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Encyclopedia > Deforestation
A NASA satellite observation of deforestation near Rio Branco in Brazil observed July 28 2000
A NASA satellite observation of deforestation near Rio Branco in Brazil observed July 28 2000
Djouce Mountain, along with most of the island of Ireland, was systematically clear-felled during the 17th and 18th centuries, in order to obtain wood mainly for shipbuilding.
Djouce Mountain, along with most of the island of Ireland, was systematically clear-felled during the 17th and 18th centuries, in order to obtain wood mainly for shipbuilding.

Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest land for use such as arable land, pasture, urban use, logged area, or wasteland. Generally, the removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity. In many countries, massive deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. Deforestation results from removal of trees without sufficient reforestation, and results in declines in habitat and biodiversity, wood for fuel and industrial use, and quality of life.[1] In the theory of programming languages in computer science, deforestation (also known as fusion) is a program transformation to eliminate tree structures. ... Lee De Forest patented a three-electrode version of the Audion. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rio Branco (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 322 pixelsFull resolution (1176 × 473 pixel, file size: 448 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 322 pixelsFull resolution (1176 × 473 pixel, file size: 448 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Djouce (sometimes referred to as Djouce Mountain) is a mountain situated in the northeastern section of the Wicklow Mountains. ... Clearcutting or clearfelling is a method of timber harvest in which all trees in a selected area are cut. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Biodiversity on a 15-year-old reforested plot of land. ...


From about the mid-1800s, the planet has experienced an unprecedented rate of change of destruction of forests worldwide.[2] Forests in Europe are adversely affected by acid rain and very large areas of Siberia have been harvested since the collapse of the Soviet Union. In the last two decades, Afghanistan has lost over 70% of its forests throughout the country.[3] However, it is in the world's great tropical rainforests where the destruction is most pronounced at the current time and where wholesale felling is having an adverse effect on biodiversity and contributing to the ongoing Holocene mass extinction.[4] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... Clearcutting or clearfelling is a method of timber harvest in which all trees in a selected area are cut. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The Holocene extinction event is a name customarily given to the widespread, ongoing mass extinction of species during the modern Holocene epoch. ...


About half of the mature tropical forests, between 750 to 800 million hectares of the original 1.5 to 1.6 billion hectares that once covered the planet have fallen.[5] The forest loss is already acute in Southeast Asia, the second of the world's great biodiversity hot spots. Much of what remains is in the Amazon basin, where the Amazon Rainforest covered more than 600 million hectares. The forests are being destroyed at a pace tracking the rapid pace of human population growth. Unless significant measures are taken on a world-wide basis to preserve them, by 2030 there will only be ten percent remaining [2][5] with another ten percent in a degraded condition.[2] 80 percent will have been lost and with them the irreversible loss of hundreds of thousands of species.[2] Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...


Many tropical countries, including Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Bangladesh, China, Sri Lanka, Laos, Nigeria, Liberia, Guinea, Ghana and the Cote d'lvoire have lost large areas of their rainforest. 90% of the forests of the Philippine archipelago have been cut.[6] In 1960 Central America still had 4/5 of its original forest; now it is left with only 2/5 of it. Madagascar has lost 95% of its rainforests. Atlantic coast of Brazil has lost 90-95% of its Mata Atlântica rainforest.[7] Half of the Brazilian state of Rondonia's 24.3 million hectares have been destroyed or severely degraded in recent years. As of 2007, less than 1% of Haiti's forests remain, causing many to call Haiti a Caribbean desert.[8] Between 1990 and 2005, Nigeria lost a staggering 79% of its old-growth forests.[9] Several countries, notably the Philippines, Thailand and India have declared their deforestation a national emergency.[10][11] Motto Unity, Discipline and Labour(translation) Anthem LAbidjanaise Capital Yamoussoukro (de jure) Abidjan (de facto) Largest city Abidjan Official languages French Government Republic  -  President Laurent Gbagbo[1]  -  Prime Minister Guillaume Soro[1] Independence from France   -  Date August 7, 1960  Area  -  Total 322,460 km² (68th) 124,502 sq mi... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... The Republic of the Philippines is a country of South East Asia, located in the western Pacific Ocean some 1,210 km (750 mi) from mainland Asia. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... A typical ecosystem of Mata Atlântica at Serra do Mar Mata Atlântica is the Atlantic Rain Forest formerly covering the wet coastal hills along the Atlantic coast of Brazil (mostly in the Serra do Mar). ... Rondônia is a state of Brazil, located in the northern-western part of the country. ...

Contents

Impact on the environment

Orbital photograph of human deforestation in progress in the Tierras Bajas project in eastern Bolivia. Photograph courtesy NASA.
Orbital photograph of human deforestation in progress in the Tierras Bajas project in eastern Bolivia. Photograph courtesy NASA.

Generally, the removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity. In many countries, massive deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


Deforestation is a substantial contributor to global warming,[12] and although 70% of the oxygen we breathe comes from the photosynthesis of marine green algae and cyanobacteria,[13] the mass destroying of the worlds rain forests is not beneficial to our environment. In addition, the incineration and burning of forest plants in order to clear land releases tonnes of CO2 which increases the impact of global warming.[12] Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ...


Deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture. Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion, flooding and landslides often ensue. Forests support considerable biodiversity, providing valuable habitat for wildlife; moreover, forests foster medicinal conservation and the recharge of aquifers. With forest biotopes being a major, irreplaceable source of new drugs (like taxol), deforestation can destroy genetic variations (such as crop resistance) irretrievably. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ... Paclitaxel is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


Shrinking forest cover lessens the landscape's capacity to intercept, retain and transport precipitation. Instead of trapping precipitation, which then percolates to groundwater systems, deforested areas become sources of surface water runoff, which moves much faster than subsurface flows. That quicker transport of surface water can translate into flash flooding and more localized floods than would occur with the forest cover. Deforestation also contributes to decreased evapotranspiration, which lessens atmospheric moisture which in some cases affects precipitation levels down wind from the deforested area, as water is not recycled to downwind forests, but is lost in runoff and returns directly to the oceans. According to one preliminary study, in deforested north and northwest China, the average annual precipitation decreased by one third between the 1950s and the 1980s. Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of sandstone by flash floods A Flash Flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas (washes), rivers and streams, caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ... Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration. ...


Longterm gains can be obtained by managing forest lands sustainable to maintain both forest cover and provide a biodegradable renewable resource. Forests are also important stores of organic carbon, and forests can extract carbon dioxide and pollutants from the air, thus contributing to biosphere stability. Deforestation (mainly in tropical areas) account for up to one-third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions.[14] Forests are also valued for their aesthetic beauty and as a cultural resource and tourist attraction. For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Many of the compounds which are dangerous to the environment can also be harmful to humans in the long-term range and come from mineral and fossil sources or are produced by humans themselves. ...


