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Encyclopedia > Dehydration
Dehydration
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 E86.
ICD-9 276.5

Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. Medically, it is a condition in which the body contains an insufficient volume of water for normal functioning. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ...

Contents

Medical causes of dehydration in humans

In humans, dehydration can be caused by a wide range of diseases and states that impair water homeostasis in the body. These include: Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... Homeostasis is the property of an open system, especially living organisms, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition, by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments, controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms. ...

  • Major cause
    • Teveel bier drinken

In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... A survivalist is a person who anticipates and prepares for a future disruption in local, regional or worldwide social or political order. ... Bleeding is the loss of blood from the body. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tears trickling down the cheeks Lacrimation is the bodys process of producing tears, which are a liquid to clean and lubricate the eyes. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Gastroenteritis involves diarrhea or vomiting, with noninflammatory infection of the upper small bowel, or inflammatory infection of the colon, both part of the gastrointestinal tract. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... Electrolyte disturbance refers to an abnormal change in the levels of electrolytes in the body. ... Hypernatremia is an electrolyte disturbance consisting of an elevated sodium level in the blood (compare to hyponatremia, meaning a low sodium level). ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Weight loss, in the context of medicine or health, is a reduction of the total body weight, which can mean loss of fluid, muscle, bone mass, or fat. ... People who feel they are near the end of their life often consciously refuse food and/or water. ... Hyperglycemia or High Blood Sugar is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ...

Symptoms and prognosis

Symptoms may include headaches similar to what is experienced during a hangover, a sudden episode of visual snow, decreased blood pressure (hypotension), and dizziness or fainting when standing up due to orthostatic hypotension. Untreated dehydration generally results in delirium, unconsciousness, and in extreme cases death. The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... A hangover (veisalgia) describes the sum of unpleasant physiological effects following heavy consumption of alcoholic beverages. ... Visual snow is a transitory or persisting visual symptom where people see snow or television-like static in parts or the whole of their visual fields. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring blood pressure. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... // Pre-syncope is a sensation of feeling faint. ... Fainting (IPA: or ) is a sudden (and generally momentary) loss of consciousness, or blacking out due to the Central Ischaemic Response, because of a lack of sufficient blood and oxygen reaching the brain. ... Orthostatic hypotension (also known as postural hypotension and, colloquially, as head rush or a dizzy spell) is a sudden fall in blood pressure, typically greater than 20/10 mm Hg, that occurs when a person assumes a standing position. ... “Delirious” redirects here. ... Unconsciousness is the absence of consciousness. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Dehydration symptoms generally become noticeable after 2% of one's normal water volume has been lost. Initially, one experiences thirst and discomfort, possibly along with loss of appetite and dry skin. This can be followed by constipation. Athletes may suffer a loss of performance of up to 50%,[citation needed]and experience flushing, low endurance, rapid heart rates, elevated body temperatures, and rapid onset of fatigue. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Xeroderma literally means dry skin. It is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients and/or moisturizers. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... Look up Athlete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... The word fatigue is used in everyday living to describe a range of afflictions, varying from a general state of lethargy to a specific work induced burning sensation within muscle. ...


Symptoms of mild dehydration include thirst, decreased urine volume, abnormally dark urine, unexplained tiredness, lack of tears when crying, headache, dry mouth, and dizziness when standing due to orthostatic hypotension. The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Also see: Tears (song) by X Japan, or Tears (film) by Im Sang-soo. ... Tears trickling down the cheeks Lacrimation is the bodys process of producing tears, which are a liquid to clean and lubricate the eyes. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... // Pre-syncope is a sensation of feeling faint. ... Orthostatic hypotension (also known as postural hypotension and, colloquially, as head rush or a dizzy spell) is a sudden fall in blood pressure, typically greater than 20/10 mm Hg, that occurs when a person assumes a standing position. ...


