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Encyclopedia > Delta II
Delta II
A Delta II rocket launches from Cape Canaveral carrying a GPS satellite
A Delta II rocket launches from Cape Canaveral carrying a GPS satellite
Fact sheet
Function Launch vehicle
Manufacturer United Launch Alliance (Boeing IDS)
Country of origin USA
Cost per Launch (1987) $36.7m (USD)
Size
Height 38.2 - 39 m (125.3 - 127 ft)
Diameter 2.44 m (8 ft)
Mass 151,700 - 231,870 kg
(334,300 - 511,180 lb)
Stages 2 or 3
Capacity
Payload to LEO 2,700 - 6,100 kg
(5,960 - 13,440 lb)
Payload to
GTO
900 - 2,170 kg
(1,980 - 4,790 lb)
Launch History
Status Active
Launch Sites Cape Canaveral LC-17
Vandenberg AFB SLC-2W
Total launches 127
Delta 6000: 17
Delta 7000: 107
Delta 7000H: 3
Successes 125
Delta 6000: 17
Delta 7000: 105
Delta 7000H: 3
Failures 1 (Delta 7000)
Partial Failures 1 (Delta 7000)
Maiden flight Delta 6000: 14 February 1989
Delta 7000: 26 November 1990
Delta 7000H: 8 July 2003
Last flight Delta 6000: 24 July 1992
Boosters (6000 Series) - Castor 4A
No boosters 3, 4 or 9
Engines 1 Solid
Thrust 478.3 kN (107,530 lbf)
Specific Impulse 266 sec
Burn time 56 seconds
Fuel Solid
Boosters (7000 Series) - GEM 40
No boosters 3, 4 or 9
Engines 1 Solid
Thrust 492.9 kN (110,800 lbf)
Specific Impulse 474 sec
Burn time 64 seconds
Fuel solid
Boosters (7000 Heavy) - GEM 46
No boosters 9
Engines 1 solid
Thrust 628.3 kN (141,250 lbf)
Specific Impulse 278 sec
Burn time 75 seconds
Fuel solid
First Stage - Thor/Delta XLT-C
Engines 1 RS-27C
Thrust 1,054.2 kN (237,000 lbf)
Specific Impulse 302 sec
Burn time 265 seconds
Fuel Kerosene/LOX
Second Stage - Delta K
Engines 1 AJ-10
Thrust 43.6 kN (9,800 lbf)
Specific Impulse 319 sec
Burn time 431 seconds
Fuel Dinitrogen tetroxide/Aerozine
Third Stage - PAM-D (optional)
Engines 1 Star 63
Thrust 107.2 kN (24,100 lbf)
Specific Impulse 282 sec
Burn time 120 seconds
Fuel Solid

The Delta II family of launch vehicles was designed and built by Boeing's Integrated Defense Systems division and has been in service since 1989. The Delta II program became the responsibility of United Launch Alliance starting on December 1, 2006. Download high resolution version (330x650, 32 KB)A Delta II rocket launches from Cape Canaveral, public domain image from af. ... The Bumper V-2 was the first missile launched at Cape Canaveral on July 24, 1950. ... Rockets (including missiles) can be launched from the following: for a launch into an orbital spaceflight and beyond: a launch pad, including a floating platform (see San Marco platform, Sea Launch) for the launch into a suborbital flight also: a missile silo a mobile launcher vehicle a submarine air launch... United Launch Alliance is a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 ) is an aerospace and defense corporation headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... Boeing Integrated Defense Systems (Boeing IDS), based in St. ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... KG, Kg or kg may indicate: A Kampfgeschwader, a bomber squadron of the former German Luftwaffe Basketball Player Kevin Garnett An abbreviation for kilogram (always kg) Knight of the Garter, a British decoration Kommanditgesellschaft, German version of a limited partnership Kongo language (ISO 639 alpha-2) An abbreviation for konig... The pound (abbreviations: lb or, sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass in a number of different systems, including various systems of units of mass that formed part of English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... In cargo transport, the payload is the valuable contents of the vehicle. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... A geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit around the Earth between a low Earth orbit (LEO) and a geostationary orbit (GEO). ... The Bumper V-2 was the first missile launched at Cape Canaveral on July 24, 1950. ... The first stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket, slated to launch NASAs Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), is lifted into a vertical position for installation into the mobile service tower at Pad 17B Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 17 is a launch site at Merritt Island... Vandenberg Air Force Base is a base with a spaceport, located in Santa Barbara County, California. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... Media:rofl. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... In physics, the newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force, named after Sir Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics. ... A pound-force (abbreviations: lbf or lbf) is a unit of force. ... The specific impulse (commonly abbreviated Isp) of a propulsion system is the impulse (change in momentum) per unit mass of propellant. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... The Graphite-Epoxy motor is a type of rocket engine used as a booster in the Delta II rocket, among others. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... In physics, the newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force, named after Sir Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics. ... A pound-force (abbreviations: lbf or lbf) is a unit of force. ... The specific impulse (commonly abbreviated Isp) of a propulsion system is the impulse (change in momentum) per unit mass of propellant. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... The Graphite-Epoxy motor is a type of rocket engine used as a booster in the Delta II rocket, among others. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... In physics, the newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force, named after Sir Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics. ... A pound-force (abbreviations: lbf or lbf) is a unit of force. ... The specific impulse (commonly abbreviated Isp) of a propulsion system is the impulse (change in momentum) per unit mass of propellant. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Law. ... In physics, the newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force, named after Sir Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics. ... A pound-force (abbreviations: lbf or lbf) is a unit of force. ... The specific impulse (commonly abbreviated Isp) of a propulsion system is the impulse (change in momentum) per unit mass of propellant. ... It has been suggested that RP-1 be merged into this article or section. ... Lox can stand for any of several things: Lox (salmon) - a type of salmon produce LOx (oxidizer) - liquid oxygen used as oxidizer in aerospace The Lox - was a Yonkers, NY-based rap trio This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The specific impulse (commonly abbreviated Isp) of a propulsion system is the impulse (change in momentum) per unit mass of propellant. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or dinitrogen tetroxide) is the chemical compound N2O4. ... Aerozine 50 is a 50/50 mix of hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH). ... SBS-3 satellite with PAM-D stage inside the space shuttle PAM-D stage in assembly PAM (Payload Assist Module) is a modular upper stage operated with solid propellant, used with Space Shuttle, Delta, and Titan launchers. ... The specific impulse (commonly abbreviated Isp) of a propulsion system is the impulse (change in momentum) per unit mass of propellant. ... Delta EELV family of launch vehicles (US Govt) Delta rocket (sometimes retroactively called Delta I) Delta II rocket Delta III rocket Delta IV rocket The Delta family of expendable launch vehicles has been a mainstay of the United States space launch capability since 1960. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 ) is an aerospace and defense corporation headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... Boeing Integrated Defense Systems (Boeing IDS), based in St. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... United Launch Alliance is a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... -1...