Economic impact

Historically utilization of forest products, including timber and fuel wood, have played a key role in human societies, comparable to the roles of water and cultivable land. Today, developed countries continue to utilize timber for building houses, and wood pulp for paper. In developing countries almost three billion people rely on wood for heating and cooking.[15] The forest products industry is a large part of the economy in both developed and developing countries. Short-term economic gains made by conversion of forest to agriculture, or over-exploitation of wood products, typically leads to loss of long-term income and long term biological productivity (hence reduction in nature's services). West Africa, Madagascar, Southeast Asia and many other regions have experienced lower revenue because of declining timber harvests. Illegal logging causes billions of dollars of losses to national economies annually.[16] Natures services is an umbrella term for the ways in which nature benefits humans, particularly those benefits that can be measured in economic terms. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


A new study found that the emerging market for carbon credits: "Deforestation in tropical countries is often driven by the perverse economic reality that forests are worth more dead than alive. But a new study by an international consortium of researchers has found that the emerging market for carbon credits has the potential to radically alter that equation."[17] The new procedures to get the massive amounts of wood are causing more harm to the economy and over powers the amount of money spent by people employed in logging. According to a study, "in most areas studied, the various ventures that prompted deforestation rarely generated more than US$5 for every ton of carbon they released and frequently returned far less than US $1." The price on the European market for an offset tied to a one-ton reduction in carbon is 23 euro (about $35).[18]


Characterization

Throughout most of history, humans have considered forest clearing as necessary for most activities besides forestry. In most countries, only after serious shortages of wood and other forest products are policies implemented to ensure forest resources are used in a sustainable manner. Typically in developed countries, as urbanization and economic development increases, land previously used for farming is abandoned and reverted to forests.[19] Today, in the developed world, most countries are experiencing forest restoration and most losses in forest land are primarily driven by expanding urban areas.[20]


In developing countries, human-caused deforestation and the degradation of forest habitat is primarily due to expansion of agriculture, slash and burn practices, urban sprawl, illegal logging, over harvest of fuel wood, mining, and petroleum exploration. This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ...


It has been argued that deforestation trends follow the Kuznets curve[21] however even if true this is problematic in so-called hot-spots because of the risk of irreversible loss of non-economic forest values for example valuable habitat or species loss. Kuznets curve is the graphical representation of Simon Kuznetss theory (Kuznets hypothesis) that economic inequality increases over time, then at a critical point begins to decrease. ...


The effects of human related deforestation can be mitigated through environmentally sustainable practices that reduce permanent destruction of forests or even act to preserve and rehabilitate disrupted forestland (see Reforestation and Treeplanting). These methods help the cause and provide a sustainable growth of forests and allow lumber to become a renewable resource Biodiversity on a 15-year-old reforested plot of land. ... Treeplanting is the process of transplanting tree seedlings, generally for forestry, land reclamation, or landscaping purposes. ...


Definitions of deforestation

Deforestation defined broadly can include not only conversion to non-forest, but also degradation that reduces forest quality - the density and structure of the trees, the ecological services supplied, the biomass of plants and animals, the species diversity and the genetic diversity. A narrow definition of deforestation is: the removal of forest cover to an extent that allows for alternative land use. The United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) uses a broad definition of deforestation, while the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) uses a narrow definition. Humankind benefits from a multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by natural ecosystems. ... For the eco-industrial use of the term, which includes dead material used for biofuels, see biomass An Antarctic krill, whose species comprises roughly 0. ... Species diversity refers to the number and distribution of species in one location. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... UN redirects here. ... FAO redirects here. ...


Definitions can also be grouped as those which refer to changes in land cover and those which refer to changes in land use. Land cover measurements often use a percent of cover to determine deforestation. This type of definition has the advantage in that large areas can be easily measured, for example from satellite photos. A forest cover removal of 90% may still be considered forest in some cases. Under this definition areas that may have few values of a natural forest such as plantations and even urban or suburban areas may be considered forest. Land cover is the physical material at the surface of the earth. ... Land use is the pattern of construction and activity land is used for. ... Land cover is the physical material at the surface of the earth. ... This article is about artificial satellites. ... This article is about crop plantations. ...


Land use definitions measure deforestation by a change in land use. This definition may consider areas to be forest that are not commonly considered as such. An area can be lacking trees but still considered a forest. It may be a land designated for afforestation or an area designated administratively as forest. Land use is the pattern of construction and activity land is used for. ...


Use of the term deforestation

It has been argued that the lack of specificity in use of the term deforestation distorts forestry issues.[22] The term deforestation is used to refer to activities that use the forest, for example, fuel wood cutting, commercial logging, as well as activities that cause temporary removal of forest cover such as the slash and burn technique, a component of some shifting cultivation agricultural systems or clearcutting. It is also used to describe forest clearing for annual crops and forest loss from over-grazing. Some definitions of deforestation include activities such as establishment of industrial forest plantations that are considered afforestation by others. It has also been argued that the term deforestation is such an emotional term that is used "so ambiguously that it is virtually meaningless" unless it is specified what is meant.[23] More specific terms terms include forest decline, forest fragmentation and forest degradation, loss of forest cover and land use conversion. For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Log. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ... For methods, see slash and burn Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ...


The term also has a traditional legal sense of the conversion of Royal forest land into purlieu or other non-forest land use. A royal forest has been a concept of land management England since the late eleventh century. ... Purlieu is a term used of the outlying parts of a place or district, sometimes in a derogatory sense. ...


Historical causes

Further information: Timeline of environmental events

The timeline of environmental events is a historical account of events that have shaped humanitys perspective on the environment. ...

Prehistory

Deforestation has been practiced by humans since the beginnings of civilization. Fire was the first tool that allowed humans to modify the landscape. The first evidence of deforestation appears in the Mesolithic. It was probably used to drive game into more accessible areas. With the advent of agriculture, fire became the prime tool to clear land for crops. In Europe there is little solid evidence before 7000 BC. Mesolithic foragers used fire to create openings for red deer and wild boar. In Great Britain shade tolerant species such as oak and ash are replaced in the pollen record by hazels, brambles, grasses and nettles. Removal of the forests led to decreased transpiration resulting in the formation of upland peat bogs. Widespread decrease in elm pollen across Europe between 8400-8300 BC and 7200-7000 BC, starting in southern Europe and gradually moving north to Great Britain, may represent land clearing by fire at the onset of Neolithic agriculture. For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... This article is about the species of deer. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ... This article is about the tree; for other meanings of hazel, see Hazel (disambiguation). ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ... Virgin boreal acid bogs at Browns Lake Bog, Ohio A bog is a wetland type that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material. ... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...

