) is a mountain in central Greece that towers above Delphi. ... Mount Othrys (Greek: Όρος Όθρυς, Oros-, other transliteration: Othris) is a mountain in Central Greece in the northeastern part of Fthiotis and southern part of Magnesia. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Argolis (Greek, Modern: Αργολίδα Argolida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Αργολίς -- still the official, formal name) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... Genera Grus Anthropoides Balearica Bugeranus Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. ...


Dardanus

According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Dardanus left Pheneus in Arcadia to colonize a land in the North-East Aegean Sea. When the Dardanus' deluge occurred, the land was flooded and the mountain on which he and his family survived, formed the island of Samothrace. He left Samothrace on an inflated skin to the opposite shores of Asia Minor and settled at the foot of Mount Ida. Due to the fear of another flood they didn't built a city, but lived in the open for fifty years. His grandson Tros eventually built a city, which was named Troy after him. Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... This article is about a region of Greece. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coordinates 40°29′ N 25°31′ E Country Greece Periphery East Macedonia and Thrace Prefecture Evros Population 2,723 source (2001) Area 178. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... In Greek mythology, King Tros of Dardania, son of Erichthonius from whom he inherited the throne and the father of three named sons: Ilus, Assaracus, and Ganymedes. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ...


Germanic

In Norse mythology, there are two separate deluges. According to the Prose Edda by Snorri Sturluson, the first occurred at the dawn of time before the world was formed. Ymir, the first giant, was killed by the god Odin and his brothers Vili and Ve, and when he fell, so much blood flowed from his wounds that it drowned almost the entire race of giants with the exception of the frost giant Bergelmir and his wife. They escaped in a ship and survived, becoming the progenitors of a new race of giants. Ymir's body was then used to form the earth while his blood became the sea. Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... Ymir is killed by the sons of Borr in this artwork by Lorenz Frølich In Norse mythology, Ymir, also named Aurgelmir (Old Norse gravel-yeller) among the giants themselves, was the founder of the race of frost giants and an important figure in Norse cosmology. ... The giants Fafner and Fasolt seize Freyja in Arthur Rackhams illustration to Richard Wagners version of the Norse myths. ... In Old Norse, the Æsir (singular Ás, feminine Ásynja, feminine plural Ásynjur, Anglo-Saxon Ós, from Proto-Germanic *Ansuz) are the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse mythology. ... For other meanings of Odin,Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... Vili was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ... Ve was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Bergelmir was a son of Thrudgelmir. ...


The second, in the Norse mythological time cycle, is destined to occur in the future during the final battle between the gods and giants, known as Ragnarök. During this apocalyptic event, Jormungandr, the great World Serpent that lies beneath the sea surrounding Midgard, the realm of mortals, will rise up from the watery depths to join the conflict, resulting in a catastrophic flood that will drown the land. However, following Ragnarök the earth will be reborn and a new age of humanity will begin. For other uses, see Ragnarök (disambiguation). ... In Norse mythology, the sea serpent Jormungand was a child of Loki and the giantess Angerboda. ... For other uses, see Midgard (disambiguation). ...


The mythologist Brian Branston noted the similarities between this myth and an incident described in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf, which had traditionally been associated with the Biblical flood, so there may have been a corresponding incident in the broader Germanic mythology as well as in Anglo-Saxon mythology. For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... Thor, god of thunder, one of the major figures in Germanic mythology. ... The Anglo-Saxons arrived in Britain from southern Scandinavia, the Netherlands and northern Germany, thus the Anglo-Saxon gods were originally the same gods as those in Germanic mythology and in the better-known version Norse mythology. ...


