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Encyclopedia > Dejima

Dejima (出島? literally "protruding island"; Dutch: Desjima, often latinised as Decima), was a fan-shaped artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki that was a Dutch trading post during Japan's self-imposed isolation (sakoku) of the Edo period, from 1641 until 1853. Dejima Takeharu (出島 武春, born March 21, 1974) is a sumo wrestler from Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan. ... Motoko Kusanagi from the manga Ghost in the Shell. ... New Port City (Japanese Niihama-shi) New Port City (or Niihama-shi 新浜市) is a fictional metropolis depicted in Masamune Shirows Ghost in the Shell anime and manga series. ... In literature, latinisation is the practice of writing a name in a Latin style when writing in Latin so as to more closely emulate Latin authors, or to present a more impressive image. ... Before Mexico City, Tenochtitlan was an artificial island of 250,000 (Dr Atl) Dejima, not allowed direct contact with nearby Nagasaki Formoza (Gdynia) The World in Dubai An artificial island is an island that has been formed by human, rather than natural means. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... A trading post is a place where trading of goods takes place. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Seclusion. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

View of Dejima island in Nagasaki Bay (from Siebold's Nippon, 1897)
View of Dejima island in Nagasaki Bay (from Siebold's Nippon, 1897)

Contents

View on Dejima in Nagasaki Bay Downloaded from : [[1]] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... View on Dejima in Nagasaki Bay Downloaded from : [[1]] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

History

The island, constructed in 1634 on orders of shogun Iemitsu, originally accommodated Portuguese merchants. The Shimabara uprising of 1637, in which Christian Japanese took an active part, was crushed with the help of the Dutch. After the Portuguese and other Catholic nations were expelled from Japan in 1638, the shogunate ordered the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, VOC) to transfer its mercantile operations from the island port of Hirado to Dejima in 1641. Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... Tokugawa Iemitsu (previously spelled Iyemitsu); 徳川 家光 (August 12, 1604 — June 8, 1651) was the third shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty who reigned from 1623 to 1651. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... This article is about the trading company. ... Categories: Cities in Nagasaki Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ...


At its maximum, the Hirado trading facility, or "factory," covered a large area.[1] In 1637 and in 1639, stone warehouses were constructed within the ambit of this Hirado trading post. Dutch builders incorporated these very dates into the stonework, but the Tokugawa shogunate disapproved of the use of any Christian era year dates and so ordered the immediate destruction of the structures.[2] Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ...


This modest example of Dutch failure to comply with strict sakoku practices was then used as one of the bakufu's plausible rationales for forcing the Dutch traders to abandon Hirado for the more constricting confines of Dejima island in Nagasaki harbor.[3] However, modern research has led scholars to argue that "This was actually an excuse for the shogonate to take the Dutch trade away from the Hirado clan."[4] This strategic decision led to significant and unanticipated consequences for Hirado, for Nagasaki, and for Japan. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Seclusion. ... For the James Clavell novel, see Shogun or for the TV Miniseries. ...


As an additional punitive measure, the bakufu ordered the annual replacement of the VOC Opperhoofd or Kapitan in Japan.[5] This, too, would lead to unanticipated consequences.


Organization

Dejima and Nagasaki Bay, circa 1820. Two Dutch ships and numerous Chinese trading junks are depicted.
Dejima and Nagasaki Bay, circa 1820. Two Dutch ships and numerous Chinese trading junks are depicted.

From then on, only the Chinese and the Dutch could trade with Japan. It is significant that Dejima was an artificial island, and hence not part of Japan proper. Thus, the foreigners were kept at arm's length from the sacred soil of Japan. Dejima was a small island, 120 by 75 meters [6], linked to the mainland by a small bridge, guarded on both sides, and with a gate on the Dutch side. It contained houses for about twenty Dutchmen, warehouses, and accommodation for Japanese government officials. The Dutch were watched by a number of Japanese officials, gatekeepers, night watchmen, and a supervisor (otona) with about fifty subordinates. There were a number of merchants for supplies and catering and about 150 tsūji ("interpreters"). They all had to be paid by the VOC Dejima was under direct central supervision of Edo by a governor, called a bugyō, who was responsible for all contact between the VOC and all contacts with anyone in the Japanese archipelago. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 359 pixelsFull resolution (2271 × 1019 pixel, file size: 679 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 359 pixelsFull resolution (2271 × 1019 pixel, file size: 679 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


Every Dutch ship that arrived in Dejima was inspected by the bugyō, and sails were seized until that ship was set to leave. Religious books and weapons were sealed and confiscated. No religious services were allowed on the island.


Despite the financial burden of the isolated outpost on Dejima, the trade with Japan was very profitable for the VOC, initially yielding profits of 50% or more. Trade declined in the 18th century, as only two ships per year were allowed to dock at Dejima. After the bankruptcy of the VOC in 1795, the Dutch government took over the settlement. Times were especially hard when the Netherlands (then called the Batavian Republic) was under French Napoleonic rule and all ties with the homeland were severed. From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modeled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ...