An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools.
An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools.

The Neolithic period saw much more extensive deforestation for farming land. Stone axes were now being made not just from flint, but from a wide variety of hard rocks from across Britain and North America as well. They include the noted Langdale axe industry in the English Lake District, quarries developed at Penmaenmawr in North Wales and numerous other locations. Rough-outs were made locally near the quarries, and some were polished locally to give a fine finish. This step not only increased the mechanical strength of the axe, but also made penetration of wood easier. Flint was still used from sources such as Grimes Graves but from many other mines across Europe. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1704, 1054 KB) Description Photographie dobjets du néolithique. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1704, 1054 KB) Description Photographie dobjets du néolithique. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Ancient stone tools Flint tools were made by stone age peoples worldwide. ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... North American redirects here. ... The Langdale axe industry is the name given by archaeologists to the centre of a specialised stone tool manufacturing in Englands Lake District during the Neolithic. ... Crinkle Crags as seen from the adjoining fell of Cold Pike. ... Penmaenmawr is a town in the county borough of Conwy, traditional county of Caernarfonshire, north Wales. ... Approximate extent of North Wales North Wales (known in some archaic texts as Northgalis) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales. ... Strength of materials is materials science applied to the study of engineering materials and their mechanical behavior in general (such as stress, deformation, strain and stress-strain relations). ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... Country State Region District Municipality Style Founded Between 3000 BC and 1900 BC, Owner Managed by English Heritage Visitation Located 7 miles NorthWest of Thetford off A134 (1st to 31st March, 10am to 5pm, Except Tuesday and Wednesday 1st April to 30th September, 10am to 6pm, every day 1st October...


Evidence of deforestation has been found in Minoan Crete; for example the environs of the Palace of Knossos were severely deforested in the Bronze Age.[24] Minoan may refer to the following: The Minoan civilization The (undeciphered) Eteocretan language The (undeciphered) Minoan language The script known as Linear A An old name for the Mycenean language before it was deciphered and discovered to be a form of Greek. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Knossos Knossos (alternative spellings Knossus, Cnossus, Gnossus, Greek Κνωσσός) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete, probably the ceremonial and political center of the Minoan culture. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


Pre-industrial history

In ancient Greece, Tjeered van Andel and co-writers[25] summarized three regional studies of historic erosion and alluviation and found that, wherever adequate evidence exists, a major phase of erosion follows, by about 500-1000 years the introduction of farming in the various regions of Greece, ranging from the later Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age. The thousand years following the mid-first millennium BCE saw serious, intermittent pulses of soil erosion in numerous places. The historic silting of ports along the southern coasts of Asia Minor (e.g. Clarus, and the examples of Ephesus, Priene and Miletus, where harbors had to be abandoned because of the silt deposited by the Meander) and in coastal Syria during the last centuries BC. In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... The Dogcow The Dogcow is a bitmapped image first introduced by Apple Computer. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... Priene (mod. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near...


The famous silting up of the harbor for Bruges, which moved port commerce to Antwerp, also follow a period of increased settlement growth (and apparently of deforestation) in the upper river basins. In early medieval Riez in upper Provence, alluvial silt from two small rivers raised the riverbeds and widened the floodplain, which slowly buried the Roman settlement in alluvium and gradually moved new construction to higher ground; concurrently the headwater valleys above Riez were being opened to pasturage. Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Riez is a commune of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, in southeastern France. ...


A typical progress trap is that cities were often built in a forested area providing wood for some industry (e.g. construction, shipbuilding, pottery). When deforestation occurs without proper replanting, local wood supplies become difficult to obtain near enough to remain competitive, leading to the city's abandonment, as happened repeatedly in Ancient Asia Minor. The combination of mining and metallurgy often went along this self-destructive path. A Progress trap is a situation in which the inevitable negative long-term consequences of an action outweigh the gains of that action perceived as progress because it solved a problem in the short term. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...


Meanwhile most of the population remaining active in (or indirectly dependent on) the agricultural sector, the main pressure in most areas remained land clearing for crop and cattle farming; fortunately enough wild green was usually left standing (and partially used, e.g. to collect firewood, timber and fruits, or to graze pigs) for wildlife to remain viable, and the hunting privileges of the elite (nobility and higher clergy) often protected significant woodlands.


Major parts in the spread (and thus more durable growth) of the population were played by monastical 'pioneering' (especially by the benedictine and cistercian orders) and some feudal lords actively attracting farmers to settle (and become tax payers) by offering relatively good legal and fiscal conditions – even when they did so to launch or encourage cities, there always was an agricultural belt around and even quite some within the walls. When on the other hand demography took a real blow by such causes as the Black Death or devastating warfare (e.g. Genghis Khan's Mongol hordes in eastern and central Europe, Thirty Years' War in Germany) this could lead to settlements being abandoned, leaving land to be reclaimed by nature, even though the secondary forests usually lacked the original biodiversity. This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... This article is about the person. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... The forest in Stanley Park, Vancouver, Canada is generally considered to have second and third growth characteristics. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


From 1100 to 1500 AD significant deforestation took place in Western Europe as a result of the expanding human population. The large-scale building of wooden sailing ships by European (coastal) naval owners since the 15th century for exploration, colonization, slave – and other trade on the high seas and (often related) naval warfare (the failed invasion of England by the Spanish Armada in 1559 and the battle of Lepanto 1571 are early cases of huge waste of prime timber; each of Nelson's Royal navy war ships at Trafalgar had required 6000 mature oaks) and piracy meant that whole woody regions were over-harvested, as in Spain, where this contributed to the paradoxical weakening of the domestic economy since Columbus' discovery of America made the colonial activities (plundering, mining, cattle, plantations, trade ...) predominant. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Kingdom of England Dutch Republic Spain Kingdom of Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 30 Dutch flyboats 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties and losses 50–100 dead[1... Three battles have been known as the Battle of Lepanto: Battle of Lepanto (1499) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1500) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1571) defeat of the Turkish fleet An earlier battle near modern Lepanto was called the Battle of Naupactus (429...


In Changes in the Land (1983), William Cronon collected 17th century New England Englishmen's reports of increased seasonal flooding during the time that the forests were initially cleared, and it was widely believed that it was linked with widespread forest clearing upstream. WILLIAM CRONON studies American environmental history and the history of the American West. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


The massive use of charcoal on an industrial scale in Early Modern Europe was a new acceleration of the onslaught on western forests; even in Stuart England, the relatively primitive production of charcoal has already reached an impressive level. For ship timbers, Stuart England was so widely deforested that it depended on the Baltic trade and looked to the untapped forests of New England to supply the need. In France, Colbert planted oak forests to supply the French navy in the future; as it turned out, as the oak plantations matured in the mid-nineteenth century, the masts were no longer required. Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the two centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution. ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He was described by Mme de Sévigné as Le Nord as he was cold and unemotional. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably...