Irish

According to the apocryphal history of Ireland Lebor Gabála Érenn, the first inhabitants of Ireland led by Noah's granddaughter Cessair were all except one wiped out by a flood 40 days after reaching the island. Later, after Partholon's and Nemed's people reached the island, another flood rose and killed all but thirty of the inhabitants, who scattered across the world. The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is the Middle Irish title of a loose collection of poems and prose narratives recounting the mythical origins and history of the Irish race from the creation of the world down to the Middle Ages. ... In Irish mythology, Cessair (or Ceasair) was the leader of the first inhabitants of Ireland before the Biblical Flood, in what may be a Christianisation of a legend that pre-dates the conversion, but may alternatively be the product of post-conversion pseudohistory. ... In Irish mythology Partholon was the leader of the second group of people to settle in Ireland, the first to arrive after the biblical Flood. ... In Irish mythology, Nemed (holy or privileged) son of Agnoman of Scythia was the leader of the third group of inhabitants of Ireland. ...


Americas

Aztec

There are several variants of the Aztec story, many of them are questionable in accuracy or authenticity. The Aztec civilization recognized a polytheistic mythology, which contained the many gods and supernatural creatures from their religious beliefs. ...

When the Sun Age came, there had passed 400 years. Then came 200 years, then 76. Then all mankind was lost and drowned and turned to fishes. The water and the sky drew near each other. In a single day all was lost, and Four Flower consumed all that there was of our flesh. The very mountains were swallowed up in the flood, and the waters remained, lying tranquil during fifty and two springs. But before the flood began, Titlachahuan had warned the man Nota and his wife Nena, saying, 'Make no more pulque, but hollow a great cypress, into which you shall enter the month Tozoztli. The waters shall near the sky.' They entered, and when Titlacahuan had shut them in he said to the man, 'Thou shalt eat but a single ear of maize, and thy wife but one also'. And when they had each eaten one ear of maize, they prepared to go forth, for the water was tranquil.
— Ancient Aztec document Codex Chimalpopoca, translated by Abbé Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg.

Note: These Aztec translations are controversial. Many have no credible source and there is no proof of their authenticity. Some are based on the pictograph story of Coxcox, but other translations of this pictograph mention nothing of a flood. Most significantly, the time that these myths were heard from the local people was well after missionaries entered the region. Abbé Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg. ...


Inca

In Inca mythology, Viracocha destroyed the giants with a Great Flood, and two people repopulated the earth. Uniquely, they survived in sealed caves. Inca mythology includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological and helps explain or symbolizes Inca beliefs. ... Å… Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra In Inca mythology, Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra, commonly known today as Con-Tici Viracocha or simply Viracocha, was the creator of everything in the world civilization, and one of the most important deities in the Inca canon. ...


Chibcha and Muisca

In Colombian mythology, there are references to a great flood that nearly destroyed the whole of mankind and a savior, the god Bochica. Chia Goddess Preliminary Sketch by Alonso Neira Martinez Muisca mythology refers to the precolumbian beliefs of the muisca culture about the origin and organization of the universe. ...


Maya

In Maya mythology, from the Popol Vuh, Part 1, Chapter 3, Huracan ("one-legged") was a wind and storm god who caused the Great Flood (of resin) after the first humans (made of wood) angered the gods (by being unable to worship them). He supposedly lived in the windy mists above the floodwaters and spoke the word "earth" until land came up again from the seas. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Popol Vuh (Quiché for Council Book or Book of the Community; Popol Wuj in modern spelling) is the book of scripture of the Quiché, a kingdom of the post classic Maya civilization in highland Guatemala. ... In Maya mythology, Huracan (one legged) was a wind, storm and fire god and one of the creator deities who participated in all three attempts at creating humanity. ...


Later, in Part 3, Chapter 3&4,

  • Four men & four women repopulate the Quiche world after the flood
  • all speaking the same language (but a confusing reference)
  • and gather together in the same location
  • where their speech is changed (affirmed several times)
  • after which they disperse throughout the world.

Like many others, this account does not present an "Ark". A "Tower of Babel" depends upon the translation; some render the peoples arriving at a city, others, at a citadel.