The chief VOC official in Japan was called the Opperhoofd, or Kapitan. This descriptive title did not change when the island's trading fell under Dutch state authority. Throughout these years, the plan was to have one incumbent per year--but sometimes plans needed to be flexible. Opperhoofd is a Dutch word (plural Opperhoofden) which literally means supreme head. The Danish counterpart Opperhoved is also treated here. ... During the Portuguese and Dutch colonial rule in Malaysia, Kapitans were appointed chiefs or headmen of the various ethnic communities. ...

Scale model of Dutch trading post on display in Dejima (1995)
Scale model of Dutch trading post on display in Dejima (1995)

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1503x1048, 539 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dejima ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1503x1048, 539 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dejima ...

Trade

Originally, the Dutch mainly traded in silk, but sugar became more important later. Also deer pelts and shark skin were transported from Asia, as well as woolen cloth and glassware from Europe. For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ...


To this was added the personal trade of individual Dutch traders in charge of Dejima, called kanbang trade, which was an important source of income for the employees and allowed the Japanese to procure books or scientific instruments. More than 10,000 foreign books on various scientific subjects were thus sold to the Japanese from the end of the 18th to the early 19th century, thus becoming the central factor of the Rangaku movement, or Dutch studies. Rangaku (蘭学) or Dutch Learning was the method by which Japan kept abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641-1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunates policy of national isolation (sakoku). ...


Ship arrivals

In all, 606 Dutch ships arrived at Dejima during two centuries of settlement, from 1641 to 1847.

  • The first period, from 1641 to 1671, was rather free, and saw an average of 7 Dutch ships every year (12 perished in this period).
  • From 1671 to 1715, about 5 Dutch ships were allowed to visit Dejima every year.
  • From 1715, only 2 ships were permitted every year, which was reduced to 1 ship in 1790, and again increased to 2 ships in 1799.
  • During the Napoleonic wars, in which the Netherlands was an ally of France, Dutch ships could not safely reach Japan in the face of British opposition, so they instead relied on "neutral" American and Danish ships. (Interestingly, when the Netherlands became a province of France (1811-1814), and Britain conquered Dutch colonial possessions in Asia, Dejima remained for four years the only place in the world where the Dutch flag was still flying, under the leadership of Hendrik Doeff.)
  • Regular traffic was reestablished in 1815.

Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... Hendrik Doeff (1764-1837). ...

Sakoku policy

Japanese painting of Dutch practicing astronomy at Dejima.
Japanese painting of Dutch practicing astronomy at Dejima.

For two hundred years, Dutch merchants were generally not allowed to cross from Dejima to Nagasaki, and Japanese were likewise banned from entering Dejima, except for prostitutes. These yūjo were handpicked from 1642 by the Japanese, often against their will. From the 18th century there were some exceptions to this rule, especially following Tokugawa Yoshimune's doctrine of promoting European practical sciences. A few Oranda-yuki (those who stay with the Dutch) were allowed to stay for longer periods, but they had to report regularly to the Japanese guard post. European scholars such as Engelbert Kaempfer, Carl Peter Thunberg, Isaac Titsingh and Philipp Franz von Siebold were allowed to enter the mainland with the shogunate's permission.[7] Starting in the 1700s, Dejima became known throughout Japan as a center of medicine, military science, and astronomy, and many samurai travelled there for "Dutch studies" (Rangaku). Image File history File links DejimaAstronomy. ... Image File history File links DejimaAstronomy. ... Tokugawa Yoshimune 1684-1751. ... Engelbert Kaempfer (September 16, 1651 - November 2, 1716) was a German traveller and physician. ... Carl Peter Thunberg (November 11, 1743 _ August 8, 1828) was a Swedish naturalist. ... Isaac Titsingh (born 10 January 1745 in Amsterdam, died 2 February 1812 in Paris) [1]. Dutch surgeon, scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador. ... statue in Akashicho (near Tsukiji), chuo-ku,Tokyo Japan Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (February 17, 1796 in Würzburg - October 18, 1866 in Munich) was a German physician. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... Rangaku (蘭学) or Dutch Learning was the method by which Japan kept abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641-1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunates policy of national isolation (sakoku). ...


In addition, the Opperhoofd, was treated like a Japanese daimyo, which meant that he had to pay a visit of homage to the Shogun in Edo regularly (the so-called sankin kotai). In contrast to a daimyo, the Dutch delegation traveled to Edo yearly between 1660 and 1790 and once every four years thereafter. This prerogative was denied to the Chinese traders. This lengthy travel to the imperial court broke the boredom of their stay, but it was a costly affair to the Dutch. The shōgun let them know in advance and in detail which (expensive) gifts he expected, such as astrolabes, a pair of glasses, telescopes, globes, medical instruments, medical books, or exotic animals and tropical birds. In return, the Dutch delegation received some gifts from the shogun. On arrival in Edo the 'Opperhoofd and his retinue (usually his scribe and the factory doctor) had to wait in the Nagasakiya, their mandatory residence until they were summoned at the court. After their official audience, they were expected, according to Engelbert Kaempfer, to perform Dutch dances and songs etc. for the amusement of the shogunate. But they also used the opportunity of their stay of about two to three weeks in the capital to exchange knowledge with learned Japanese and, under escort, visit the town. Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... Sankin kōtai (参勤交代) was a policy of the shogunate during most of the Edo period of Japanese history. ... A 16th century astrolabe. ... Engelbert Kaempfer (September 16, 1651 - November 2, 1716) was a German traveller and physician. ...