Contents

History

All United States expendable launch vehicles were to be phased out for the Space Shuttle, but the Challenger accident restarted Delta development. The Delta II, specifically, was designed to accommodate the GPS Block II series of satellites. Delta IIs have successfully launched 124 projects (through December 2006), including several NASA missions to Mars: NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... The launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger on mission 51L/STS-33, the 25th of the STS (Space Transportation System) program, began at an estimated time of 16:38:00. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... -1... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ...

Artists conception of Mars Global Surveyor (NASA) The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is a US spacecraft developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II rocket, just a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched. ... Mars Climate Orbiter during tests The Mars Climate Orbiter (formerly the Mars Surveyor 98 Orbiter) was one of two spacecraft in the Mars Surveyor 98 program, the other being the Mars Polar Lander (formerly the Mars Surveyor 98 Lander). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Conceptual drawing of the Mars Polar Lander on the surface of Mars. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Artists concept of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft 2001 Mars Odyssey is an unmanned spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission (since 2003) is a unmanned Mars exploration mission that includes sending two Rovers (robots) to explore the Martian surface and geology. ... MER-A (Spirit) is the first of the two Mars Exploration Rover Missions. ... MER-B (Opportunity) is the second of the two rovers of NASAs Mars Exploration Rover Mission. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Vehicle description

Deltas are expendable launch vehicles (ELVs), which means they are only used once. Each launch vehicle consists of: An expendable launch system is a single-use launch vehicle usually used to launch a payload into space. ...

  • Stage I: Kerosene and liquid-oxygen tanks that feed the Rocketdyne RS-27 main engine for the ascent.
  • Solid rocket booster motors: Used to increase thrust during the initial two minutes of flight. The medium-capacity Delta II has nine motors total (six fire on the ground, three in flight); the other models use only three or four.
  • Stage II: Fuel and oxidizer tanks feeding a restartable, hypergolic Aerojet engine that fires one or more times to insert the vehicle-spacecraft stack into low Earth orbit. This stage also contains the vehicle's "brains", a combined inertial platform and guidance computer that controls all flight events.
  • Stage III: Optional ATK-Thiokol solid rocket motor (some Delta II vehicles are two-stage only, and generally used for Earth-orbit missions) provides the majority of the velocity change needed to leave Earth orbit and inject the spacecraft on a trajectory to Mars; connected to the spacecraft until done firing, then separates. This stage is spin-stabilized and has no active guidance control; it depends on the second stage for proper orientation prior to Stage II/III separation.
  • Payload fairing: Thin metal or composite payload fairing (aka "nose cone") to protect the spacecraft during the ascent through Earth's atmosphere.

The Delta II family is more technically named by a four-digit system: The RS-27A is a medium-sized rocket engine developed by Rocketdyne for use on the Delta II rocket. ... NASA Image of the final solid rocket booster (right) being mated to a Delta II rocket (blue). ... Hypergolic rocket fuels spontaneously ignite when their two components come into contact with each other. ... Aerojet is a major rocket and missile propulsion manufacturer based primarily in Sacramento, California with divisions in Redmond, Washington, Orange, VA, Gainesville, VA, and Camden, AK. Their products include a wide range of propulsion, from main engines used on a number of NASA vehicles and ballistic missiles, down to stationkeeping... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... An inertial navigation system measures the position and altitude of a vehicle by measuring the accelerations and rotations applied to the systems inertial frame. ...