Hopi

In Hopi mythology, the people moved away from Sotuknang, the creator, repeatedly. He destroyed the world by fire, and then by cold, and recreated it both times for the people that still followed the laws of creation, who survived by hiding underground. People became corrupt and warlike a third time. As a result, Sotuknang guided the people to Spider Woman, and she cut down giant reeds and sheltered the people in the hollow stems. Sotuknang then caused a great flood, and the people floated atop the water in their reeds. The reeds came to rest on a small piece of land, and the people emerged, with as much food as they started with. The people traveled on in their canoes, guided by their inner wisdom (which is said to come from Sotuknang, through the door at the top of their head). They travelled to the northeast, passing progressively larger islands, until they came to the Fourth World. When they reached the fourth world, the islands sank into the ocean. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Caddo

In Caddo mythology, four monsters grew in size and power until they touched the sky. At that time, a man heard a voice telling him to plant a hollow reed. He did so, and the reed grew very big very quickly. The man entered the reed with his wife and pairs of all good animals. Waters rose, and covered everything but the top of the reed and the heads of the monsters. A turtle then killed the monsters by digging under them and uprooting them. The waters subsided, and winds dried the earth. |- Link title |}]]]]</nowiki> and Caddo, Oklahoma. ...


Menominee

In Menominee mythology, Manabus, the trickster, "fired by his lust for revenge" shot two underground gods when the gods were at play. When they all dived into the water, a huge flood arose. "The water rose up .... It knew very well where Manabus had gone." He runs, he runs; but the water, coming from Lake Michigan, chases him faster and faster, even as he runs up a mountain and climbs to the top of the lofty pine at its peak. Four times he begs the tree to grow just a little more, and four times it obliges until it can grow no more. But the water keeps climbing "up, up, right to his chin, and there it stopped": there was nothing but water stretching out to the horizon. And then Manabus, helped by diving animals, and especially the bravest of all, the Muskrat, creates the world as we know it today. The Menominee are a nation of Native Americans living in Wisconsin. ...


Mi'kmaq

In Mi'kmaq mythology, evil and wickedness among men causes them to kill each other. This causes great sorrow to the creator-sun-god, who weeps tears that become rains sufficient to trigger a deluge. The people attempt to survive by traveling in bark canoes, but only a single old man and woman survive to populate the earth.[12] The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Micmac or MicMac) are a First Nations people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ...


Polynesian

Several different flood stories are recorded among the Polynesians. None of them approach the scale of the Biblical flood.


The people of Ra'iatea tell of two friends, Te-aho-aroa and Ro'o, who went fishing and accidentally awoke the ocean god Ruahatu with their fish hooks. Angered, he vowed to sink Ra'iatea below the sea. Te-aho-aroa and Ro'o begged for forgiveness, and Ruahatu warned them that they could escape only by bringing their families to the islet of Toamarama. These set sail, and during the night, the island slipped under the ocean, only to rise again the next morning. Nothing survived except for these families, who erected sacred marae (temples) dedicated to the god Ruahatu. Uturoa, Raiatea Somewhat smaller that Tahiti, Raiatea is the second largest of the Society Islands in French Polynesia. ... Taro In Māori mythology, ‘’’Rongo’’’ is a major god, the god of cultivated food, especially the kūmara, a vital food crop. ...


A similar legend is found on Tahiti. No reason for the tragedy is given, but the whole island sunk beneath the sea except for Mount Pitohiti. One human couple managed to flee there with their animals and survived. Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of the French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. ...


In a tradition of the Ngāti Porou, a Māori tribe of the east coast of New Zealand's North Island, Ruatapu became angry when his father Uenuku elevated his younger half-brother Kahutia-te-rangi ahead of him. Ruatapu lured Kahutia-te-rangi and a large number of young men of high birth into his canoe, and took them out to sea where he drowned them. He called on the gods to destroy his enemies and threatened to return as the great waves of early summer. As he struggled for his life, Kahutia-te-rangi recited an incantation invoking the southern humpback whales (paikea in Māori) to carry him ashore. Accordingly, he was renamed Paikea, and was the only survivor (Reedy 1997:83-85). Ngāti Porou is a Māori iwi traditionally located in the East Cape and Gisborne regions on the North Island of New Zealand. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... In Māori legend, Ruatapu was a son of the great chief Uenuku, who belittled him for using the sacred comb of his elder brother, Kahutia-te-rangi. ... A humpback whale breaching Paikea is an ancestor of the Ngāti Porou, a Māori tribe of the east coast of New Zealands North Island. ...


