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Encyclopedia > Delphi
Archaeological Site of Delphi*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
The theatre, seen from above
State Party Flag of Greece Greece
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv, vi
Reference 393
Region Europe and North America
Inscription History
Inscription 1987  (11th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Delphi [left center] is north of the Gulf of Corinth in central Greece.

Delphi (Greek Δελφοί, [ðe̞lˈfi]) [pronounce[1]] is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in the valley of Phocis. Delphi was the site of the Delphic oracle, most important oracle in the classical Greek world, and it was a major site for the worship of the god Apollo. His sacred precinct in Delphi was a Panhellenic sanctuary, where every four years athletes from all over the Greek world competed in the Pythian Games. Delphi has several meanings: The historic Greek town of Delphi, site of the Delphic Oracle The Delphi programming language The Delphi method of forecasting The Delphi effect, probably closely related to or synonymous with the Delphi method One of the four detectors of the Large Electron-Positron Collider is called... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 720 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 833 pixel, file size: 864 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I have taken the images while in Delhpi last summer. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf is a deep inlet of the Ionian Sea separating the Peloponnese from western mainland Greece. ... This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ... Mount Parnassus is a mountain of barren limestone in central Greece that towers above Delphi, north of the Gulf of Corinth, and offers scenic views of the surrounding olive groves and countryside. ... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα/Fokída, Ancient/Katharevousa: Φωκίς/Phokis; named after the Greek mythological personage Phocus) is an ancient district of central Greece and a prefecture of modern Greece located in Sterea Hellas, one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece. ... For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ... Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. ...


Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the site of the omphalos stone, the centre of the earth and the universe. In the inner hestia ("hearth") of the Temple of Apollo, an eternal flame burned. After the battle of Plataea, the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece, at Delphi; in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies, the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi.[2] The Omphalos in Delphi An omphalos is a religious stone artifact in the ancient world. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... In Greek mythology, virginal Hestia (ancient Greek ) is the goddess of the hearth, of the right ordering of domesticity and the family, who received the first offering at every sacrifice in the household. ... The eternal flame at the Monument to the Unknown Soldier in Sofia, Bulgaria Eternal Flame is also a song originally performed by The Bangles. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius † Strength 100,000 (Pompeius) 110,000 (Herodotus) 38,000 (Modern Consensus) 300,000 (Herodotus) 70,000-120,000 [1][2][3] (Modern Consensus) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 159 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) The Battle of Plataea...

Contents

Location

Delphi is located in lower central Greece, on multiple plateau/terraces along the slope of Mount Parnassus, and includes the Sanctuary of Apollo, the site of the ancient Oracle. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades, and overlooks the Pleistos Valley. Southwest of Delphi, about 15 km (9.5 mi) away, is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf. Mount Parnassus is a mountain of barren limestone in central Greece that towers above Delphi, north of the Gulf of Corinth, and offers scenic views of the surrounding olive groves and countryside. ... Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Greece geography stubs ... Kirra (Greek: Κίρρα), is a village in Phocis, central Greece. ... The Gulf of Corinth is the body of water separating Peloponnese from western mainland Greece. ...


Dedication to Apollo

Main article: Apollo

The name Delphoi is connected with δελφ delph "hollow" or δελφός delphus "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of Gaia, Grandmother Earth, the Earth Goddess at the site. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, "the Delphinian", i.e. either "the one of Delphi", or "the one of the womb". The epithet is connected with dolphins (the "womb-fish") in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (line 400), recounting the legend of how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Gaia (land or earth, also spelled Ge or Gaea) is a Greek goddess personifying the Earth. ... An epithet (Greek - επιθετον and Latin - epitheton; literally meaning imposed) is a descriptive word or phrase. ... Genera See article below. ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly to pick laurel, a plant sacred to him (generally known in English as the bay tree). In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a wreath of laurel (bay leaves) picked in Tempe. Vale of Tempe (modern Greek: Témbi) the ancient name of a narrow valley in North Thessaly, Greece, through which the Pineios River reaches the Aegean sea. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. ...