Norman F. Cantor's summary of the effects of late medieval deforestation applies equally well to Early Modern Europe:[26] Norman F. Cantor (born in Winnipeg, Canada in 1930, died in Miami, Florida, United States on September 18, 2004) was a historian who specialized in the medieval period. ...

"Europeans had lived in the midst of vast forests throughout the earlier medieval centuries. After 1250 they became so skilled at deforestation that by 1500 AD they were running short of wood for heating and cooking. They were faced with a nutritional decline because of the elimination of the generous supply of wild game that had inhabited the now-disappearing forests, which throughout medieval times had provided the staple of their carnivorous high-protein diet. By 1500 Europe was on the edge of a fuel and nutritional disaster, [from] which it was saved in the sixteenth century only by the burning of soft coal and the cultivation of potatoes and maize."

Specific parallels are seen in twentieth century deforestation occurring in many developing nations.


Deforestation today

Jungle burned for agriculture in southern Mexico.
Jungle burned for agriculture in southern Mexico.

Slash-and-burn is a method sometimes used by shifting cultivators to create short term yields from marginal soils. When practiced repeatedly, or without intervening fallow periods, the nutrient poor soils may be exhausted or eroded to an unproductive state. Slash-and-burn techniques are used by native populations of over 200 million people worldwide. While short-sighted, market-driven forestry practices are often one of the leading causes of forest degradation. The principal human-related causes of deforestation are agriculture and livestock grazing, urban sprawl, and mining and petroleum extraction. Growing worldwide demand for wood to be used for fire wood or in construction, paper and furniture - as well as clearing land for commercial and industrial development (including road construction) have combined with growing local populations and their demands for agricultural expansion and wood fuel to endanger ever larger forest areas. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 193 KB) Summary Jami Dwyer http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 193 KB) Summary Jami Dwyer http://www. ... For methods, see slash and burn Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned. ... A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... This page is related to transport; you may be looking for the 2002 Bollywood movie Road. ...


Agricultural development schemes in Mexico, Brazil and Indonesia moved large populations into the rainforest zone, further increasing deforestation rates. One fifth of the world's tropical rainforest was destroyed between 1960 and 1990. Estimates of deforestation of tropical forest for the 1990s range from about 55,630 to 120,000 square kilometres each year. At this rate, all tropical forests may be gone by the year 2090. For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ...


Ethiopia

Main article: Deforestation in Ethiopia

The main cause of deforestation in Ethiopia, located in East Africa, is a growing population and subsequent higher demand for agriculture, livestock production and fuel wood.[27] Other reasons include low education and inactivity from the government,[28] although the current government has taken some steps to tackle deforestation.[29] Organizations such as Farm Africa are working with the federal and local governments to create a system of forest management.[30] Ethiopia, the third largest country in Africa by population, has been hit by famine many times because of shortages of rain and a depletion of natural resources. Deforestation has lowered the chance of getting rain, which is already low, and thus causes erosion. Bercele Bayisa, an Ethiopian farmer, offers one example why deforestation occurs. He said that his district was forested and full of wildlife, but overpopulation caused people to come to that land and clear it to plant crops, cutting all trees to sell as fire wood.[31]  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... This is a list of African countries/dependencies by population. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


Ethiopia has lost 98% of its forested regions in the last 50 years.[30] At the beginning of the 20th century, around 420,000 km² or 35% of Ethiopia's land was covered with forests. Recent reports indicate that forests cover less than 14.2%[30] or even only 11.9% now.[32] Between 1990 and 2005, the country lost 14% of its forests or 21,000 km².


Madagascar

Massive deforestation with resulting desertification, water resource degradation and soil loss has affected approximately 94% of Madagascar's previously biologically productive lands. Most of this loss has occurred since independence from the French, and is the result of local people using slash-and-burn agricultural practises as they try to subsist.[33] Largely due to deforestation, the country is currently unable to provide adequate food, fresh water and sanitation for its fast growing population.[34][35] For the labor union vitiation procedure, see NLRB election procedures#Decertification elections. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... Retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ...


Nigeria

Main article: Deforestation in Nigeria

According to the FAO, Nigeria has the world's highest deforestation rate of primary forests. It has lost more than half of its primary forest in the last five years. Causes cited are logging, subsistence agriculture, and the collection of fuel wood. This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ...


Brazil

Main article: Deforestation in Brazil

In Brazil the rate of deforestation is largely driven by commodity prices and world population growth. Recent development of a new variety of soybean has led to the displacement of beef ranches and farms of other crops, which, in turn, move farther into the forest. Certain areas such as the Atlantic Rainforest have been diminished to less than 10% of their original size and the Amazon Rainforest is awaiting the same fate at 600 fires daily. Although much conservation work has been done, few national parks or reserves are efficiently enforced. In 2008, Brazil's Government has announced a record rate of deforestation in the Amazon.[36][37] Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ...


Indonesia

There are significantly large areas of forest in Indonesia that are being lost as native forest is cleared by large multi-national pulp companies and being replaced by plantations. In Sumatra millions of hectares of forest have been cleared often under the command of the central government in Jakarta who comply with multi national companies to remove the forest because of the need to pay off international debt obligations and to develop economically. In Kalimantan the consequences of deforestation have been profound and between 1991 and 1999 large areas of the forest were burned because of uncontrollable fire causing atmospheric pollution across South-East Asia. A major source of deforestation is the logging industry, driven spectacularly by China and Japan. [1] For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Map of Kalimantan (white color) and its subdivisions. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Logging is the process in which trees are felled (cut down) usually as part of a timber harvest. ...