Some versions of the Māori story of Tawhaki contain episodes where the hero causes a flood to destroy the village of his two jealous brothers-in-law. A comment in Grey's Polynesian Mythology may have given the Māori something they did not have before - as A.W Reed put it, "In Polynesian Mythology Grey said that when Tawhaki's ancestors released the floods of heaven, the earth was overwhelmed and all human beings perished - thus providing the Māori with his own version of the universal flood" (Reed 1963:165, in a footnote). Christian influence has led to the appearance of genealogies where Tawhaki's grandfather Hema is reinterpreted as Shem, son of Noah of the Biblical deluge. In Polynesian mythology (specifically: Maori), Tawhaki (or Tawhiki) is the god of health, lightning and thunder, and a son of Hema and Urotonga. ...


In Hawaii, a human couple, Nu'u and Lili-noe, survived a flood on top of Mauna Kea on the Big Island. Nu'u made sacrifices to the moon, to whom he mistakenly attributed his safety. Kāne, the creator god, descended to earth on a rainbow, explained Nu'u's mistake, and accepted his sacrifice. This article is about the U.S. State. ... In a Christianized version of Polynesian mythology (Hawaii), Nuu was the man who built the ark with which he escaped the Great Flood. ... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes which together form the island of Hawaii. ... In the Polynesian mythology of Hawaii, Kāne Milohai is the father of Kā-moho-alii, Pele (whom he exiled to Hawaii), Kapo, Namaka and Hiiaka by Haumea. ...


In the Marquesas, the great war god Tu was angered by critical remarks made by his sister Hii-hia. His tears tore through heaven's floor to the world below and created a torrent of rain carrying everything in its path. Only six people survived. The Marquesas Islands is a group of islands in French Polynesia. ... Tu or TU may stand for: Tuberculin Units - a measure of strength of tuberculin. ...


Theories of origin

Proponents of Flood geology contend that the myths from various cultures are corrupted memories of an historical global deluge.[citation needed] Flood geology is not accepted by geologists, both Christian and non-Christian, who consider it a form of pseudoscience.[13] At one time even prominent workers in Biblical archaeology were willing to argue for a historical worldwide flood,[14][15] but that view is no longer widely held.[16] Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is a prominent subset of beliefs under the umbrella of creationism that assumes the literal truth of a global flood as described in the Genesis account of Noahs Ark. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible. ...


There has been speculation that a large tsunami in the Mediterranean Sea caused by the Thera eruption dated ca. 1630-1600 BC geologically, but to ca. 1500 BC archaeologically, was the historical basis for folklore that evolved into the Deucalion myth. One might argue that although the tsunami hit the South Aegean Sea, and Crete, it did not affect cities in the mainland of Greece such as Mycenae, Athens, Thebes which continued to prosper, therefore it had a local rather than a regionwide effect[17]. For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of Thera The devastating volcanic eruption of Thera in the Bronze Age (dated to ca. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... The History of Athens is one of the longest of any city in Europe and in the world. ... Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ...


Other scholars believe that the flood recorded in Genesis is actually a later version of the story, which was based upon earlier Mesopotamian myths (including the Epic of Ziusudra, the Epic of Atrahasis, and the Gilgamesh flood myth)[18]. Although some scholars dispute the idea that the Genesis myth has features that would date it to an even earlier Babylonian version, the various claimed points of uniqueness in the Biblical tale are actually quite common in the earlier versions of the myths as well. According to Biblical scholars Campbell and O'Brien[19] both the J and P portions of the Genesis flood text were authored during and after the Babylonian exile (after 539 BC) and were derived from Babylonian sources. Speaking of the Mesopotamian stories, Georges Roux has stated, "The resemblance with the biblical story, is of course, striking; furthermore it would seem that the Hebrews had borrowed from a long and well established Mesopotamian tradition. The question arose: are there traces of such a cataclysm in Mesopotamia."[20]. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Utnapishtim, whose name means he found life or he who saw life, is also known as Atrahasis, meaning the exceptional wise one. In the Akkadian sources, a wise citizen of Shurrupak on the banks of the Euphrates, or Ziusudra in the Sumerian poems. ... The 18th century BC Akkadian Atra-Hasis epic, named after its human hero, contains both a creation and a flood account, and is one of three surviving Babylonian flood stories. ... For the entire 12-tablet Epic see Epic of Gilgamesh. ...


