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Encyclopedia > Deflection

Deflection is a term used in physics, automotive, engineering, and weapon applications to describe four separate phenomena. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... In first-person shooters, leading targets generally refers to aiming ones weapon ahead of his or her target so that the bullets will hit their mark. ... Image File history File links Derived from public domain images featured at: http://commons. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and characterization of universal laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... Car redirects here. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ...

Contents

Structural engineering

Deflection (f) in engineering
Deflection (f) in engineering

In engineering mechanics, deflection is a term that is used to describe the degree to which a structural element is displaced under a load. The deflection of a member under a load is directly related to the slope of the deflected shape of the member under that load and can calculated by integrating the function that mathematically describes the slope of the member under that load. Deflection can be calculated by standard formulae (will only give the deflection of common beam configurations and load cases at discrete locations), or by methods such as "virtual work", "direct integration", "Castigliano's method", "Macaulay's method" or the "matrix stiffness method" amongst others. (See structural analysis textbooks for procedure.) Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Engineering mechanics is a branch of the physical sciences which looks to understand the actions and reactions of bodies at rest or in motion. ... In physics, force is an influence that may cause a body to accelerate. ... A force F, which may be real (actual) or imaginary (fictitious), acting on a particle is said to do virtual work when the particle is imagined to undergo a real or imaginary displacement component D in the direction of the force. ... Castiglianos method, named for Carlo Alberto Castigliano, is a method for determining the displacements of a linear-elastic system based on the partial derivatives of the strain energy. ... In structural engineering, the matrix stiffness method (or simply stiffness method) is a matrix method that makes use of the members stiffness relations for computing member forces and displacements in structures. ...


An example of the use of deflection in this context is in building construction. Architects and builders select materials for various applications. The beams used for frame work are selected on the basis of deflection, amongst other factors. An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... A statically determinate beam, bending under an evenly distributed load. ...


The elastic deflection f and angle of deflection φ (in radians) in the example image, a (weightless) cantilever beam, can be calculated (at the free end) using : Look up elastic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An angle is the figure formed by two rays sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. ... Some common angles, measured in radians. ... The cantilevered beam (green) projects from its supports (blue), balanced by the structure (red block), which supports the load (red arrow). ...

fB = F·L3 / (3·E·I)
φB = F·L2 / (2·E·I)

where

F = force acting on the tip of the beam
L = length of the beam (span)
E = modulus of elasticity
I = area moment of inertia

The deflection at any point along the span can be calculated using the above-mentioned methods. In physics, force is an influence that may cause a body to accelerate. ... Span is a section between two intermediate supports of a bridge. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (also known as the modulus of elasticity or elastic modulus) is a measure of the Stiffness of a given material. ... The second moment of area, also known as the second moment of inertia and the area moment of inertia, is a property of a shape that is used to predict its resistance to bending and deflection. ...


From this formula it follows that the span L is the most determinating factor; if the span doubles, the deflection increases 23 = 8 fold.


Building codes determine the maximum deflection, usually as a fraction of the span e.g. 1/400 or 1/600. Either the strength limit state (allowable stress) or the serviceability limit state (deflection considerations amongst others) may govern the minimum dimensions of the member required. A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... A cake divided into four equal quarters. ...


The deflection must be considered for the purpose of the structure. When designing a steel frame to hold a glazed panel, one allows only minimal deflection to prevent fracture of the glass. Steel frame usual refers to a building technique in which a skeleton frame of steel is constructed to support the building which is attached to the frame. ... For fractures in geologic formations, see Rock fracture. ...


The deflective shape of a beam can be represented by the moment diagram, integrated. Moment refers to either of two related concepts in mathematics and physics: Moment (physics) Moment (mathematics) See also Moment (magazine), a Jewish general publication. ...


Electronics

In electronic engineering, and more specifically cathode ray tube (CRT) technology, deflection refers to the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic fields to deflect an electron beam to provide a two-dimensional display on a screen formed by the flat face of the CRT. Electronic engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT Electron guns Electron beams Focusing coils Deflection coils Anode connection Mask for separating beams for red, green, and blue part of displayed image Phosphor layer with red, green, and blue zones Close-up of the phosphor... A charged particle beam is a group of electrically charged particles that have approximately the same kinetic energy and move in approximately the same direction. ...


Automotive

Deflection as an automotive term is used as a measure of the tightness of car engine belts, which is measured using a belt gauge.


Physics

Deflection occurs when an object hits a plane surface
Deflection occurs when an object hits a plane surface

In physics deflection is the event where an object collides and bounces against a plane surface. Image File history File links Deflection diagram made by User:Kieff File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Deflection diagram made by User:Kieff File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Collision (disambiguation). ...


In such collisions involving a sphere and a plane, the collision angle formed with the surface normal (the incidental angle α) must equal the bounce angle (the accidental angle β), α = β A sphere is a perfectly symmetrical geometrical object. ... Two intersecting planes in three-dimensional space In mathematics, a plane is a two-dimensional manifold or surface that is perfectly flat. ... A surface normal, or just normal to a flat surface is a three-dimensional vector which is perpendicular to that surface. ...


See also

In classical mechanics, the impulse of a constant force is the product of the force and the time during which it acts. ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ...

Weapons

Deflection is a tactic used in battle that describes "leading the target"; that is, shooting ahead of a moving target so that the target and projectile will collide. This tactic is only necessary when using slow projectiles, such as a crossbow bolt, or over long distances, such as in an aerial dogfight. During World War II, U.S. Navy pilots were taught explicitly on the concept in order to capitalize on the advantages of the Wildcat. In first-person shooters, leading targets generally refers to aiming ones weapon ahead of his or her target so that the bullets will hit their mark. ... 15th century French soldier wearing a hauberk, armed with a crossbow/arbalest and resting on a pavise. ... A dogfight or dog fight is a common term used to describe close-range aerial combat between military aircraft. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... F4F-3 Wildcat of Lt. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Asteroid deflection strategies - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (876 words)
Providing this was done well enough in advance, a small deflection from any number of nuclear blasts could be enough to alter the objects trajectory enough to avoid an Earth impact.
Researcher Jay Melosh has proposed that it may be possible to deflect the orbit of an asteroid or comet enough by focusing solar energy onto its surface to create thrust from the resulting vaporisation of material, or to amplify the Yarkovsky effect.
Over a span of months or years enough Solar radiation can be directed onto the object to deflect it so long as its Albedo is low enough not to reflect all the light away.
Road & Transport Research: Pavement deflection testing can improve local road maintenance activities (1173 words)
Deflection testing is a non-destructive method of assessing the structural adequacy of a pavement.
Deflections are measured electronically and recorded on a computer located in the front cabin of the truck.
A deflection ratio of greater than 0.8 would indicate a bound or rigid pavement, a ratio of between 0.6 and 0.7 would be expected for a good quality unbound pavement and a ratio of less than 0.6 would indicate a possible weakness in the pavement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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