The Temple of Apollo, viewed from below the eastern end.
The Temple of Apollo, viewed from below the eastern end.
View of the mountain-top stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. The stone steps/seats at right were added under the Romans.
View of the mountain-top stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. The stone steps/seats at right were added under the Romans.

Delphi became the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and the famous prehistoric oracle. Even in Roman times, hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias. Supposedly carved into the temple were the phrases γνῶθι σεαυτόν (gnothi seauton = "know thyself") and μηδὲν ἄγαν (meden agan = "nothing in excess"), as well as a large letter E.[3] Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 771 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Delphi User:Smoddy/Greece gallery Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 771 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Delphi User:Smoddy/Greece gallery Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 644 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Delphi User:Smoddy/Greece gallery Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 644 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Delphi User:Smoddy/Greece gallery Categories: GFDL images ... View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. ... Apollo (Greek: Απόλλων, Apóllōn) is a god in Greek and Roman mythology, the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin of Artemis (goddess of the hunt). ... View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. ... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... The Ancient Greek aphorism Know thyself (Greek: ΓΝΩΘΙ ΣΕΑΥΤΟΝ or gnothi seauton) was inscribed in golden letters at the lintel of the entrance to the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. ... Look up Ε, ε in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


From a late myth that deviates from much older ones, when young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, named Pythia in older myths, but according to some later accounts his wife, Pythia, who lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. The bodies of the pair were draped around his Rod, which, with the wings created the caduceus symbolic of the god. This spring flowed toward the temple but disappeared beneath, creating a cleft which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophecies. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since she was a child of Gaia. The shrine dedicated to Apollo was originally dedicated to Gaia and then, possibly to Poseidon. The name Pythia remained as the title of the Delphic Oracle. As punishment for this murder Apollo was sent to serve in menial tasks for eight years. A festival, the Septeria, was performed annually portraying the slaying of the serpent, the flight, the atonment and the return of the God. The Pythian Games took place every four years to commemorate his victory [1]. For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology Python was the earth-dragon of Delphi, always represented in the vase-paintings and by sculptors as a serpent. ... For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ... The Castalian Spring in the ravine between the Phaedriades at Delphi is where all comers to Delphi, the contestants in the Pythian Games and especially suppliants who came to consult the Oracle, stopped to wash their hair. ... For other uses, see Leto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... The Caduceus Two caduceuses without wings as decoration of door portal in Ztracená street in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ... Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ...


Erwin Rohde wrote that the Python was an earth spirit, who was conquered by Apollo, and buried under the Omphalos, and that it is a case of one deity setting up a temple on the grave of another.[4] Another view holds that Apollo was a fairly recent addition to the Greek pantheon coming originally from Lydia. The Etruscans coming from northern Anatolia also worshiped Apollo, and it may be that he was originally identical with Mesopotamian Aplu, an Akkadian title meaning "son", originally given to the plague God Nergal, son of Enlil. Apollo Smintheus (Greek Απόλλων Σμινθεύς), the mouse killer[5] eliminates mice, a primary cause of disease, hence he promotes preventive medicine. Erwin Rohde (1845 - 1898) was one of the great German classical scholars of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Genera Aspidites Antaresia Apodora Bothrochilus Leiopython Liasis Morelia Python Python is the common name for a group of non-venomous constricting snakes, specifically the family Pythonidae. ... The Omphalos in Delphi An omphalos is a religious stone artifact in the ancient world. ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Oracle

Main article: Pythia
Delphic Pythia sitting on a tripod, attended by a supplicant. Note the low ceiling that causes the Delphic oracle to stoop, the hollow floor and the barrier that separates Pythia from the supplicant.

Delphi is perhaps best-known for the oracle at the sanctuary that became dedicated to Apollo during the classical period. With origins in prehistoric times and the worship of Gaia, in the last quarter of the 8th century BC there is a steady increase of artifacts found at the settlement site in Delphi. Pottery and bronze work as well as tripod dedications continue in a steady stream, in comparison to Olympia. Neither the range of objects nor the presence of prestigious dedications proves that Delphi was a focus of attention for worshipers of a wide range, but the strong representation of high value goods, found in no other mainland sanctuary, certainly encourages that view. For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Pythia1. ... Image File history File links Pythia1. ... Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ...