New introductions to Japan

Scene of badminton playing in Dejima.
Scene of badminton playing in Dejima.
  • Badminton, a sport that originated in India, was introduced by the Dutch during the 18th century and is mentioned in the "Sayings of the Dutch."
  • Billiards were introduced in Japan on Dejima in 1794 and are mentioned as "Ball throwing table" (玉突の場) in the paintings of Kawahara Keika (川原慶賀).
  • Beer seems to have been introduced as imports during the period of isolation. The Dutch governor Doeff made his own beer in Nagasaki, following the disruption of trade during the Napoleonic wars. Local production of beer would start in Japan in 1880.
  • Clover was introduced in Japan by the Dutch as packing material for fragile cargo. The Japanese called it "White packing herb" (シロツメクサ), in reference to its white flowers.
Dutch playing billards in Dejima.
Dutch playing billards in Dejima.
  • Coffee was introduced in Japan by the Dutch under the name Moka. Siebold refers to Japanese coffee amateurs in Nagasaki around 1823.
  • Piano. Japan's oldest piano was introduced by Siebolt in 1823 and later given to a tradesperson in the name of Kumatani (熊谷). The piano is today on display in the Kumatani Museum (萩市の熊谷美術館).
  • Painting, used for ships, was introduced by the Dutch. The original Dutch name (Pek) was also adopted in Japanese (Penki/ペンキ).
  • Cabbage and tomatoes were introduced in the 17th century by the Dutch.
  • Chocolate was introduced between 1789 and 1801 and is mentioned as a drink in the pleasure houses of Maruyama.

Image File history File links DejimaBadminton. ... Image File history File links DejimaBadminton. ... This article is about the sport. ... Billiard (as a noun, adjective or verb) may refer to: A type of shot in cue sports (such as pool, carom billiards and snooker) The traditional European name for the number 1015 in mathematics (called quadrillion in modern science) A dynamical system of particle trajectories within a closed reflective boundary... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Hendrik Doeff (1764-1837). ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... For other uses, see Clover (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links DejimaBillard. ... Image File history File links DejimaBillard. ... For the several U.S. counties named Coffee, see Coffee County. ... Title page of Flora Japonica Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (February 17, 1796 in Würzburg - October 18, 1866 in Munich) was the first Westerner to teach medicine in Japan. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ...

Nagasaki Naval Training Center

The Nagasaki Training Center, in Nagasaki, next to Dejima (in the background).
The Nagasaki Training Center, in Nagasaki, next to Dejima (in the background).

Following the forcible opening of Japan by US Navy Commodore Perry in 1854, the Bakufu suddenly increased its interactions with Dejima in an effort to build up knowledge of Western shipping methods. The Nagasaki Naval Training Center (Jp:長崎海軍伝習所/Nagasaki Kaigun Denshūsho), a naval training institute, was established in 1855 by the government of the Shogun right at the entrance of Dejima, allowing maximum interaction with Dutch naval know-how. The center was also equipped with Japan's first steamship, the Kankō Maru, given by the government of the Netherlands the same year. The future Admiral Enomoto Takeaki was one of the students of the Training Center. Image File history File links NagasakiNavalTrainingCenter. ... Image File history File links NagasakiNavalTrainingCenter. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858). ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For the James Clavell novel, see Shogun or for the TV Miniseries. ... The Nagasaki Training Center, in Nagasaki, near Dejima. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... The Kankō Maru (Jp:観光丸) was Japans first steam warship. ... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ...


Reconstruction

The Dutch East India Company's trading post at Dejima was closed in 1857, once Dutch merchants were allowed to trade in Nagasaki City. Since then, the island has been surrounded by reclaimed land and merged into Nagasaki. Extensive redesigning of Nagasaki Harbor in 1904 has obscured the location.[8] The footprint of Dejima island's original location has been marked by rivets; but as restoration progresses, the ambit of the island will be easier to grasp at a glance. 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ...

Edo-era boundaries of Dejima island (outlined in red) within the modern city of Nagasaki.

Dejima today has plainly become a work in progress. The island was designated a national historical site in 1922, but further steps were slow to follow. Restoration work was started in 1953, but that project languished.[9] Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1318 KB)Edo-era boundaries of Dejima island (outlined in red) within the modern city of Nagasaki. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1318 KB)Edo-era boundaries of Dejima island (outlined in red) within the modern city of Nagasaki. ...


In 1996, restoration of Dejima began with plans for rebuilding 25 buildings to their early 19th century state. To better display Dejima's fan-shaped form, the project anticipated rebuilding only parts of the surrounding embankment wall that had once enclosed the island. Buildings that remained from the Meiji Period were to be used. The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ...


In 2000, five buildings including the Deputy Factor's Quarters were completed and opened to the public.


In the spring of 2006, the finishing touches were put on the Chief Factor's Residence, the Japanese Officials' Office, the Head Clerk's Quarters, the No. 3 Warehouse, and the Sea Gate.