Some geologists believe that quite dramatic, greater than normal flooding of rivers in the distant past might have influenced the myths. One of the latest, and quite controversial, theories of this type is the Ryan-Pitman Theory, which argues for a catastrophic deluge about 5600 BC from the Mediterranean Sea into the Black Sea. Many other prehistoric geologic events, including tsunamis, have also been advanced as possible foundations for these myths. For example, some have asserted that the original versions of the Greek myth of Deukalion's flood likely originated from the effects of the megatsunami created by the eruption of Thera in the 18th-15th century BC.[21] More speculatively, some have suggested that flood myths could have arisen from folk stories of the huge rise in sea levels that accompanied the end of the last Ice Age some 10,000 years ago, passed down the generations as an oral history. Another controversial theory is that a deluge was caused by one or more asteroid impacts which released a large amount of water vapor into the atmosphere and low space. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized prehistoric flood that occurred when the Black Sea rapidly filled, possibly forming the basis for some Great Flood myths. ... (7th millennium BC &#8211; 6th millennium BC &#8211; 5th millennium BC &#8211; other millennia) Events c. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Megatsunami (often hyphenated as mega-tsunami, also known as iminami or wave of purification) is an informal term used mostly by popular media and popular scientific societies to describe a very large tsunami wave beyond the typical size reached by most tsunamis. ... Satellite image of Thera The devastating volcanic eruption of Thera in the Bronze Age (dated to ca. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Oral history is an account of something passed down by word of mouth from one generation to another. ... Alexander Tollmanns bolide, proposed by Kristen-Tollmann and Tollmann (1994), is a hypothesis presented by Austrian professor of geology Dr. Alexander Tollmann, suggesting that one or several bolides (asteroids or comets) struck the Earth at 7640 BCE (±200), with a much smaller one at 3150 BCE (±200). ...


Recently, perhaps starting with the publication of The First Fossil Hunters by Adrienne Mayor, followed by Fossil Legends of the First Americans, the hypothesis that flood stories have been inspired by ancient observations of fossil seashells and fish inland and on mountains has gained ground. Indeed, there is much documentary evidence to support this view, as the Greeks, Egyptians, Romans, Chinese, and Japanese all commented in ancient writings about seashells and/or impressions of fish that they found inland and/or in the mountains. The Greeks theorized that the earth had been covered by water several times, and noted the seashells and fish fossils that they found on mountain tops as the evidence for this belief. Native Americans also expressed this belief to early Europeans, though they had not written these idea down previously.


Instead of trying to find cataclysmic real life floods to explain these stories, some historians point out that early civilized cultures lived in the fertile flood plains along river basins such as the Nile in Egypt and the Tigris-Euphrates river basin of Mesopotamia (in present day Iraq). The latter is especially prone to violent flash floods, and extensive traces of riverine silt interrupt human settlements at a number of southern Iraqi settlements. It is possible that such peoples would have deep memories of floods and have developed mythologies surrounding floods to explain and cope with an integral part of their lives. To these ancient cultures, a flood that covered their known world, from horizon to horizon, would likely be considered local flooding by First World standards instead of literally the entire planet. Scholars point out that most cultures living in areas where flooding was less likely to occur did not have flood myths of their own. These observations, coupled with the human tendency to make stories more dramatic than events originally warranted, are all the points most mythology scholars feel is necessary to explain how myths of world-destroying, cataclysmatic floods evolved.[citation needed] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Floodplain. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...