In moderate to severe dehydration, there may be no urine output at all. Other symptoms in these states include lethargy or extreme sleepiness, seizures, sunken fontanel (soft spot) in infants, fainting, and sunken eyes. Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ... This article is about the medical term, epileptic seizure, as distinct from psychogenic non-epileptic seizure. ... In human anatomy, a fontanelle (or fontanel) is one of two soft spots on a newborn humans skull. ... A human infant In basic English usage, an infant is defined as a child at the youngest stage of life, especially before they can walk or simply a child before the age of one. ... Fainting (IPA: or ) is a sudden (and generally momentary) loss of consciousness, or blacking out due to the Central Ischaemic Response, because of a lack of sufficient blood and oxygen reaching the brain. ...


The symptoms become increasingly severe with greater water loss. One's heart and respiration rates begin to increase to compensate for decreased plasma volume and blood pressure, while body temperature may rise because of decreased sweating. Around 5% to 6% water loss, one may become groggy or sleepy, experience headaches or nausea, and may feel tingling in one's limbs (paresthesia). With 10% to 15% fluid loss, muscles may become spastic, skin may shrivel and wrinkle, vision may dim, urination will be greatly reduced and may become painful, and delirium may begin. Losses greater than 15% are usually fatal. [2] // In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring blood pressure. ... A child sleeping Sleep is the state of natural rest observed in humans and throughout the animal kingdom, including in all mammals and birds, and in many reptiles, amphibians and fish. ... For the Beck song, see Nausea (song). ... Paresthesia or paraesthesia (in British English) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of a persons skin with no apparent long-term physical effect, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles or of a limb being asleep. // Transient paresthesia is the temporary sensation of tingling...


Treatment

Nurses encouraging this patient to drink an Oral Rehydration Solution to improve dehydration he acquired from cholera.Courtesy:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Nurses encouraging this patient to drink an Oral Rehydration Solution to improve dehydration he acquired from cholera.
Courtesy:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The best treatment for minor dehydration is drinking water and stopping fluid loss. Water is preferable to sport drinks and other commercially-sold rehydration fluids, as the balance of electrolytes they provide may not match the replacement requirements of the individual. To stop fluid loss from vomiting and diarrhea, avoid solid foods and drink only clear liquids.[3] Image File history File links Cholera_rehydration_nurses. ... Image File history File links Cholera_rehydration_nurses. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


In more severe cases, correction of a dehydrated state is accomplished by the replenishment of necessary water and electrolytes (rehydration, through oral rehydration therapy or intravenous therapy). Even in the case of serious lack of fresh water (e.g., at sea or in a desert), drinking seawater or urine does not help, nor does the consumption of alcohol. It is often thought that the sudden influx of salt into the body from seawater will cause the cells to dehydrate and the kidneys to overload and shut down but it has been calculated that average adult can drink up to 0.2 liters of seawater per day before the kidneys start to fail.[citation needed] An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions which behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Rehydration is the pissing of water and electrolytes lost through dehydration. ... Oral Rehydration Therapy, or ORT, is a simple, cheap, and effective treatment for diarrhea caused by, e. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Sea as seen from jetty in Frankston, Australia Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. POOP Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... The kidneys filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ...


When dehydrated, unnecessary sweating should be avoided, as it wastes water. If there is only dry food, it is better not to eat, as water is necessary for digestion. For severe cases of dehydration where fainting, unconsciousness, or other severely inhibiting symptom is present (the patient is incapable of standing or thinking clearly), emergency attention is required. Fluids containing a proper balance of replacement electrolytes are given orally or intravenously with continuing assessment of electrolyte status; complete resolution is the norm in all but the most extreme cases. Sweating (also called perspiration or sometimes transpiration) is the production and evaporation of a fluid, consisting primarily of water as well as a smaller amount of sodium chloride (the main constituent of table salt), that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Fainting (IPA: or ) is a sudden (and generally momentary) loss of consciousness, or blacking out due to the Central Ischaemic Response, because of a lack of sufficient blood and oxygen reaching the brain. ... Unconsciousness is the absence of consciousness. ...