The long-term planning now anticipates that that Dejima should again be surrounded by water on all four sides, which means that Dejima’s characteristic fan-shaped form and all of its embankment walls will be fully restored. This long-term plan will involve a large-scale urban redevelopment in the area. If Dejima is to be an island again, the project will require rerouting the Nakashima River and moving a part of Route 499. The project is ambitious, but the eventual completion of this restoration project will create a unique window through which Nagasaki's past can be glimpsed.


Chronology of Dejima

Scene in the modern reconstruction of Dejima
Scene in the modern reconstruction of Dejima
Monument erected in Dejima by Siebold to honor Kaempfer and Thunberg
Monument erected in Dejima by Siebold to honor Kaempfer and Thunberg
  • 1550: Portuguese ships visit Hirado.
  • 1570: Nagasaki Harbor is opened for trade and six town blocks are built.
  • 1571: The first Portuguese ships enter Nagasaki Harbor.
  • 1580: Omura Sumitada cedes jurisdiction over Nagasaki and Mogi to the Society of Jesus.
  • 1588: Toyotomi Hideyoshi exerts direct control over Nagasaki, Mogi, and Urakami from the Jesuits.
  • 1609: The Dutch East India Company opens a factory in Hirado. It closes in 1623.
  • 1612: Japan's feudal government decrees that Christian proselytizing on Bakufu lands is forbidden.
  • 1616: All trade with foreigners except that with China is confined to Hirado and Nagasaki.
  • 1634: The construction of Dejima begins.
  • 1636: Dejima is completed; the Portuguese are interned on Dejima (Fourth National Isolation Edict).
  • 1639: Portuguese ships are prohibited from entering Japan. Consequently, the Portuguese are banished from Dejima.
  • 1641: The Dutch East India Company on Hirado is moved to Nagasaki.
  • 1649: Dutch surgeon Caspar Schambergen comes to Japan.
  • 1662: A shop is opened on Dejima to sell Imari porcelain.
  • 1673: The English ship "Return" enters Nagasaki, but the Shogunate refuses its request for trade.
  • 1678: A bridge connecting Dejima with the shore is replaced with a stone bridge.
  • 1690: The German physician Engelbert Kaempfer comes to Dejima.
  • 1696: Warehouses for secondary cargo reach completion on Dejima.
  • 1698: The Nagasaki Kaisho (trade association) is founded.
  • 1699: The Sea Gate is built at Dejima.
  • 1707: Water pipes are installed on Dejima.
  • 1775: Carl Thunberg starts his term as physician on Dejima.
  • 1779: Surgeon Isaac Titsingh arrives for his first tour of duty as "Opperhoofd."
  • 1798: Many buildings, including the Chief Factor's Residence, are destroyed by the [[Great Kansei Fire]] of Dejima.
  • 1804: Russian Ambassador N.P. Rezanov visits Nagasaki to request an exchange of trade between Japan and Imperial Russia.
  • 1808: The Phaeton Incident occurs.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1113 pixel, file size: 632 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo and release my rights in the file to the public domain; people and organizations retain rights to images in it. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1113 pixel, file size: 632 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo and release my rights in the file to the public domain; people and organizations retain rights to images in it. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (938 × 1250 pixel, file size: 590 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo and release my rights in the file to the public domain; people and organizations retain rights to images in it. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (938 × 1250 pixel, file size: 590 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo and release my rights in the file to the public domain; people and organizations retain rights to images in it. ... statue in Akashicho (near Tsukiji), chuo-ku,Tokyo Japan Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (February 17, 1796 in Würzburg - October 18, 1866 in Munich) was a German physician. ... Categories: Cities in Nagasaki Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Omura Sumitada (大村純忠, 1533-June 23, 1587) Japanese daimyo lord of the Sengoku period. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ... This article is about the trading company. ... Categories: Cities in Nagasaki Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... This article is about the medical specialty. ... It has been suggested that Arita (porcelain) be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Engelbert Kaempfer (September 16, 1651 - November 2, 1716) was a German traveller and physician. ... Carl Peter Thunberg (November 11, 1743–August 8, 1828) was a Swedish naturalist. ... Isaac Titsingh (born 10 January 1745 in Amsterdam, died 2 February 1812 in Paris) [1]. Dutch surgeon, scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador. ... Opperhoofd is a Dutch word (plural Opperhoofden) which literally means supreme head. The Danish counterpart Opperhoved is also treated here. ... A portrait of Nikolai Rezanov painted around the turn of the 19th century, artist unknown. ... HMS Phaeton was a 38-gun, fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy most noted for its intrusion into Nagasaki harbour in 1808. ...