The priestess of the oracle at Delphi was known as the Pythia. Apollo spoke through his oracle, who had to be an older woman of blameless life chosen from among the peasants of the area. The sybyl or prophetess took the name Pythia and sat on a tripod seat over an opening in the earth. When Apollo slew Python, its body fell into this fissure, according to legend, and fumes arose from its decomposing body. Intoxicated by the vapors, the sibyl would fall into trance, allowing Apollo to possess her spirit. In this state she prophesied. She spoke in riddles, which were interpreted by the priests of the temple, and people consulted her on everything from important matters of public policy to personal affairs. For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ...


H.W. Parke writes that the foundation of Delphi and its oracle took place before the times of recorded history and its origins are obscure, but dating to the worship of the Great Goddess, Gaia.[6] A Mother Goddess is a goddess portrayed as the Earth Mother who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ...


The Oracle exerted considerable influence throughout the Greek world, and she was consulted before all major undertakings: wars, the founding of colonies, and so forth. She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia, Caria, and even Egypt. Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ...

For a list of some of the most noted oracular pronouncements of the Pythia, go to Famous Oracular Statements from Delphi.

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

The "Delphic Sibyl"

Main article: Delphic Sibyl

The Delphic Sibyl was a legendary prophetic figure who was said to have given prophecies at Delphi shortly after the Trojan War. The prophecies attributed to her circulated in written collections of prophetic sayings, along with the oracles of figures such as Bakis. The Sibyl had no connection to the oracle of Apollo, and should not be confused with the Pythia. Michelangelos rendering of the Delphic Sibyl The Delphic Sibyl was a legendary figure who made prophecies in the sacred precinct of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus. ... Michelangelos rendering of the Delphic Sibyl The Delphic Sibyl was a legendary figure who made prophecies in the sacred precinct of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Bakis (Bacis in a Latinised spelling) was a semi-legendary ancient Greek seer of the 6th or 7th century BC, a native of Boeotia. ... For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ...


Buildings and structures

Site plan of the Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi

Occupation of the site at Delphi can be traced back to the Neolithic period with extensive occupation and use beginning in the Mycenaean period (1600-1100 B.C). Most of the ruins that survive today date from the most intense period of activity at the site in the 6th century BCE.[7] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2076x2880, 300 KB) Other versions Image:Temenos of Delphi. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2076x2880, 300 KB) Other versions Image:Temenos of Delphi. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were...


Temple of Apollo

The ruins of the Temple of Apollo visible today date from the 4th century BCE are of a peripteral doric building. It was erected on the remains of an earlier temple, dated to the 6th century BCE which itself was erected on the site of a 7th century BCE construction attributed to the architects Trophonios and Agamedes.[8] (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire Romans build first aqueduct Chinese use bellows The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian... Bahut a dwarf-wall of plain masonry, carrying the roof of a cathedral or church and masked or hidden behind the balustrade. ... The Doric order was one of the orginal pokersthree orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... (8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC - other centuries) (700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Scythians arrived in Asia Collapse...

Temple of Apollo at Delphi
Temple of Apollo at Delphi

The 6th century BC temple was named the "Temple of Alcmeonidae" in tribute to the Athenian family which funded its construction. It was a Doric hexastyle temple of 6 by 15 columns. The temple was destroyed in 373 BC by an earthquake with the third temple completed on the site by 330 BCE. The third temple is attributed to Corinthian architects Spintharos, Xenodoros, and Agathon.[9] Image File history File links 721-Grece. ... Image File history File links 721-Grece. ... Look up Hexastyle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Hexastyle is an architectural term given to a temple in the portico of which there are six columns in front. ...