  • The first digit is either 6 or 7, denoting the 6000- or 7000-series Deltas. 6000-series, last flown in 1992, had an Extra Extended Long Tank first stage with RS-27 main engine, plus Castor IVA solid rocket boosters. The current model 7000-series have an RS-27A engine, with a longer nozzle for higher expansion ratio and better high-altitude performance, and GEM (Graphite-Epoxy Motor) boosters. GEMs are larger, and have a composite casing to reduce mass versus the steel-case Castors.
  • The second digit indicates the number of boosters, usually 9. In such cases, six are lit at liftoff, three lit one minute into flight. Vehicles with a 3 or 4, ignite all boosters at liftoff.
  • The third digit is 2, denoting a second stage with an Aerojet AJ10 engine. This engine is restartable, for complex missions. Only Deltas prior to the 6000-series used a different engine, the TR-201.
  • The last digit denotes the third stage. 0 denotes no third stage, 5 indicates a PAM (Payload Assist Module) stage with Star 48 solid motor, 6 indicates a Star 37 motor.

For example, a Delta 7925 has the later first stage, nine GEM boosters, and a PAM third stage. A Delta 7320 is a two-stage vehicle with three boosters. The RS-27A is a medium-sized rocket engine developed by Rocketdyne for use on the Delta II rocket. ... The Graphite-Epoxy motor is a type of rocket engine used as a booster in the Delta II rocket, among others. ...

  • A Delta II-Heavy has the larger GEM-46 boosters, originally designed for the Delta III. These are designated 7xxxH.

Three payload fairings are available. The original aluminum fairing, seen above, is 9.5 feet in diameter. A 10-foot fairing is made of composite, and can be distinguished by its tapering front and rear. A lengthened 10-foot fairing is used for the largest payloads. Through the 90s, satellite masses were growing steadily. ...


Delta II launches

Main article: Delta II launches

Last updated: 23:47, 17 February 2007 (UTC) List Date: 19:08, 6 December 2006 (UTC) For Delta launch record see Boeing page. ...

Notable payloads

Near Earth Asteroid Eros as seen from the NEAR spacecraft. ... Artists conception of Mars Global Surveyor (NASA) The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is a US spacecraft developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996. ... The Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II rocket, just a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched. ... The spacecraft Deep Space 1 was launched October 24, 1998 on top of a Delta II rocket. ... Mars Climate Orbiter during tests The Mars Climate Orbiter (formerly the Mars Surveyor 98 Orbiter) was one of two spacecraft in the Mars Surveyor 98 program, the other being the Mars Polar Lander (formerly the Mars Surveyor 98 Lander). ... Conceptual drawing of the Mars Polar Lander on the surface of Mars. ... Artists concept of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft 2001 Mars Odyssey is an unmanned spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars. ... The Comet Nucleus Tour (CONTOUR) was a Discovery-class space mission. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars (credit: Maas Digital LLC) NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission is an ongoing unmanned Mars exploration mission, commenced in 2003, that sent two robotic rovers Spirit and Opportunity to explore the Martian surface and geology. ... The mission patch for Spirit, featuring Marvin the Martian. ... The mission patch for Opportunity, featuring Duck Dodgers (Daffy Duck). ... The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission consists of an unmanned spacecraft called Swift, which was launched into orbit on November 20, 2004, at 17:16:00 UTC (12:16 PM, EST) by a Delta 2 7320-10C expendable launch vehicle. ... Deep Impact space probe after impactor separation Deep Impact is a NASA space probe designed to study the composition of the interior of a comets nucleus. ... The Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility [SIRTF]) is an infrared space observatory, the fourth and final of NASAs Great Observatories. ... The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging (or MESSENGER for short) is a NASA mission, launched August 3, 2004, designed to study the characteristics and environment of Mercury from orbit. ... This article is about the spacecraft and the mission. ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ...

Future Applications

The Aerojet-built second-stage engine has been chosen by NASA to be used as the main propulsion engine for the Orion spacecraft that will replace the Space Shuttle after 2010. The engine was chosen due to its restart capabilites along with a switch from the original liquid oxygen/liquid methane (LOX/LCH4) application to hypergolic fuel and oxidizer similar to that in use on the Shuttle's OMS and RCS systems. Orion spacecraft in lunar orbit Orion spacecraft with docked LSAM lunar lander Orion spacecraft approaching the ISS Orion during a landing on Earth The Orion Spacecraft (formerly known as the Crew Exploration Vehicle or CEV) is a proposed series of American manned and unmanned spacecraft, intended to replace the Space... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Delta (Rocket)


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Delta rocket evolution (U.S. Govt.)

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