United States

Loss of old growth forest in the United States. 1620, 1850, and 1920 maps: William B. Greeley, The Relation of Geography to Timber Supply, Economic Geography, 1925, vol. 1, p. 1-11. Source of TODAY map: compiled by George Draffan from roadless area map in The Big Outside: A Descriptive Inventory of the Big Wilderness Areas of the United States, by Dave Foreman and Howie Wolke (Harmony Books, 1992). These maps represent only virgin forest lost. Some regrowth has occurred but not to the age, size or extent of 1620 due to population increases and food cultivation. See United States entry on left
Loss of old growth forest in the United States.
1620, 1850, and 1920 maps: William B. Greeley, The Relation of Geography to Timber Supply, Economic Geography, 1925, vol. 1, p. 1-11. Source of TODAY map: compiled by George Draffan from roadless area map in The Big Outside: A Descriptive Inventory of the Big Wilderness Areas of the United States, by Dave Foreman and Howie Wolke (Harmony Books, 1992). These maps represent only virgin forest lost. Some regrowth has occurred but not to the age, size or extent of 1620 due to population increases and food cultivation. See United States entry on left

Prior to the arrival of European-Americans about one half of the United States land area was forest, about 4 million square kilometers (1 billion acres) in 1600. For the next 300 years land was cleared, mostly for agriculture at a rate that matched the rate of population growth. For every person added to the population, one to two hectares of land was cultivated.[38] This trend continued until the 1920s when the amount of crop land stabilized in spite of continued population growth. As abandoned farm land reverted to forest the amount of forest land increased from 1952 reaching a peak in 1963 of 3,080,000 km² (762 million acres). Since 1963 there has been a steady decrease of forest area with the exception of some gains from 1997. Gains in forest land have resulted from conversions from crop land and pastures at a higher rate than loss of forest to development. Because urban development is expected to continue, an estimated 93,000 km² (23 million acres) of forest land is projected be lost by 2050 [2], a 3% reduction from 1997. Other qualitative issues have been identified such as the continued loss of old-growth forest,[39] the increased fragmentation of forest lands, and the increased urbanization of forest land.[40] Image File history File links Oldgrowth3. ... Image File history File links Oldgrowth3. ... Old growth forest, also called primary forest, ancient forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, frontier forest or (in the UK) Ancient Woodland, is an area of forest that has attained great age and so exhibits unique biological features. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ...


Species extinctions in the Eastern Forest

According to a report by Stuart L. Pimm the extent of forest cover in the Eastern United States reached its lowest point in roughly 1872 with about 48 percent compared to the amount of forest cover in 1620. Of the 28 forest bird species with habitat exclusively in that forest, Pimm claims 4 become extinct either wholly or mostly because of habitat loss, the passenger pigeon, Carolina parakeet, ivory-billed woodpecker, and Bachman's Warbler.[41] Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) or Wild Pigeon was a species of pigeon that was once the most common bird in North America. ... Binomial name Conuropsis carolinensis (Linneaus, 1758) Synonyms Psittacus carolinensis Linneaus, 1758 Conurus carolinensis Lesson, 1831 Mounted specimen of Conuropsis carolinensis, Museum Wiesbaden, Germany The Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis[1]) was the only parrot species native to the eastern United States. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) is, or was, a very large member of the woodpecker family, Picidae; it is officially listed as an endangered species, but by the end of the 20th century had widely been considered extinct. ... Binomial name Vermivora bachmanii Audubon, 1833 Bachmans Warbler (Vermivora bachmanii) was a small passerine bird that inhabited the swamps and lowland forests of the southeast United States. ...


Australia

Victoria and NSW's remnant red gum forests including the Murray River's Barmah-Millewa, are increasingly being clear-felled using mechanical harvesters, destroying already rare habitat. Macnally estimates that approximately 82% of fallen timber has been removed from the southern Murray Darling basin,[42] and the Mid-Murray Forest Management Area (including the Barmah and Gunbower forests) provides about 90% of Victoria's red gum timber.[43] VIC redirects here. ... NSW is a three-letter acronym that refers to: New South Wales, a state of the Commonwealth of Australia U.S. Naval Special Warfare Command This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Binomial name Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. ... For other uses, see Murray River (disambiguation). ... Barmah has the distinction of being the only town in Victoria that is north of New South Wales at . ... Clearcutting or clearfelling is a method of timber harvest in which all trees in a selected area are cut. ... Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Environmental effects

Atmospheric pollution

Deforestation is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deforestation, mainly in tropical areas, account for up to one-third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions.[14] Trees and other plants remove carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis. Both the decay and burning of wood releases much of this stored carbon back to the atmosphere. Deforestation also causes carbon stores held in soil to be released. Forests are stores of carbon and can be either sinks or sources depending upon environmental circumstances. Mature forests can be net sinks of carbon dioxide (see Carbon dioxide sink and Carbon cycle). A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Air redirects here. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... A carbon dioxide (CO2) sink is a carbon dioxide reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon dioxide source. The main natural sinks are (1) the oceans and (2) plants and other organisms that use photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere by incorporating it... For the thermonuclear reaction involving carbon that helps power stars, see CNO cycle. ...


The water cycle is also affected by deforestation. Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. When part of a forest is removed, the region cannot hold as much water and can result in a much drier climate.


Biodiversity

Some forests are rich in biological diversity. Deforestation can cause the destruction of the habitats that support this biological diversity, thus contributing to the ongoing Holocene extinction event. Numerous countries have developed Biodiversity Action Plans to limit clear cutting and slash and burn agricultural practices as deleterious to wildlife and vegetation, particularly when endangered species are present. Biodiversity or biological diversity is a neologism and a portmanteau word, from bio and diversity. ... Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Dodo, a bird of Mauritius, became extinct during the mid-late seventeenth century after humans destroyed the forests where the birds made their homes and introduced animals that ate their eggs. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aerial view of mixed aspen-spruce forest in Alaska Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover life forms, structure, spatial extent or any other specific botanical or geographic characteristics. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


Water cycle and water resources

Trees, and plants in general, affect the water cycle significantly: The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle. ...

  • their canopies intercept a proportion of precipitation, which is then evaporated back to the atmosphere (canopy interception);
  • their litter, stems and trunks slow down surface runoff;
  • their roots create macropores - large conduits - in the soil that increase infiltration of water;
  • they contribute to terrestrial evaporation and reduce soil moisture via transpiration;
  • their litter and other organic residue change soil properties that affect the capacity of soil to store water.

As a result, the presence or absence of trees can change the quantity of water on the surface, in the soil or groundwater, or in the atmosphere. This in turn changes erosion rates and the availability of water for either ecosystem functions or human services. Interception, or canopy interception, refers to precipitation that does not reach the soil, but is instead intercepted by the leaves and branches of plants. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ... Blanket of reddish-brown ponderosa pine needles covering the ground. ...


The forest may have little impact on flooding in the case of large rainfall events, which overwhelm the storage capacity of forest soil if the soils are at or close to saturation.


Soil erosion

Undisturbed forest has very low rates of soil loss, approximately 0.02 metric tons or 40 lbs per hectare.[citation needed] Deforestation generally increases rates of soil erosion, by increasing the amount of runoff and reducing the protection of the soil from tree litter. This can be an advantage in excessively leached tropical rain forest soils. Forestry operations themselves also increase erosion through the development of roads and the use of mechanized equipment. For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Run-off or runoff may refer to one of the following. ...