List of Dutch Opperhoofden or Kapitans

At Hirado

View of VOC compound at Hirado island -- west coast of Kyushu (c1669).
View of VOC compound at Hirado island -- west coast of Kyushu (c1669).
  • Jacques Specx: 20.9.1609 - 28.8.1612
  • Hendrick Brouwer: 28.8.1612 - 6.8.1614
  • Jacques Specx: 6.8.1614 - 29.10.1621
  • Leonardt Camps: 29.10.1621 - 21.11.1623
  • Corneliszoon van Neijenroode: 21.11.1623 - _._.1631
  • Pieter Stamper: 1631
  • Corneliszoon van Neijenroode: _._.1631 - 31.1.1633
  • Pieter van Sante[n]: 31.1.1633 - 6.9.1633
  • Nicolaes Couckebacker: 6.9.1633 - _._.1635
  • Maerten Wesselingh: _._.1635-_._.1637
  • Nicolaes Couckebacker: _._.1637 - 3.2.1639
  • François Caron: 3.2.1639 - 13.2.1641 [Caron was last Opperhoofd at Hirado.]

Image File history File links HiradoVOCfactory(montanus-1669). ... Image File history File links HiradoVOCfactory(montanus-1669). ... A map of Japan in François Carons A True Description of the Mighty Kingdoms of Japan and Siam. François Caron (1600-1673), was a French Huguenot refugee to the Netherlands who entered the Dutch East India Company, and becomes the first French person to set foot in... Categories: Cities in Nagasaki Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ...