Local flood theory

The Sumerian king list describes a very long period of kingship, by which hegemony started with Eridu, the oldest city, and passed to Bad Tabira, Larak, Sippar and then Shuruppak. At the end of the entry on Unar-Tutu, king of Shurrupak the account says briefly "The Flood swept thereover". Kingship when it started again, began with the first Dynasty of Kish. Archaeologists have wondered if there was an actual Mesopotamian flood event in the Early Dynastic Period. A theory that found support with archaeologists Max Mallowan and Leonard Woolley is the local flood theory that links the Ancient Near East flood myths to one specific flood. The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Sippara (Zimbir in Sumerian, Sippar in Assyro-Babylonian) was an ancient Babylonian city on the east bank of the Euphrates, north of Babylon. ... Ancient sumerian city. ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Early Dynastic Period may refer to a period of the 3rd millennium BC in either Egypt or Sumer: Early Dynastic Period of Egypt Early Dynastic Period of Sumer Category: ... Sir Max Edgar Lucien Mallowan (6 May 1904 – 19 August 1978) was a prominent archaeologist, specialising in ancient Middle Eastern history, and was also (despite his Roman Catholicism) the second husband of Dame Agatha Christie, who was 14 years his senior. ... Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (17 April 1880–20 February 1960) was a British archaeologist, best known for his excavations at Ur in Sumerancient Mesopotamia. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise...


Sir Leonard Woolley, in the period from 1929-1934, in his famous excavations of the "Death Pits" at Ur, sank a series of test trenches down to bedrock. Finding early evidence of human habitation, he was surprised to find this sequence interrupted by 11 feet (about 3 1/2 meters) of clean, water-lain silt. Woolley wrote, "Eleven feet of silt would probably mean a flood of no less than 25 feet deep; in the flat low-lying land of Mesopotamia a flood of that depth would cover an area about 300 miles long and 100 miles across....[which is evidence] ...of an inundation unparalleled in any later period of Mesopotamian history"[22]. Woolley concluded that this inundation of the early Ubaid period was the Biblical Deluge, and that the story had been carried to Canaan by Abraham. Pottery jar from Late Ubaid Period The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric chalcolithic culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ...


However, examining the geology of the Persian Gulf showed that this period coincided with the warm Atlantic phase of world climatic history, when sea levels were 4 meters (12 feet) higher than they are now - the same rise that produced the so-called Black Sea Deluge. This rise of the sea level occurred at the rate of a few centimeters a decade - hardly capable of producing a flash flood described in Biblical or Mesopotamian myth. Furthermore, the Ubaid period dates did not coincide with Jemdet Nasr-Early Dynastic dating as suggested by the Sumerian king list. Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the Earth. ... Jemdet Nasr is an archaeological site in modern Iraq. ... Early Dynastic Period may refer to a period of the 3rd millennium BC in either Egypt or Sumer: Early Dynastic Period of Egypt Early Dynastic Period of Sumer Category: ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ...


Excavations at Shuruppak (modern Fara) conducted by the University of Philadelphia and others, have confirmed that during the end of the Jemdet Nasr period, Shuruppak did boom, as a result of four watercourses converging in the town, making it an important transport hub. The team of archaeologists found a layer of riverine silt, deposited between the late Jemdet Nasr and early Dynastic deposits exactly as indicated by the Sumerian texts. This local river flood of the Euphrates River that has been radio-carbon dated to about 2900 BC at the end of the Jemdet Nasr Period. The Epic of Atrahasis tablet III,iv, lines 6-9 clearly identifies the flood as a local river flood: "Like dragonflies they [dead bodies] have filled the river. Like a raft they have moved in to the edge [of the boat]. Like a raft they have moved in to the riverbank." The WB-444 Sumerian king list places the flood after the reign of Ziusudra, the flood hero in the Epic of Ziusudra that has numerous parallels to the other flood stories. According to archaeologist Max Mallowan[23] the Genesis flood "was based on a real event which may have occurred in about 2900 BC... at the beginning of the Early Dynastic period." Philadelphia University, founded in 1884, is a private university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The 18th century BC Akkadian Atra-Hasis epic, named after its human hero, contains both a creation and a flood account, and is one of three surviving Babylonian flood stories. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... Utnapishtim, whose name means he found life or he who saw life, is also known as Atrahasis, meaning the exceptional wise one. In the Akkadian sources, a wise citizen of Shurrupak on the banks of the Euphrates, or Ziusudra in the Sumerian poems. ...