China's Loess Plateau was cleared of forest millennia ago. Since then it has been eroding, creating dramatic incised valleys, and providing the sediment that gives the Yellow River its yellow color and that causes the flooding of the river in the lower reaches (hence the river's nickname 'China's sorrow'). This article cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Removal of trees does not always increase erosion rates. In certain regions of southwest US, shrubs and trees have been encroaching on grassland. The trees themselves enhance the loss of grass between tree canopies. The bare intercanopy areas become highly erodible. The US Forest Service, in Bandelier National Monument for example, is studying how to restore the former ecosystem, and reduce erosion, by removing the trees.


Landslides

Tree roots bind soil together, and if the soil is sufficiently shallow they act to keep the soil in place by also binding with underlying bedrock. Tree removal on steep slopes with shallow soil thus increases the risk of landslides, which can threaten people living nearby. However most deforestation only affects the trunks of trees, allowing for the roots to stay rooted, negating the landslide. Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ...


Controlling deforestation

Farming

New methods are being developed to farm more intensively, such as high-yield hybrid crops, greenhouse, autonomous building gardens, and hydroponics. These methods are often dependent on massive chemical inputs to maintain necessary yields. In cyclic agriculture, cattle are grazed on farm land that is resting and rejuvenating. Cyclic agriculture actually increases the fertility of the soil. Intensive farming can also decrease soil nutrients by consuming at an accelerated rate the trace minerals needed for crop growth. This article is about a biological term. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Off-the-grid. ... Hydroponics is the growing of plants without soil. ...


Forest management

Efforts to stop or slow deforestation have been attempted for many centuries because it has long been known that deforestation can cause environmental damage sufficient in some cases to cause societies to collapse. In Tonga, paramount rulers developed policies designed to prevent conflicts between short-term gains from converting forest to farmland and long-term problems forest loss would cause,[44] while during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Tokugawa Japan[45] the shoguns developed a highly sophisticated system of long-term planning to stop and even reverse deforestation of the preceding centuries through substituting timber by other products and more efficient use of land that had been farmed for many centuries. In sixteenth century Germany landowners also developed silviculture to deal with the problem of deforestation. However, these policies tend to be limited to environments with good rainfall, no dry season and very young soils (through volcanism or glaciation). This is because on older and less fertile soils trees grow too slowly for silviculture to be economic, whilst in areas with a strong dry season there is always a risk of forest fires destroying a tree crop before it matures. The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ...


Reforestation

In the People's Republic of China, where large scale destruction of forests has occurred, the government has in the past required that every able-bodied citizen between the ages of 11 and 60 plant three to five trees per year or do the equivalent amount of work in other forest services. The government claims that at least 1 billion trees have been planted in China every year since 1982. This is no longer required today, but March 12 of every year in China is the Planting Holiday. In western countries, increasing consumer demand for wood products that have been produced and harvested in a sustainable manner are causing forest landowners and forest industries to become increasingly accountable for their forest management and timber harvesting practices. The Arbor Day Foundation's Rain Forest Rescue program is a charity that helps to prevent deforestation. The charity uses donated money to buy up and preserve rainforest land before the lumber companies can buy it. The Arbor Day Foundation then protects the land from deforestation. This also locks in the way of life of the primitive tribes living on the forest land. Organizations such as Community Forestry International, The Nature Conservancy, World Wide Fund for Nature, Conservation International, African Conservation Foundation and Greenpeace also focus on preserving forest habitats. This article is about the US organization called The Nature Conservancy. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... Conservation International (CI) is a nonprofit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., that seeks to protect Earths biodiversity hotspots, high-biodiversity wilderness areas as well as important marine regions around the globe. ... The African Conservation Foundation is working towards the protection and conservation of Africas endangered wildlife and their habitats. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ...


Forest plantations

To meet the worlds demand for wood it has been suggested by forestry writers Botkins and Sedjo that high-yielding forest plantations are suitable. It has been calculated that plantations yielding 10 cubic meters per hectare annually could supply all the timber required for international trade on 5 percent of the world's existing forestland. By contrast natural forests produce about 1-2 cubic meters per hectare, therefore 5 to 10 times more forest land would be required to meet demand. Forester Chad Oliver has suggested a forest mosaic with high-yield forest lands interpersed with conservation land.[46] Roger A. Sedjo is an economist and senior fellow and director of Resources for the Future. ... A sugarcane plantation at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 2005 A plantation is a large tract of monoculture, as a tree plantation, a cotton plantation, a tea plantation or a tobacco plantation. ...


The Jewish National Fund states that the only country to come out of the Twentieth Century with more trees than it had at the start of the period was Israel.[47]


Military context

American Sherman tanks knocked out by Japanese artillery on Okinawa.
American Sherman tanks knocked out by Japanese artillery on Okinawa.

While the preponderance of deforestat is due to demands for agricultural and urban use for the human population, there are some examples of military causes. One example of deliberate deforestation is that which took place in the U.S. zone of occupation in Germany after World War II. Before the onset of the Cold War defeated Germany was still considered a potential future threat rather than potential future ally. To address this threat, attempts were made to lower German industrial potential, of which forests were deemed an element. Sources in the U.S. government admitted that the purpose of this was the "ultimate destruction of the war potential of German forests." As a consequence of the practice of clear-felling, deforestation resulted which could "be replaced only by long forestry development over perhaps a century."[48] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The M4 Sherman was the primary tank produced by the United States for its own use and the use of its Allies during World War II. Production of the M4 Medium tank exceeded 50,000 units, and its chassis served as the basis for thousands of other armored vehicles such... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The industrial plans for Germany or Level of Industry plans for Germany were the plans to lower German industrial potential after World War II. At the Potsdam conference, with the U.S. operating under influence of the Morgenthau plan[1], the victorious Allies decided to abolish the German armed forces...


War can also be a cause of deforestation, either deliberately such as through the use of Agent Orange[3] during the Vietnam War where, together with bombs and buldozers, it contributed to the destruction of 44 percent of the forest cover,[49] or inadvertently such as in the 1945 Battle of Okinawa where bombardment and other combat operations reduced the lush tropical landscape into "a vast field of mud, lead, decay and maggots".[50]-1... For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants  United States  United Kingdom  Canada  Australia  New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner â€  Joseph W. Stilwell Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima â€  Isamu Cho â€  Strength 548,000 soldiers, 1,300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33...