The pediment sculptures are attributed to Praxias and Androsthenes of Athens. Of a similar proportion to the second temple it retained the 6 by 15 column pattern around the stylobate.[9] Inside was the adyton, the centre of the Delphic oracle and seat of Pythia. The monument was partly restored during 1938-1941. A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... Praxias and Androsthenes, Greek sculptors, who are said by Pausanias (x. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... In Greek architecture, stylobate is a platform on which colonnades of columns are placed (it is the floor of the temple). ... The Adyton (Greek Αδυτον) was a restricted ares within the cella of a Greek or Roman temple. ...


Treasuries

The Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate their victory at the Battle of Marathon
The Treasury of Athens, built to commemorate their victory at the Battle of Marathon

From the entrance of the site, continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself, are a large number of votive statues, and numerous treasuries. These were built by the various states — those overseas as well as those on the mainland — to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for her advice, which was so important to those victories. The most impressive is the now-restored Athenian Treasury, built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" — taking this advice to mean their navy, they won a famous battle at Salamis. Another impressive treasury that exists on the site was dedicated by the city of Siphnos, whose citizens had amassed great wealth from their silver and gold mines and so they dedicated the Siphnian Treasury. Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 652 KB)This photograph was taken in February 2005 by Smoddy while staying in Greece. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 652 KB)This photograph was taken in February 2005 by Smoddy while staying in Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Combatants Athens, Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus â€ , Arimnestus Datis â€ ?, Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians, 1,000 Plataeans 20,000 - 100,000 a Casualties 192 Athenians killed, 11 Plataeans killed (Herodotus) 6,400 killed, 7 ships captured (Herodotus) a These are modern consensus estimates. ... An icon of Aghia Paraskevi with votive offerings hung beside it. ... Combatants Athens, Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus â€ , Arimnestus Datis â€ ?, Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians, 1,000 Plataeans 20,000 - 100,000 a Casualties 192 Athenians killed, 11 Plataeans killed (Herodotus) 6,400 killed, 7 ships captured (Herodotus) a These are modern consensus estimates. ... For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... Sifnos is an island in the Cyclades complex in Greece. ... The Siphnian Treasury was a dedicated building to the Greek polis, or city-state of Delphi while the oracle was still popular and in use. ...


As a result of these treasuries, through the protection of the Amphictyonic League, Delphi came to function as the de-facto Central Bank of Ancient Greece. It was the abuse of these treasuries by Philip of Macedon and the later sacking of the Treasuries, first by the Celts, and later by Sulla, the Roman Dictator, that led to the eclipse of Greek civilization and the eventual growth of Rome. The Amphictyonic League (Amphictyony) was a form of Greek Hellenic religious organization that was formed to support specific temple or sacred place. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Philip II of Macedon (Macedonia) (382 BC - 336 BC), King of Macedon (ruled 359 BC - 336 BC), was the father of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and Philip III of Macedon. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), refers primarily to the members of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages, a branch of Indo-European languages, or descended from those who did. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... History - Ancient history - Ancient Rome This is a List of Ancient Rome-related topics, that aims to include aspects of both the Ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ...


Altar of the Chians

Located in front of the Temple of Apollo, the main altar of the sanctuary was paid for and built by the people of Chios. It is dated to the 5th century BC by the inscription on its cornice. Made entirely of black marble, except for the base and cornice, the altar would have made a striking impression. It was restored in 1920.[10] Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios, see also List of traditional Greek place names; Ottoman Turkish: صاقيز Sakız; Genoese: Scio) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea five miles off the Turkish coasts. ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Geison. ...


Stoa of the Athenians

The stoa leads off north-east from the main sanctuary. It was built in the Ionic order and consists of seven fluted columns, unusually carved from single pieces of stone (most columns were constructed from a series of discs joined together). The inscription on the stylobate indicates that it was built by the Athenians after their naval victory over the Persians in 478 BCE, to house their war trophies.[10] The Painted Porch (Stoa poikile), during the 3rd century BC, was where Zeno of Citium taught Stoicism. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) Ionic order: 1 - entrablature, 2 - column, 3 - cornice, 4 - frieze, 5 - architrave or epistyle, 6 - capital (composed of abacus and volutes), 7 - shaft, 8... In Greek architecture, stylobate is a platform on which colonnades of columns are placed (it is the floor of the temple). ...