At Dejima

  • François Caron: 3.2.1639 - 13.2.1641 [Caron was the first Opperhoofd in Dejima following the forced move from Hirado.]
  • Maximiliaen Le Maire: 14.2.1641 - 30.10.1641
  • Jan van Elseracq: 1.11.1641 - 29.10.1642
  • Pieter Anthonijszoon Overtwater: 29.10.1642 - 1.8.1643
  • Jan van Elserac: 1.8.1643 - 24.11.1644
  • Pieter Anthonijszoon Overtwater: 24.11.1644 - 30.11.1645
  • Reijnjer van't Zum: 30.11.1645 - 27.10.1646
  • Willem Verstegen [Versteijen]: 28.10.164 - 10.10.1647
  • Frederick Coijet: 3.11.1647 - 9.12.1648
  • Dircq Snoecq: 9.12.1648 - 5.11.1649
  • Anthonio van Brouckhorst: 5.11.1649 - 25.10.1650
  • Pieter Sterthemius: 25.10.1650 - 3.11.1651
  • Adriaen van der Burgh: 1.11.1651 - 3.11.1652
  • Frederick Coijet: 4.11.1652 - 10.11.1653
  • Gabriel Happart: 4.11.1653 - 31.10.1654
  • Leonard Winninx: 31.10.1654 - 23.10.1655
  • Joan Boucheljon: 23.10.1655 - 1.11.1656
  • Zacharias Wagenaer [Wagener]: 1.11.1656 - 27.10.1657
  • Joan Boucheljon: 27.10.1657 - 23.10.1658
  • Zacharias Wagenaer [Wagener]: 22.10.1658 - 4.11.1659
  • Joan Boucheljon: 4.11.1659 - 26.10.1660
  • Hendrick Indijck: 26.10.1660 - 21.11.1661
  • Dirck van Lier: 11.11.1661 - 6.11.1662
  • Hendrick Indijck: 6.11.1662 - 20.10.1663
  • Willem Volger: 20.10.1663 - 7.11.1664
  • Jacob Gruijs: 7.11.1664 - 27.10.1665
  • Willem Volger: 28.10.1665: - 27.10.1666
  • Daniel Six [Sicx]: 18.10.1666 - 6.11.1667
  • Constantin Ranst: 6.11.1667 - 25.10.1668
  • Daniel Six [Sicx]: 25.10.1668 - 14.10.1669
  • Francois de Haas: 14.10.1669 - 2.11.1670
  • Martinus Caesar: 2.11.1670 - 12.11.1671
  • Johannes Camphuijs: 22.10.1671 - 12.11.1672
  • Martinus Caesar: 13.11.1672 - 29.10.1673
  • Johannes Camphuijs: 29.10.1673 - 19.10.1674
  • Martinus Caesar: 20.10.1674 - 7.11.1675
  • Johannes Camphuijs: 7.11.1675 - 27.10.1676
  • Dirck de Haas: 27.10.1676 - 16.10.1677
  • Albert Brevincq: 16.10.1677 - 4.11.1678
  • Dirck de Haas: 4.11.1678 - 24.10.1679
  • Albert Brevincq: 24.10.1679 - 11.11.1680
  • Isaac van Schinne: 11.11.1680 - 31.10.1681
  • Hendrick Canzius: 31.10.1681 - 20.10.1682
  • Andreas Cleyer [Andries]: 20.10.1682 - 8.11.1683
  • Constantin Ranst de Jonge: 8.11.1683 - 28.10.1684
  • Hendrick van Buijtenhem: 25.10.1684 - 7.10.1685
  • Andreas Cleyer: 17.10.1685 - 5.11.1686
  • Constantin Ranst de Jonge: 5.11.1686 - 25.10.1687
  • Hendrick van Buijtenhem: 25.10.1687 - 13.10.1688
  • Cornelisz.van Outhoorn: 13.10.1688 - 1.11.1689
  • Balthasar Sweers: 1.11.1689 - 21.10.1690
  • Hendrick van Buijtenhem: 21.10.1690 - 09.11.1691
  • Cornelis van Outhoorn: 9.11.1691 - 29.10.1692
  • Hendrick van Buijtenhem: 29.10.1692 - 19.10.1693
  • Gerrit de Heere: 19.10.1693: - 7.11.1694
  • Hendrik Dijkman: 7.11.1694 - 27.10.1695
  • Cornelis van Outhoorn: 27.10.1695 - 15.10.1696
  • Hendrik Dijkman]: 15.10.1696 - 3.11.1697
  • Pieter de Vos: 3.11.1697 - 23.10.1698
  • Hendrik Dijkman: 23.10.1698 - 12.10.1699
  • Pieter de Vos: 21.10.1699 - 31.10.1700
  • Hendrik Dijkman: 31.10.1700 - 21.10.1701
  • Abraham Douglas: 21.10.1701 - 30.10.1702
  • Ferdinand de Groot: 9.11.1702 - 30.10.1703
  • Gideon Tant: 30.10.1703 - 18.10.1704
  • Ferdinand de Groot: 18.10.1704 - 6.11.1705
  • Ferdinand de Groot: 26.10.1706 - 15.10.1707
  • Hermanus Menssingh: 15.10.1707 - 2.11.1708
  • Jasper van Mansdale: 2.11.1708 - 22.10.1709
  • Hermanus Menssingh: 22.10.1709 - 10.11.1710
  • Nicolaas Joan van Hoorn: 10.11.1710 - 31.10.1711
  • Cornelis Lardijn: 31.10.1711 - 7.11.1713
  • Cornelis Jardijn: 7.11.1713 - 27.10.1714
  • Nicolaas Joan van Hoorn: 27.10.1714 -19.10.1715
  • Gideon Boudaen: 19.10.1715 - 3.11.1716
  • Joan Aouwer: 3.11.1716 - 24.10.1717
  • Christiaen van Vrijbergh[e]: 24.10.1717 - 13.10.1718
  • Joan Aouwer: 13.10.1718 - 21.10.1720
  • Roeloff Diodati: 21.10.1720 - 9.11.1721
  • Hendrik Durven: 9.11.1721 - 18.10.1723
  • Johannes Thedens: 18.10.1723 - 25.10.1725
  • Joan de Hartogh: 25.10.1725 - 15.10.1726
  • Pieter Boockestijn: 15.10.1726 - 3.11.1727
  • Abraham Minnedonk: 3.11.1727 - 20.10.1728
  • Pieter Boockestijn: 22.10.1728 - 12.10.1729
  • Abraham Minnedonk: 12.10.1729 - 31.10.1730
  • Pieter Boockestijn: 31.10.1730 - 7.11.1732
  • Hendrik van de Bel: 7.11.1732 - 27.10.1733
  • Rogier de Laver: 27.10.1733 - 16.10.1734
  • David Drinckman: 16.10.1734 - 4.11.1735
  • Bernardus Coop [Coopa] à Groen: 4.11.1735 - 24.10.1736
  • Jan van der Cruijsse: 24.10.1736 - 13.10.1737
  • Gerardus Bernardus Visscher: 13.10.1737 - 21.10.1739
  • Thomas van Rhee: 22.10.1739 - 8.11.1740
  • Jacob van der Waeijen: 9.11.1740 - 28.10.1741
  • Thomas van Rhee: 29.10.1741 - 17.10.1742
  • Jacob van der Waeijen: 17.10.1742 - 9.11.1743
  • David Brouwer: 5.11.1743 - 1.11.1744
  • Jacob van der Waeijen: 2.11.1744 - 28.12.1745
  • Jan Louis de Win: 30.12.1745 - 2.11.1746
  • Jacob Balde: 3.11.1746 - 25.10.1747
  • Jan Louis de Win: 28.10.1747 - 11.11.1748
  • Jacob Balde: 12.11.1748 - 8.12.1749
  • Hendrik van Homoed: 8.12.1749 - 24.12.1750
  • Abraham van Suchtelen: 25.12.1750 - 18.11.1751
  • Hendrik van Homoed: 19.11.1751 - 5.12.1752
  • David Boelen: 6.12.1752 - 15.10.1753
  • Hendrik van Homoed: 16.10.1753 - 3.11.1754
  • David Boelen: 4.11.1754 - 25.10.1755
  • Herbert Vermeulen: 25.10.1755 - 12.10.1756
  • David Boelen: 13.10.1756 - 31.10.1757
  • Herbert Vermeulen: 1.11.1757 - 11.11.1758
  • Johannes Reijnouts: 12.11.1758 - 11.11.1760
  • Marten Huijshoorn: 12.11.1760 - 30.10.1761
  • Johannes Reijnouts: 31.10.1761 - 2.12.1762
  • Fredrik Willem Wineke: 3.12.1762 - 6.11.1763
  • Jan Crans: 7.11.1763 - 24.10.1764
  • Fredrik Willem Wineke: 25.10.1764 - 7.11.1765
  • Jan Crans: 8.11.1765 - 31.10.1766
  • Herman Christiaan Kastens: 1.11.1766 - 20.10.1767
  • Jan Crans: 21.10.1767 - 8.11.1769
  • Olphert Elias: 9.11.1769 - 16.11.1770
  • Daniel Armenault: 17.11.1770 - 9.11.1771
  • Arend Willem Feith: 10.11.1771 - 3.11.1772
  • Daniel Armenault [Almenaault]: 4.11.1772 - 22.11.1773
  • Arend Willem Feith: 23.11.1773 - 10.11.1774
  • Daniel Armenault [Almenaault]: 11.11.1774 - 28.10.1775
  • Arend Willem Feith: 28.10.1775 - 22.11.1776
  • Hendrik Godfried Duurkoop: 23.11.1776 - 11.11.1777
  • Arend Willem Feith: 12.11.1777 - 28.11.1779
  • Isaac Titsingh: 29.11.1779 - 5.11.1780
  • Arend Willem Feith: 6.11.1780 - 23.11.1781
  • Isaac Titsingh: 24.11.1781 - 26.10.1783
  • Hendrik Casper Romberg: 27.10.1783 - _.8.1874
  • Isaac Titsingh: _.8.1784 - 30.11.1784
Hendrik Doeff and a Balinese servant in Dejima, Japanese painting.
Hendrik Doeff and a Balinese servant in Dejima, Japanese painting.
  • Hendrik Casper Romberg: 0.11.84 - 21.11.1785
  • Johan Fredrik van Rheede tot de Parkeler: 22.11.1785 - 20.11.1786
  • Hendrik Casper Romberg: 21.11.1786 - 30.11.1787
  • Johan Frederik van Rheede tot de Parkeler: 1.12.1787 - 1.8.1789
  • Hendrik Casper Romberg: 1.8.1789 - 13.11.1790
  • Petrus Theodorus Chassé: 13.11.1790 - 13.11.1792
  • Gijsbert Hemmij: 13.11.1792 - 8.7.1798
  • Leopold Willem Ras: 8.7.1798 - 17.7.1800
  • Willem Wardenaar: 16.7.1800 - 14.11.1803
  • Hendrik Doeff: 14.11.1803 - 6.12.1817
  • Jan Cock Blomhoff: 6.12.1817 - 20.11.1823
  • Johan Willem de Sturler: 20.11.1823 - 5.8.1826
  • Germain Felix Meijlan: 4.8.1826 - 1.11.1830
  • Jan Willem Fredrik van Citters: 1.11.1830 - 30.11.1834
  • Johannes Erdewin Niemann: 1.12.1834 - 17.11.1838
  • Eduard Grandisson: 18.11.1838 - _.11.1842
  • Pieter Albert Bik: _.11.1842 - 31.10.1845
  • Joseph Henrij Levijssohn: 1.11.1845 - 31.10.1850
  • Frederick Colnelis Rose: 1.11.1850 - 31.10.1852
The last of the Dejima-based Opperhoofden handled the 1855 delivery of the Kankō Maru (観光丸), Japan's first modern steam warship -- a gift from the Dutch King Willem III to the Tokugawa Shogunate.
The last of the Dejima-based Opperhoofden handled the 1855 delivery of the Kankō Maru (観光丸), Japan's first modern steam warship -- a gift from the Dutch King Willem III to the Tokugawa Shogunate.
  • Janus Henricus Donker Curtius: 2.11.1852 - 28.2.1860 [Donker Curtius became the last in a long list of hardy Dutch Opperhoofden who were stationed at Dejima; and fortuitously, Curtius also became the first of many Dutch diplomatic and trade representatives in Japan during the burgeoning pre-Meiji years.]