More recently the cause and extent of this flood has been estimated. It has been found that the Shuruppak flood extended as far north as Kish, and was associated with a simultaneous flooding of both the Tigris and the Euphrates. The Priora oscillation was a brief climatic period, about 3,200 BC, which led to a drying of the Middle East and a spread of sand-dunes. One of these dunes dammed the lower course of the Karun River creating an inland lake. In about 2,900 BC, this water swollen by winter rains and melted snows in early summer, broke out towards the north, inundating the Tigris and hence the Euphrates producing the Fara flood mentioned in the Mesopotamian tablets[citation needed]. Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... The Priora Oscillation is the name given to a sudden climatic change, which occurred approximately 3,300-3,200 BC. It is associated with a sudden surge of the Priora Glacier in Italy. ... Karun River passing the Iranian city of Ahvaz The Karun river is Irans longest, and only navigable river. ...


See also

For other uses, see Atlantis (disambiguation). ... The 18th century BC Akkadian Atra-Hasis epic, named after its human hero, contains both a creation and a flood account, and is one of three surviving Babylonian flood stories. ... Cantref Gwaelod (more commonly: Cantrer Gwaelod, literally: - The Lowland Hundred in English) is the legendary ancient sunken kingdom said to have occupied a tract of fertile land stretching northwards from Ramsey Island to Bardsey Island over what is now Cardigan Bay to the west of Wales, often described as... The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized prehistoric flood that occurred when the Black Sea rapidly filled, possibly forming the basis for some Great Flood myths. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... In Roman religion Lemuria is the Feast of the Lemures, during which the unwholesome and malevolent spectres of the restless dead (lemures) were propitiated. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Not Wanted on the Voyage is a novel by Canadian author Timothy Findley, which presents a reinterpretation of the Great Flood in the biblical book of Genesis. ... In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim (also known as the Sumerian character Ziusudra) is the wise king of the Sumerian city state of Shuruppak who, along with his wife, whose name was not mentioned in the story, survived a great flood sent by Enlil to drown every living thing on... Flight of King Gradlon, by E. V. Luminais, 1884 (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Quimper) Ys (also spelled Is or Ker-Ys in Breton) is a mythical city built in the Douarnenez bay in Brittany by Gradlon, King of Cornouaille, for his daughter Dahut. ... Mythologically, the 40 Century BC relates to the beginning of primeval human civilization. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Overview of Mesopotamian flood myths
  2. ^ Jeffrey H. Tigay, The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1982, pages 238-239. ISBN 0-8122-7805-4
  3. ^ Genesis 6:5-8
  4. ^ Genesis 6:9-22, 7
  5. ^ Genesis 8:4,13,14-19
  6. ^ Myths and Legends of the Andamanese
  7. ^ Myths and Legends of the Australian Aborigines - A Legend of the Great Flood
  8. ^ Entry Ωγύγιος at Liddell & Scott
  9. ^ Gaster, Theodor H. Myth, Legend, and Custom in the Old Testament, Harper & Row, New York, 1969.
  10. ^ Luce, J.V. (1971), "The End of Atlantis: New Light on an Old Legend" (Harper Collins)
  11. ^ Weaver, JA, Saenko, OA, Clark, PU, & Mitrovica, JX. (2003). Meltwater Pulse 1A from Antarctica as trigger of the Bølling-Allerød Warm Interval. Science. 299(5613): 1709-1713 DOI: 10.1126/science.1081002
  12. ^ Canada's Fist Nations - Native Creation Myths
  13. ^ Plimer, Ian (1994) "Telling Lies for God: reason versus creationism" (Random House)
  14. ^ William F. Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel (Baltimore: John Hopkins, 1953), 176.
  15. ^ Nelson Glueck, Rivers in the Desert: A History of the Negev (New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Cudahy, 1959), 31.
  16. ^ Dever, William G. (2001). What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and When Did They Know It? What Archaeology Can Tell Us about the Reality of Ancient Israel. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 21.  (quoted in Packham, Richard (2006). Review of Veith: The Genesis Conflict.)
  17. ^ Castleden, Rodney (2001) "Atlantis Destroyed" (Routledge)
  18. ^ Kramer, Samuel Noah, (1963) "The Sumerians: their history, culture and character" (University of Chicago)
  19. ^ Antony F. Campbell and Mark A. O'Brien, Sources of the Pentateuch, (1993) pp. 2-11, and note 24.
  20. ^ Roux, Georges (1982) "Ancient Iraq" (Penguin, Harmondsworth)
  21. ^ http://www.mystae.com/restricted/streams/thera/thera.html
  22. ^ Woolley, Leonard (1963) "Ur of the Chaldees" (Thames and Hudson)
  23. ^ M.E.L.Mallowan, "Noah's Flood Reconsidered", Iraq, 26 (1964), pp 62-82.

Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... LSJ redirects here. ... Theodor Herzl Gaster (1906 - 1992) was an American Biblical scholar known for work on comparative religion, mythology and the history of religions. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... Nelson Glueck (1900-1971) was an American rabbi, academic and archaeologist. ... William G. Dever is an American archaeologist, specialising in the history of Israel and the Near East in Biblical times, who was Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona from 1975 to 2002. ... Richard Packham (born Howard Richard Packham on September 21, 1933), is a critic of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and Christian belief in general and is active in the Exmormon community. ...

References

  • Alan Dundes (editor), The Flood Myth, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988. ISBN 0-520-05973-5 / 0520059735
  • Lloyd R. Bailey. Noah, the Person and the Story, University of South Carolina Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87249-637-6
  • Robert M. Best, "Noah's Ark and the Ziusudra Epic", Enlil Press, 1999, ISBN 0-9667840-1-4
  • John Greenway (editor), The Primitive Reader, Folkways, 1965
  • G. Grey, Polynesian Mythology, Illustrated edition, reprinted 1976. (Whitcombe and Tombs: Christchurch), 1956.
  • A.W. Reed, Treasury of Maori Folklore (A.H. & A.W. Reed:Wellington), 1963.
  • Anaru Reedy (translator), Ngā Kōrero a Pita Kāpiti: The Teachings of Pita Kāpiti. Canterbury University Press: Christchurch, 1997.
  • W. G. Lambert and A. R. Millard, Atrahasis: The Babylonian Story of the Flood, Eisenbrauns, 1999, ISBN 1-57506-039-6.
  • Faulkes, Anthony (transl.) (1987). Edda (Snorri Sturluson). Everyman. ISBN 0-460-87616-3.

Alan Ralph Millard is Rankin Professor Emeritus of Hebrew and Ancient Semitic Languages, and Honorary Senior Fellow, at the School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology (SACE) in the University of Liverpool. ... Everymans Library is a series of reprinted classic literature currently published by Alfred A. Knopf (a division of Random House) in the United States, and Weidenfeld and Nicolson in the United Kingdom. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Deluge (mythology)
  • A complete explanation of the flood and the creation Professionl scientists who give a detailed explanation over the flood and more.
  • The Great Flood All texts (Eridu Genesis, Atrahasis, Gilgamesh, Bible, Berossus), commentary, and a table with parallels
  • Parallels Parallels between versions of the Ancient Near East flood myths.
  • Mark Isaak (1996-2002). Flood stories from around the world. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
    Mirror from September 2002. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  • "Biblical Evidence for the Universality of the Genesis Flood" by Richard M. Davidson
  • The Flood: Myth and Science
  • Flood Legends from Around the World
  • The Great Atlantis Flood

 
 

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