Polygonal wall

The retaining wall was built to support the terrace housing the construction of the second temple of Apollo in 548 BCE. Its name is take from the polygonal masonry of which it is constructed.[10] Look up polygon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Gymnasium

The gymnasium was a series of buildings used by the youth of Delphi. The building consisted of two levels: a stoa on the upper level providing open space, and a palaestra, pool and baths on lower floor.[10] The gymnasium in ancient Greece functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games. ... The Painted Porch (Stoa poikile), during the 3rd century BC, was where Zeno of Citium taught Stoicism. ... Pompeii palaestra seen from the top of the stadium wall. ...


Castalian spring

The mountain-top stadium at Delphi, far above the temples/theater below.
The mountain-top stadium at Delphi, far above the temples/theater below.
The theatre at Delphi (as viewed near the top seats).
The theatre at Delphi (as viewed near the top seats).
The Tholos at base of Mount Parnassus: 3 of 20 Doric columns.
The Tholos at base of Mount Parnassus: 3 of 20 Doric columns.

The sacred spring of Delphi lies in the ravine of the Phaedriades. The preserved remains of two monumental fountains that received the water from the spring date to the Archaic period and the Roman, with the later cut into the rock. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2114 KB) A view of the stadium at the sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi, Greece Photo taken by myself Copyright © 2004 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2114 KB) A view of the stadium at the sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi, Greece Photo taken by myself Copyright © 2004 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2137 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2137 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (900x776, 147 KB)Large version, by mdoege@compuserve. ... Download high resolution version (900x776, 147 KB)Large version, by mdoege@compuserve. ... The Treasure of Atreus tholos in 2004 Beehive tombs, also known as Tholos tombs (plural tholoi), are a style of Mycenaean chamber tomb from the Bronze Age. ... Mount Parnassus is a mountain of barren limestone in central Greece that towers above Delphi, north of the Gulf of Corinth, and offers scenic views of the surrounding olive groves and countryside. ... The uncompleted Doric temple at Segesta, Sicily, has been waiting for finishing of its surfaces since 430 - 420 BC The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Stadium

The stadium is located further up the hill, beyond the via sacra and the theatre. It was originally built in the 5th century BC but was altered in later centuries. The last major remodelling took place in the 2nd century AD under the patronage of Herodus Atticus when the stone seating was built and arched entrance. It could seat 6500 spectators and the track was 177 metres long and 25.5 metres wide.[11] The new Wembley Stadium in London is the most expensive stadium ever built; it has a seating capacity of 90,000 This article is about the building type. ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


Theatre

The ancient theatre at Delphi was built further up the hill from the Temple of Apollo giving spectators a view of the entire sanctuary and the valley below. It was originally built in the 4th century BC but was remodelled on several occasions since. Its 35 rows can seat 5,000 spectators.[9] Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Apollo (Greek: Απόλλων, Apóllōn) is a god in Greek and Roman mythology, the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin of Artemis (goddess of the hunt). ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


Tholos

The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 BC. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diameter of 14.76 meters, with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior. The Treasure of Atreus tholos in 2004 Beehive tombs, also known as Tholos tombs (plural tholoi), are a style of Mycenaean chamber tomb from the Bronze Age. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... The Doric order was one of the orginal pokersthree orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ...


The Tholos is located approximately a half-mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. Three of the Doric columns have been restored, making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs.


Vitruvius (vii, introduction) notes Theodorus the Phocian as the architect of the Round Building which is at Delphi. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ...