A map of Japan in François Carons A True Description of the Mighty Kingdoms of Japan and Siam. François Caron (1600-1673), was a French Huguenot refugee to the Netherlands who entered the Dutch East India Company, and becomes the first French person to set foot in... Categories: Cities in Nagasaki Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Zacharias Wagenaer (also known as Wagenaar or Wagner): He was the chief officer or opperhoofd of the Dutch East Indies Company (the VOC) at the small island in Nagasaki bay in the Japanese island of Kyushu, Dejima. ... Zacharias Wagenaer (also known as Wagenaar or Wagner): He was the chief officer or opperhoofd of the Dutch East Indies Company (the VOC) at the small island in Nagasaki bay in the Japanese island of Kyushu, Dejima. ... Andreas Cleyer (1634-1698). ... Andreas Cleyer (1634-1698). ... Johannes Thedens (1680, Friedrichstadt - 19 March 1748, Batavia) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 6 November 1741 until 28 May 1743. ... Jakob Balde (1604—1668), German Latinist, was born at Ensisheim in Alsace on January 4 1604. ... Jakob Balde (1604—1668), German Latinist, was born at Ensisheim in Alsace on January 4 1604. ... Hendrik Godfried Duurkoop (May 5, 1736, Dornum - July 27, 1778, at sea) was a Dutch merchant-trader and diplomat. ... Isaac Titsingh (born 10 January 1745 in Amsterdam, died 2 February 1812 in Paris) [1]. Dutch surgeon, scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador. ... Isaac Titsingh (born 10 January 1745 in Amsterdam, died 2 February 1812 in Paris) [1]. Dutch surgeon, scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador. ... Isaac Titsingh (born 10 January 1745 in Amsterdam, died 2 February 1812 in Paris) [1]. Dutch surgeon, scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador. ... Image File history File links HendrikDoeffJapan. ... Image File history File links HendrikDoeffJapan. ... Hendrik Doeff (1764-1837). ... Hendrik Doeff (1764-1837). ... Jan Cock Blomhoff - director (opperhoofd) of Dejima, the Dutch trading colony in the harbour of Nagasaki, Japan, with his little son Johannes in the arms of Petronella Munts, a Dutch nurse-maid (anonymous Japanese artist). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Kankō Maru (Jp:観光丸) was Japans first steam warship. ... Photograph of Donker Curtius by A.J. and A.F. Bauduin, taken in 1862. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Edo-Tokyo Museum exhibition catalog. (2000). A Very Unique [sic] Collection of Historical Significance: The Kapitan (the Dutch Chief) Collection from the Edo Period -- The Dutch Fascination with Japan, p.206.
  2. ^ Edo-Tokyo Museum exhibition catalog, p. 207.
  3. ^ Edo-Tokyo Museum exhibition catalog, p. 207.
  4. ^ Edo-Tokyo Museum exhibition catalog, p. 207.
  5. ^ Edo-Tokyo Museum exhibition catalog, p. 207.
  6. ^ Ken Vos - The article "Dejima als venster en doorgeefluik" in the catalog (Brussels, 5 October 1989 - 16 December 1989) of the exhibition Europalia 1989 : "Oranda : De Nederlanden in Japan (1600-1868)
  7. ^ In the context of Commodore Perry's "opening" of Japan in 1853, American naval expedition planners did have the reasonable forethought to incorporate reference material written by men whose published accounts of Japan were based on first-hand experience. J.W. Spaulding brought with him books by Japanologists Engelbert Kaempfer, Carl Peter Thunberg, and Isaac Titsingh. Screech, T. (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779-1822, p.73.
  8. ^ Edo-Tokyo Museum exhibition catalog, p. 47.
  9. ^ Edo-Tokyo Museum exhibition catalog, p. 47.