References

  1. ^ http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/nilsson.html Do We Have Enough Forests? By Sten Nilsson
  2. ^ a b c d E.O. Wilson, 2002, The Future of Life, Vintage ISBN 0-679-76811-4
  3. ^ Afghanistan: Environmental crisis looms as conflict goes on
  4. ^ Leakey, Richard and Roger Lewin, 1996, The Sixth Extinction : Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind, Anchor, ISBN 0-385-46809-1
  5. ^ a b Ron Nielsen, The Little Green Handbook: Seven Trends Shaping the Future of Our Planet, Picador, New York (2006) ISBN 978-0312425814
  6. ^ The Lost Forest
  7. ^ What is Deforestation?
  8. ^ International Conference on Reforestation and Environmental Regeneration of Haiti
  9. ^ Nigeria: Environmental Profile
  10. ^ Rainforest Destruction
  11. ^ Rainforest loss shocks Brazil
  12. ^ a b Philip M. Fearnside1 and William F. Laurance, TROPICAL DEFORESTATION AND GREENHOUSE-GAS EMISSIONS, Ecological Applications, Volume 14, Issue 4 (August 2004) pp. 982–986
  13. ^ Fenical 1983, "Marine Plants"
  14. ^ a b http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-chapter7.pdf IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group I Report "The Physical Science Basis", Section 7.3.3.1.5 (p. 527)
  15. ^ http://atlas.aaas.org/pdf/63-66.pdf Forest Products
  16. ^ Destruction of Renewable Resources
  17. ^ Deforestation Across the World’s Tropical Forests Emits Large Amounts of Greenhouse Gases with Little Economic Benefits, According to a New Study at CGIAR.org
  18. ^ New ASB Report finds deforestation offers very little money compared to potential financial benefits at ASB.CGIAR.org
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  21. ^ http://www.aseanenvironment.info/Abstract/41014849.pdf Deforestation and the environmental Kuznets curve:An institutional perspective
  22. ^ "Rate and Causes of Deforestation in Indonesia: Towards a Resolution of the Ambiguities" William D. Sunderlin and Ida Aju Pradnja Resosudarmo
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  24. ^ C. Michael Hogan, Knossos fieldnotes, Modern Antiquarian (2007)
  25. ^ Tjeerd H. van Andel, Eberhard Zangger, Anne Demitrack, "Land Use and Soil Erosion in Prehistoric and Historical Greece' Journal of Field Archaeology 17.4 (Winter 1990), pp. 379-396
  26. ^ In closing The Civilization of the Middle Ages: The Life and Death of a Civilization (1993) pp 564f.
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  30. ^ a b c Parry, J. (2003).
  31. ^ Haileselassie, A. Ethiopia's struggle over land reform. World press Review 51.4 (April 2004):32(2).Expanded Academic ASAP
  32. ^ STATISTICS: Ethiopia. Rhett A. Butler, mongabay.com (no date). Retrieved on June 4, 2007.
  33. ^ Deforestation causes species extinction in Madagascar
  34. ^ What are rainforests?
  35. ^ Deforestation in Madagascar
  36. ^ Record Amazon deforestation in Brazil
  37. ^ Brazil Amazon deforestation soars, BBC
  38. ^ American Forest A History of Resiliency and Recovery United States Forest Service
  39. ^ United Nations (2005) "Global Forest Resources Assessment"
  40. ^ U.S. Department of Agriculture "Forests on the Edge - Housing Development on America's Private Forests" (2005) http://www.fs.fed.us/projects/fote/reports/fote-6-9-05.pdf Retrieved Nov. 19 2006
  41. ^ The Dodo went extinct (and other ecological myths) by Stuart L. Pimm at Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences
  42. ^ Macnally, R, Ballinger, A and Horrocks, G. (2002) Habitat change in River Red Gum Floodplains: Depletion of Fallen Timber and Impacts on Biodiversity. Victorian Naturalis, Volume 119(4). Pp. 107-113.
  43. ^ NRE 2002 Forest Management Plan for the Mid-Murray Forest Management Area.
  44. ^ Diamond, Jared Collapse: How Societies Choose To Fail or Succeed; Viking Press 2004, pages 301-302
  45. ^ Diamond, pages 320-331
  46. ^ No Man's Garden Daniel B. Botkin p 246-247
  47. ^ The Jewish National Fund: How the Land Was ‘Redeemed’
  48. ^ Nicholas Balabkins, "Germany Under Direct Controls; Economic Aspects Of Industrial Disarmament 1945-1948, Rutgers University Press, 1964. p. 119. The two quotes used by Balabkins are referenced to respectively; U.S. office of Military Government, A Year of Potsdam: The German Economy Since the Surrender (1946), p.70; and U.S. Office of Military Government, The German Forest Resources Survey (1948), p. II. For similar observations see G.W. Harmssen, Reparationen, Sozialproduct, Lebensstandard (Bremen: F. Trujen Verlag, 1948), I, 48
  49. ^ Patricia Marchak, "Logging the Globe" p. 157
  50. ^ Okinawan History and Karate-do

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General references

  • BBC 2005 TV series on the history of geological factors shaping human history (name?)
  • A Natural History of Europe - 2005 co-production including BBC and ZDF
  • Whitney, Gordon G. (1996). From Coastal Wilderness to Fruited Plain : A History of Environmental Change in Temperate North America from 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57658-X
  • Williams, Michael. (2003). Deforesting the Earth. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ISBN 0-226-89926-8
  • Wunder, Sven. (2000). The Economics of Deforestation: The Example of Ecuador. Macmillan Press, London. ISBN 0-333-73146-8
  • FAO&CIFOR report: Forests and Floods: Drowning in Fiction or Thriving on Facts?
  • Fenical, William (September 1983). "Marine Plants: A Unique and Unexplored Resource", Plants: the potentials for extracting protein, medicines, and other useful chemicals (workshop proceedings). DIANE Publishing, 147. ISBN 1428923977. 

The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ...

Ethiopia deforestation references

  • Parry, J. (2003). Tree choppers become tree planters. Appropriate Technology, 30(4), 38-39. Retrieved November 22, 2006, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 538367341).
  • Hillstrom, K & Hillstrom, C. (2003). Africa and the Middle east. A continental Overview of Environmental Issues. Santabarbara, CA: ABC CLIO.
  • Williams, M. (2006). Deforesting the earth: From prehistory to global crisis: An Abridgment. Chicago: The university of Chicago Press.
  • Mccann. J.C. (1990). A Great Agrarian cycle? Productivity in Highland Ethiopia, 1900 To 1987. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, xx: 3,389-416. Retrieved November 18, 2006, from JSTOR database.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Assarting is the act of clearing forested lands for use in agriculture or other purposes. ... During the time from 500BC to 400AD, a dramatic increase in engineering and technology overwhelmed a region to the point that it could no longer sustain population growth and urbanization. ... For the labor union vitiation procedure, see NLRB election procedures#Decertification elections. ... Ecoforestry is forestry that emphasizes holistic practices which strive to protect and restore ecosystems1 instead of traditional forestry that maximizes economic productivity. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of national laws. ... Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) is a term often used in climate change topics. ... In hydrology, moisture recycling or precipitation recycling refer to the process by which a portion of the precipitated water that evapotranspired from a given area contributes to the precipitation over the same area. ... // Mountaintop removal coal mining at Kayford Mountain, West Virginia. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... Richard St. ... For other uses, see Wilderness (disambiguation). ...