Excavations

The site had been occupied by the village of Kastri since medieval times and this had to be relocated before a systematic excavation of the site could be undertaken, a relocation resisted by the residents. The opportunity to relocate the village was presented when it was substantially damaged by an earthquake, with villagers offered a completely new village in exchange for the old site. In 1893 the French Archaeological School removed vast quantities of soil from numerous landslides to reveal both the major buildings and structures of the sanctuary of Apollo and of Athena Proaea along with thousands of objects, inscriptions and sculptures.[10] Kastri, older forms: Kastrio and Kastrion may refer to several places in Greece Kastri, a village in the Arcadia prefecture Kastri, a village in the Chania prefecture Kastri, a village in the Larissa prefecture Xenodoneio kastri by Stathis Psaltis Categories: | ...


Four areas of the site have been reconstructed to greater of lesser extents. The Treasury of the Athenians was fully reconstructed from its original materials by the original French excavation team under the sponsorship of the Mayor of Athens. The Altar of the Chians was reconstructed in 1959 by the Greek Archaeological Services. The Tholos and Temple of Apollo have been subject to limited reconstructions.[10]


Modern Delphi

Delphi Museum
Delphi Museum
Kleobis and Biton, Delphi Museum
Kleobis and Biton, Delphi Museum

Modern Delphi is situated immediately west of the archaeological site and hence is a popular tourist destination. It is on a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. There are many hotels and guest houses in the town, and many tavernas and bars. The main streets are narrow, and often one-way. Delphi also has a school, a lyceum, a church and a square (plateia). The Trans European Footpath E4 passes through the east end of the town. In addition to the archaeological interest, Delphi attracts tourists visiting the Parnassus Ski Center and the popular coastal towns of the region. The town has a population of 2,373 people while the population of the municipality of Delphi, including Chrisso (ancient Krissa), is 3,511. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Amphissa redirects here, for the ancient town near todays Roccella Ionica, see Amphissa, Italy Amfissa (Greek: Άμφισσα), other form: Amfissa, Latin: Amphissa is a town and the capital of the Phokida prefecture and the Parnassida province with the population around 10,000. ... Itea (Greek: Ιτέα meaning willow), is a town and a municipality located in the southeastern part of the prefecture of Phokida. ... Arachova or Arakhova (Greek: Αράχωβα) rarely Arakhova is a town and a municipality which this town is the seat located in the western part of the prefecture of Viotia. ... Plateia (πλατεία) is the Greek word for town square. ... Chrisso (Greek: ), older name Chryso (Greek: ) is a village located in the western part of the municipality of Delphi in the northeastern part of the prefecture of Phocis. ...


In medieval times Delphi was also called Kastri and was built on the archaeological site. The residents had used the marble columns and structures as support beams and roofs for their improvised houses, a usual way of rebuilding towns which were partially or totally destroyed, especially after the earthquake in 1580 which demolished several towns in Phocis. In 1893 archaeologists from the École française d'Athènes finally located the actual site[12] of ancient Delphi and the village was moved to a new location, west of the site of the temples. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... École française dAthènes (the French School of Athens) or the EfA with the f decapitalized is a French-speaking university school promoting the studies of the language, the history and Ancient Greece. ...


The Delphi Archaeological Museum is at the foot of the main archaeological complex, on the east side of the village, and on the north side of the main road. The museum houses an impressive collection associated with ancient Delphi, including the earliest known notation of a melody. Entries to the museum and to the main complex are separate and chargeable, and a reduced rate ticket gets entry to both. There is a small cafe, and a post office by the museum. Slightly further east, on the south side of the main road, is the Gymnasium and the Tholos. Entry to these is free. Delphi Archaeological museum is the museum that houses the ancient artifacts that were found in Delphi, Greece. ... Gymnasium can have following meanings: Gymnasium (ancient Greece)—an educational and sporting institution in Ancient Greece Gymnasium—a school of secondary education found in several European countries (approx. ... The Treasure of Atreus tholos in 2004 Beehive tombs, also known as Tholos tombs (plural tholoi), are a style of Mycenaean chamber tomb from the Bronze Age. ...


Media

  • Video tour of Delphi

    A short movie showing Delphi's main sights, from here


    Image File history File links Delphi_Sights. ... Image File history File links Delphi_Sights. ...

