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Encyclopedia > Defense of Harbin
Defense of Harbin
Part of Second Sino-Japanese War
Date January 25 - February 4, 1932
Location Harbin, Manchuria
Result Japanese Victory
Combatants
National Revolutionary Army, China Imperial Japanese Army, Japan
Commanders
Feng Zhanhai, Ting Chao Shigeru Honjo
Strength
30,000  ?
Casualties
 ?  ?
Second Sino-Japanese War
Major engagements in bold
Mukden - Invasion of Manchuria (Jiangqiao - Nenjiang Bridge - Harbin) - Shanghai (1932) - Great Wall - Rehe - Suiyuan - Marco Polo Bridge - Beiping-Tianjin - Chahar - Shanghai (1937) (Sihang Warehouse) - Beiping-Hankou Railway - Tianjin-Pukou Railway - Taiyuan - (Pingxingguan) - Xinkou - Nanjing - Xuzhou- Taierzhuang - N.-E.Henan - (Lanfeng) - (Amoy) - Wuhan - Canton - (Hainan) - (Xiushui River) - Nanchang - Suixian-Zaoyang - (Swatow) - 1st Changsha - S.Guangxi- (Kunlun Pass) - Winter Offensive -(Wuyuan) -S.Henan - Zaoyang-Yichang - Hundred Regiments - Indochina Expedition - Shanggao - S.Shanxi - 2nd Changsha - 3rd Changsha - Yunnan-Burma Road-(Yenangyaung)- Zhejiang-Jiangxi - W.Hubei - N.Burma-W.Yunnan - Changde - C.Henan - 4th Changsha - Guilin-Liuzhou - W.Henan-N.Hubei - W.Hunan- 2nd Guangxi
edit


After General Ma Zhanshan had been driven from Tsitsihar by the Japanese in the Jiangqiao Campaign he had retreated northeastward with his beaten and depleted forces and had set up his capital at Hailun. There he attempted to continue to govern Heilongjiang province. Colonel Kenji Doihara began negotiations with General Ma from his Special Service Office at Harbin, hoping to get him to join the new state of Manchukuo Japan was organizing. Ma continued negotiating with Doihara, while he continued to support General Ting Chao. Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) (Chinese: 國民革命軍; pinyin: guo2 min2 ge2 ming4 jun1) was the national army of the Republic of China. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... It has been suggested that Manchuria Incident be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, China Imperial Japanese Army, Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai, Ting Chao Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Tamon Strength 160,000 30,000 - 84,000 Casualties  ?  ? ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, China Imperial Japanese Army, Japan Commanders Gen. ... Resistance at Nenjiang Bridge was a small war fought between small forces of Chinese militias against the Japanese Imperial Army and collaborationist forces, after the Mukden Incident in which Manchuria was lost to Japan. ... Combatants Republic of China, 19th Route Army, 5th Army Empire of Japan, Imperial Japanese Army, 2nd Independent Tank Company, Shanghai Expeditionary Force Commanders 19th Route Army: Jiang Guangnai (Chinese: 蔣光鼐), 5th Army: Zhang Zhizhong (Chinese: 張治中) Commander: Yoshinori Shirakawa (Japanese: 白川義則), Chief of staff: Kanichiro Tashiro (Japanese: 田代皖一郎) Strength 50,000 90,000 Casualties... The Defense of the Great Wall (Traditional Chinese: 長城抗戰; Simplified Chinese: 长城抗战; pinyin: Chángchéng Kàngzhàn) (January 1 - May 31, 1933) was a battle between the armies of Republic of China and Empire of Japan, before official hostilities of the Sino-Japanese War commenced in 1937. ... The Battle of Rehe was fought from February 21 to March 1 of 1933 between China and Japan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Marco Polo Bridge Incident (盧溝橋事變; also known as 七七事變, 七七盧溝橋事變) was a battle between Japans Imperial Army and Chinas National Revolutionary Army, marking the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). ... The Battle of Beiping-Tianjin (Traditional Chinese: 平津作戰; Simplified Chinese: 平津作战; pinyin: ) (25 July - 31 July 1937) was a battle fought during the Second Sino-Japanese War in the proximity of Beiping (now Beijing) and Tianjin. ... 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The Second Guangxi Campaign (Late April-July, 1945) was a Chinese counteroffensive against the Japanese forces that had taken Guangxi during Operation Ichigo and aimed at the recovery of all Guangxi... Ma Zhanshan (馬占山, 1885-1950) was born in Gongzhuling, in Jilin province, in a poor farm family. ... Qiqihar (Simplified Chinese: 齐齐哈尔; Traditional Chinese: 齊齊哈爾; Pinyin: Qíqíhāěr; Postal Pinyin: Tsitsihar; Wade-Giles: Chi-chi-ha-er) is a major city in the Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China and has 895,000 inhabitants. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, China Imperial Japanese Army, Japan Commanders Gen. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Kenji Doihara (土肥原 賢二 Doihara Kenji, August 8, 1883 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese spy who served in northeastern China from 1913. ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ...