External links

Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... The Canadian International Development Agency is a Canadian government agency which adminsters foreign aid programs in developing countries. ...

In the media

  • March 14, 2007, Independent Online: Destruction of forests in developing world 'out of control'
For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... The temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans through various spans of time. ... Instrumental global surface temperature measurements; see also [http://www. ... Comparison of ground based (blue) and satellite based (red: UAH; green: RSS) records of temperature variations since 1979. ... The temperature record of the past 1000 years describes the reconstruction of temperature for the last 1000 years on the Northern Hemisphere. ... The website of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration contains detailed data of the annual land and ocean temperature since 1880. ... This article is devoted to temperature changes in Earths environment as determined from geologic evidence on multi-million to billion (109) year time scales. ... National and international science academies and professional societies have assessed the current scientific opinion on climate change, in particular recent global warming. ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In common with many other forms of transport, aircraft engines emit polluting gases, contribute to global warming, and cause noise pollution. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... In IPCC reports, equilibrium climate sensitivity refers to the equilibrium change in global mean surface temperature following a doubling of the atmospheric (equivalent) CO2 concentration. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... The Keeling Curve is a graph measuring the increase in the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since 1958. ... Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) is a term often used in climate change topics. ... Tokyo, a case of Urban Heat Island. ... For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ... Cloud forcing (sometimes described as cloud radiative forcing) is the difference between the radiation budget components for average cloud conditions and cloud-free conditions. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Global cooling in general can refer to a cooling of the Earth. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... Milankovitch cycles are the collective effect of changes in the Earths movements upon its climate, named after Serbian civil engineer and mathematician Milutin Milanković. The eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earths orbit vary in several patterns, resulting in 100,000 year ice age cycles of the... Orbital forcing, or Milankovitch theory, describes the effect on climate of slow changes in the tilt of the Earths axis and shape of the orbit. ... The generalised concept of radiative forcing in climate science is any change in the radiation (heat) entering the climate system or changes in radiatively active gases. ... 400 year history of sunspot numbers. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. ... General Circulation Models (GCMs) are a class of computer-driven models for weather forecasting and predicting climate change, where they are commonly called Global Climate Models. ... The politics of global warming looks at the current political issues relating to global warming, as well as the historical rise of global warming as a political issue. ... UNFCCC logo. ... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... The global warming controversy is a dispute regarding the nature and consequences of global warming. ... This article lists scientists and former scientists who have stated disagreement with one or more of the principal conclusions of the mainstream scientific assessment of global warming. ... This page is non-encyclopedic and represents the editorial views of notably biased publications, such as Newsweek and Mother Jones. ... Graphical description of risks and impacts from global warming from the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... As recent estimates of the rate of global warming have increased, so have the financial estimates of the damage costs. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... A view down the Whitechuck Glacier in North Cascades National Park in 1973 The same view as seen in 2006, where this branch of glacier retreated 1. ... The extinction risk of climate change -- that is, the expected number of species expected to become extinct due to the effects of global warming -- has been estimated in a 2004 Nature study to be between 15 and 37 percent of known species by 2050. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since the late 1970s; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Sea level measurements from 23 long tide gauge records in geologically stable environments show a rise of around 20 centimeters per century (2 mm/year). ... Shutdown or slowdown of the thermohaline circulation is a possible effect of global warming. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Mitigation of global warming involves taking actions aimed at reducing the extent of global warming. ... The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. ... CDM directs here. ... Joint implementation (JI) is an arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol allowing industrialised countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment (so-called Annex 1 countries) to invest in emission reducing projects in another industrialised country as an alternative to emission reductions in their own countries. ... The European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) was launched in June 2000 by the European Unions European Commission. ... The United Kingdoms Climate Change Programme was launched in November 2000 by the British government in response to its commitment agreed at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). ... Crude oil prices, 1994-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) In 2005 the government of Sweden announced their intention to make Sweden the first country to break its dependence on petroleum, natural gas and other ‘fossil raw materials’ by 2020. ... Emissions trading (or cap and trade) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. ... Emissions trading schemes (also known as ‘cap and trade’ schemes) are one of the policy instruments available for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases. ... A carbon tax is a tax on energy sources which emit carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. ... Until recently, most carbon offsets were commonly done by planting trees. ... This article deals with carbon credits for international trading. ... A carbon dioxide (CO2) sink is a carbon dioxide reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon dioxide source. The main natural sinks are (1) the oceans and (2) plants and other organisms that use photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere by incorporating it... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Renewable energy commercialization involves three generations of technologies dating back more than 100 years. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... The soft energy path is an energy use and development strategy delineated and promoted by some energy experts and activists, such as Amory Lovins and Tom Bender; in Canada, David Suzuki has been a very prominent (if less specialized) proponent. ... The G8 Climate Change Roundtable was formed in January 2005 at the World Economic Forum in Davos. ... The issue of human-caused, or anthropogenic, climate change (global warming) is becoming a central focus of the Green movement. ... Adaptation to global warming covers all actions aimed at reducing the negative effects of global warming. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... The Seven Rila Lakes in Rila, Bulgaria are typical representatives of lakes with glacial origin A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... A rainwater tank is a water tank which is used to collect and store rainwater runoff, typically from rooftops. ... Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ... A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Scientific Symposium on Stabilisation of Greenhouse Gases was a 2005 international conference that redefined the link between atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, and the 2°C (3. ... LADSS or Land Allocation Decision Support System, is an agricultural land use planning tool being developed at The Macaulay Institute. ... This article serves as a glossary of the most common terms and how they are used. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Deforestation (2959 words)
Deforestation: The conversion of forest to another land use or the long-term reduction of the tree canopy cover below a 10 percent threshold.
Estimates are constantly improving, based on satellite imagery, and deforestation rates change in response to social and economic conditions, as well as quality and accessibility of remaining forest.
Deforestation has already removed about half of the world’s forests, and in your lifetime threatens to eliminate most of the remaining tropical forests.
BIGpedia - Deforestation - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (859 words)
Deforestation is the removal or destruction of significant areas of forest.
The earliest deforestation may have been the burning of the forest to create openings for wildlife and later, chiefly as a result of clearing land for growing crops, and developing pasture for grazing animals.
Deforestation is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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