  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

See also

Greece has a rich and varied artistic history, spanning some 5000 years and beginning in the Cycladic and Minoan prehistorical civilization, giving birth to Western classical art in the ancient period (further developing this during the Hellenistic Period), to taking in the influences of Eastern civilisations and the new religion... This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ... Aristoclea (also Aristocleia), (flourished 6th century B.C.) was a Greek priestess at Delphi in Ancient Greece. ... Pythagoras (582 BC – 496 BC, Greek: Πυθαγόρας) was an Ionian mathematician and philosopher, known best for formulating the Pythagorean theorem. ... Delphi Archaeological museum is the museum that houses the ancient artifacts that were found in Delphi, Greece. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The name Delphi is pronounced, in the English manner, as "Delf-eye" or in the Greek manner, as "Delfee" depending on regional accent. The Greek spelling transliterates as "Delphoi" (with "o" added).
  2. ^ Burkert 1985, pp. 61, 84.
  3. ^ Hodge, A. Trevor. "The Mystery of Apollo's E at Delphi," American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 85, No. 1. (Jan., 1981), pp. 83-84.
  4. ^ Rohde, Psyche, p.97.
  5. ^ Entry: σμινθεύς at Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon
  6. ^ Herbert William Parke, The Delphic Oracle, v.1, p.3. "The foundation of Delphi and its oracle took place before the times of recorded history. It would be foolish to look for a clear statement of origin from any ancient authority, but one might hope for a plain account of the primitive traditions. Actually this is not what we find. The foundation of the oracle is described by three early writers: the author of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo, Aeschylus in the prologue to the Eumenides, and Euripides in a chorus in the Iphigeneia in Tauris. All three versions, instead of being simple and traditional, are already selective and tendentious. They disagree with each other basically, but have been superficially combined in the conventional version of late classical times." Parke goes on to say, "This version [Euripides] evidently reproduces in a sophisticated form the primitive tradition which Aeschylus for his own purposes had been at pains to contradict: the belief that Apollo came to Delphi as an invader and appropriated for himself a previously existing oracle of Earth. The slaying of the serpent is the act of conquest which secures his possession; not as in the Homeric Hymn, a merely secondary work of improvement on the site. Another dirfference is also noticeable. The Homeric Hymn, as we saw, implied that the method of prophecy used there was similar to that of Dodona: both Aeschylus and Euripides, writing in the fifth century, attribute to primeval times the same methods as used at Delphi in their own day. So much is implied by their allusions to tripods and prophetic seats." Continuing on p.6, "Another very archaic feature at Delphi also confirms the ancient associations of the place with the Earth goddess. This was the Omphalos, an egg-shaped stone which was situated in the innermost sanctuary of the temple in historic times. Classical legend asserted that it marked the 'navel' (Omphalos) or centre of the Earth and explained that this spot was determined by Zeus who had released two eagles to fly from opposite sides of the earth and that they had met exactly over this place". On p.7 he writes further, "So Delphi was originally devoted to the worship of the Earth goddess whom the Greeks called Ge, or Gaia (mythology). Themis, who is associated with her in tradition as her daughter and partner or successor, is really another manifestation of the same deity: an identity which Aeschylus himself recognized in another context. The worship of these two, as one or distinguished, was displaced by the introduction of Apollo. His origin has been the subject of much learned controversy: it is sufficient for our purpose to take him as the Homeric Hymn represents him -- a northern intruder -- and his arrival must have occurred in the dark interval between Mycenaean and Hellenic times. His conflict with Ge for the possession of the cult site was represented under the legend of his slaying the serpent."
  7. ^ Delphi Archaeological Site, Ancient-Greece.org
  8. ^ Temple of Apollo at Delphi, Ancient-Greece.org
  9. ^ a b c Delphi Theater at Ancient-Greece.org.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Delphi, Hellenic Ministry of Culture.
  11. ^ Delphi Stadium at Ancient-Greece.org.
  12. ^ (see link)

This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... A statue of Euripides. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... For other uses, see Dodona (disambiguation). ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... For other uses, see Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ...