Avoiding dehydration

Dehydration is best avoided by drinking plenty of water. The greater the amount of water lost through perspiration, the more water must be consumed to replace it and avoid dehydration. Since the body cannot tolerate large deficits or excesses in total body water, consumption of water must be roughly concurrent with the loss (in other words, if one is perspiring, one should also be drinking water frequently). Drinking water slightly beyond the needs of the body entails no risk, since the kidneys will efficiently remove any excess water through the urine with a large margin of safety. A person's body, during an average day in a temperate climate such as the United Kingdom, loses approximately 2.5 liters of water. This can be through the lungs as water vapor, through the skin as sweat, or through the kidneys as urine. Some water (a less significant amount, in the absence of diarrhea) is also lost through the bowels. In warm or humid weather or during heavy exertion, however, the water loss can increase by an order of magnitude or more through perspiration—all of which must be promptly replaced. In extreme cases, the losses may be great enough to exceed the body's ability to absorb water from the gastrointestinal tract; in these cases, it is not possible to drink enough water to stay hydrated, and the only way to avoid dehydration is to reduce perspiration (through rest, a move to a cooler environment, etc.). A useful rule of thumb for avoiding dehydration in hot or humid environments or during strenuous activity involves monitoring the frequency and character of urination. If one develops a full bladder at least every 3-5 hours and the urine is only lightly colored or colorless, chances are that dehydration is not occurring; if urine is deeply colored, or urination occurs only after many hours or not at all, water intake may not be adequate to maintain proper hydration. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... It has been suggested that multiple sections of steam be merged into this article or section. ... In zootomy and dermatology, skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... SWEAT is an OLN/TSN show hosted by Julie Zwillich that aired in 2003-2004. ... The kidneys filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ...


When large amounts of water are being lost through perspiration and concurrently replaced by drinking, maintaining proper electrolyte balance becomes an issue. Drinking fluids that are hypertonic or hypotonic with respect to perspiration may have grave consequences (hyponatremia or hypernatremia, principally) as the total volume of water turnover increases. The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... Hypernatremia is an electrolyte disturbance consisting of an elevated sodium level in the blood (compare to hyponatremia, meaning a low sodium level). ...


If water is being lost through abnormal mechanisms such as vomiting or diarrhea, an imbalance can develop very quickly into a medical emergency. In fact, the main mechanisms through which diseases such as infantile diarrhea and cholera kill their victims are dehydration and loss of electrolytes. Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... Gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, is an illness of fever, diarrhoea and/or vomiting caused by an infectious virus, bacterium or parasite. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...


See also

In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia (also hypovolaemia) is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma. ... Safe water is water that will not harm you if you come in contact with it. ... Water intoxication (also known as hyperhydration or water poisoning) is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain function that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside of safe limits by a very rapid intake of water. ... Chemical, Elevated, Hydropneumatic and Ground Storage Water Tanks shown together in one installation. ... Water therapy is the use of water to improve health. ...

References

Dr. Ira Byock Ira Byock is a physician specializing in hospice care. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.heartspring.net/symptoms_of_dehydration.html
  2. ^ http://faculty.washington.edu/kepeter/118/notes/pdf-set5/118water-bal-06.htm
  3. ^ "Healthwise Handbook," Healthwise, Inc., 1999

External links

Look up Dehydration in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Dehydration (945 words)
Dehydration means your body does not have as much water and fluids as it should.
Dehydration is classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on how much of the body's fluid is lost or not replenished.
Dehydration in sick children is often a combination of both -- refusing to eat or drink anything while also losing fluid from vomiting, diarrhea, or fever.
Dehydration (813 words)
Dehydration is a condition that occurs when a person loses more fluids than he or she takes in.
Dehydration isn't as serious a problem for teens as it can be for babies or young children.
One common cause of dehydration in teens is gastrointestinal illness.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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