For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word, originally sicut [1] meaning thus, so, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized — [sic] — to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been... Engelbert Kaempfer (September 16, 1651 - November 2, 1716) was a German traveller and physician. ... Carl Peter Thunberg (November 11, 1743 _ August 8, 1828) was a Swedish naturalist. ... Isaac Titsingh (born 10 January 1745 in Amsterdam, died 2 February 1812 in Paris) [1]. Dutch surgeon, scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador. ...

Further reading

  • Blomhoff, J.C. (2000). The Court Journey to the Shogun of Japan: From a Private Account by Jan Cock Blomhoff. Amsterdam
  • Blussé, L. et al., eds. (1995-2001) The Deshima [sic] Dagregisters: Their Original Tables of Content. Leiden.
  • Blussé, L. et al., eds. (2004). The Deshima Diaries Marginalia 1740-1800. Tokyo.
  • Boxer. C.R. (1950). Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850: An Essay on the Cultural, Aristic, and Scientific Influence Exercised by the Hollanders in Japan from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Centuries. Den Haag.
  • Caron, F. (1671). A True Description of the Mighty Kingdoms of Japan and Siam. London.
  • Doeff, H. (1633). Herinneringen uit Japan. Amsterdam. [Doeff, H. "Recollections of Japan" (ISBN: 1-55395-849-7)]
  • Edo-Tokyo Museum exhibition catalog. (2000). A Very Unique Collection of Historical Significance: The Kapitan (the Dutch Chief) Collection from the Edo Period--The Dutch Fascination with Japan. Catalog of "400th Anniversary Exhibition Regarding Relations between Japan and the Netherlands," a joint project of the Edo-Tokyo Museum, the City of Nagasaki, the National Museum of Ethnology, the National Natuurhistorisch Museum" and the National Herbarium of the Netherlands in Leiden, the Netherlands. Tokyo.
  • Leguin, F. (2002). Isaac Titsingh (1745-1812): Een passie voor Japan, leven en werk van de grondlegger van de Europese Japanologie. Leiden.
  • Nederland's Patriciaat, Vol. 13 (1923). Den Haag.
  • Screech, Timon. (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779-1822. London.
  • Siebold, P.F.v. (1897). Nippon. Würzburg e Leipzig.
  • Titsingh, I. (1820). Mémoires et Anecdotes sur la Dynastie régnante des Djogouns, Souverains du Japon. Paris.
  • Titsingh, I. (1822). Illustrations of Japan; consisting of Private Memoirs and Anecdotes of the reigning dynasty of The Djogouns, or Sovereigns of Japan. London.

See also

Rangaku (蘭学) or Dutch Learning was the method by which Japan kept abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641-1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunates policy of national isolation (sakoku). ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Seclusion. ...

Sources and external links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Dejima
  • Dejima: The Island Comes Back to Life
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  • WorldStatesmen - Japan
  • Maps and aerial photos for 32°44′37″N 129°52′23″E / 32.743525, 129.873022Coordinates: 32°44′37″N 129°52′23″E / 32.743525, 129.873022
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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

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