References

  • Broad, William J. The Oracle: Ancient Delphi and the Science Behind its Lost Secrets, 2006. ISBN 1-59-420081-5.
  • Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.
  • Farnell, Lewis Richard, The Cults of the Greek States, 1896.
  • Goodrich, Norma Lorre, Priestesses, 1990.
  • Guthrie, William Keith Chambers, The Greeks and their Gods, 1955.
  • Hall, Manly Palmer, The Secret Teachings of All Ages, 1928. Ch. 14 cf. Greek Oracles,www, PRS
  • Herodotus, The Histories
  • Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo
  • Parke, Herbert William, History of the Delphic Oracle, 1939.
  • Plutarch "Lives"
  • Rohde, Erwin, Psyche, 1925.
  • West, Martin Litchfield, The Orphic Poems, 1983. ISBN 0-19-814854-2.

Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Manly Palmer Hall Manly Palmer Hall (March 18, 1901 - August 29, 1990) was a prolific American author and mystic. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Erwin Rohde (1845 - 1898) was one of the great German classical scholars of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Martin Litchfield West (born 23 September 1937, London, England) is an internationally recognised scholar in classics, classical antiquity and philology. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Delphi

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

General

  • Official website of the archaeological site
  • Official website of the Museum
  • History of the Ecole française d'Athènes in Delphi (French)
  • Homepage of the modern municipality (English) (Greek)
  • Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi
  • Delphi (Greek)
  • C. Osborne, "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls"
  • Livius Picture Archive: Delphi
  • Eloise Hart, "The Delphic oracle"
  • III JUNIOR DELPHIC GAMES 2007 Baguio City, Philippines - November 10 to 15
  • International Delphic Council

Geology of Delphi

  • John R. Hale, et al., "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site, the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought", in Scientific American August 2003
  • John Roach, "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news, August 2001
  • Geology of Delphi
  • The New York Times, March 19, 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi"
  • A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean by Michael and Reynold Higgins, Cornell University Press, 1996

Coordinates: 38°29′N, 22°30′E Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα/Fokída, Ancient/Katharevousa: Φωκίς/Phokis; named after the Greek mythological personage Phocus) is an ancient district of central Greece and a prefecture of modern Greece located in Sterea Hellas, one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece. ... Amphissa redirects here, for the ancient town near todays Roccella Ionica, see Amphissa, Italy Amfissa (Greek: Άμφισσα), other form: Amfissa, Latin: Amphissa is a town and the capital of the Phokida prefecture and the Parnassida province with the population around 10,000. ... Coordinates 38°32′ N 22°22′ E Country Greece Periphery Central Greece Prefecture Phocis Population 2,400 (2001) Area 315. ... Efpalio (Ευπάλιο) is a municipality in Phocis, Greece. ... Galaxidi harbor Galaxidi (Greek, Modern: Γαλαξίδι, Ancient/Katharevousa: -ον), is a town and a municipality located in the southern part of the prefecture of Phokida. ... Gravia (Γραβιά) is a municipality in Phocis, Greece. ... Itea (Greek: Ιτέα meaning willow), is a town and a municipality located in the southeastern part of the prefecture of Phokida. ... Kallieis (Καλλιείς) is a municipality in Phocis, Greece. ... Lidoriki (Λιδορίκι) is a municipality in Phocis, Greece. ... Parnassos (Παρνασσός) is a municipality in Phocis, Greece, named after Mount Parnassus. ... Tolofona (Τολοφώνα) is a municipality in Phocis, Greece. ... Vardousia (Greek: Βαρδούσια) is a municipality in Phocis, Greece. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Delphi - definition of Delphi in Encyclopedia (810 words)
Delphi was revered throughout the Greek world as the omphalos, the centre of the universe.
As a young man, Apollo killed the vicious dragon Python, which lived in Delphi beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis.
Croesus of Lydia consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, and according to Herodotus received the answer "if you do, you will destroy a great empire." Croesus found the response favorable and attacked, and was utterly overthrown (resulting, of course, in the destruction of his own empire).
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