General Ting Chao had never approved of the puppet government set up in Kirin Province by the Kwantung Army under the nominal leadership of General Hsi Hsia. In November, with General Feng Zhanhai, he organized the Jilin Provincial Anti-Japanese Government to coordinate military resistance.   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Jílín; Wade-Giles: Chi-lin; Postal System Pinyin: Kirin; Manchu: Girin ula), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ...


Over the next months General Ma continued to support General Ting Chao, and these two Generals maintained contact with Marshal Zhang Xueliang and Chiang Kai-shek, who gave them some assistance. In early January in an effort to force General Ma to terms, Colonel Doihara requested the Chinese puppet General Hsi Hsia to advance with his "New Kirin Army" and take Harbin and then drive in the direction of Ma's headquarters at Hailun. General Hsi Hsia, at the beginning of January 1932, prepared an expedition to the North with a view to occupying Harbin. Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang (張學良, pinyin: Zhāng Xuéliáng, English: Peter Hsueh Liang Chang) (June 3, 1901 – October 15, 2001), nicknamed the Young Marshal (少帥), became the effective ruler of Manchuria and much of Northeast China after the assassination of his father Chang Tso-lin on June... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ...


Meanwhile General Ting Chao was between him and Harbin with General Li Du and other army officers that had organised a Jilin Self-Defence Army in order to prevent the fall and occupation of Harbin. This brought all their forces under a unified command numbering 30,000 men.


When General Hsi Hsia had advanced to Shuangchong on 25 January, Marshal Zhang Xueliang had instructed Generals Ma and Ting not to negotiate further and fighting began on the morning of the 26th. DOHIHARA had failed in his attempt to intimidate the Chinese and worse still his ally, General Hsi Hsia's puppet troops had suffered a serious reverse at the hands of General Ting Chao.


Colonel Doihara was forced to call upon the Kwantung Army to assist General Hsi Hsia. To justify this, Colonel Doihara created another "Incident" in Harbin. An engineered riot occured, during which, it was said that, one Japanese and three Korean subjects of Japan were killed. Most of the Japanese troops had been withdrawn from Northern Manchuria in order to use them in the Chinchow drive; but the 2nd Division had returned to Mukden for a rest. The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ... For the city in Hebei provonce, see Jinzhou, Hebei. ...


2nd Division, commanded by Lt. Gen. Jiro Tamon, was ordered to go to the rescue of General Hsi Hsia, and entrained on 28 January. Some delay was experienced because of transportation difficulties in the cold winter weather. This gave General Ting Chao time to seize the Municipal Administration in Harbin and arrest General Chang Ching-hui, who had been acting as puppet Governor of Heilungkiang Province. For seven days the fur-hatted Japanese columns struggled north over the frozen countryside in a temperatures of 30° below zero. Finally they closed in on the city from the west and south on Febuary 4th.


General Ting Chao fought a 17 hour battle, which Harbin's inhabitants watched from their rooftops. Possibly in an effort to embroil Russia, Ting Chao's artillery was posted squarely in front of Russian offices of the Soviet-dominated Chinese Eastern Railroad, but to no avail. Ting Chao's men finally broke under the withering fire from Japanese guns and bombing and strafing by Japanese aircraft and General Ting was forced to retreat from Harbin, pursued by Japanese aircraft to the northeast. Within a few hours the Japanese occupation was complete and the city was under martial law. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


After General Ting Chao's defeat, General Ma resumed negotiations with Colonel Doihara, while his army escaped through Russian territory into China. With his army safe in China, General Ma, is said to have accepted one million dollars in gold offered by Doihara. He agreed on 14 February 1932 to become Governor of Heilungkiang Province and cooperate with the Japanese. On February 27th, 1932, General Ting Chao, offered to cease hostilities, ending official Chinese resistance in Manchuria. Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ...


Within days Henry Pu-yi, Manchurian former emperor of China, deposed in 1911, was made provisional president of the independant state of Manchukuo by the resolution of an All-Manchuria convention at Mukden, that included General Ma flown in from the north. The next day on March 1st the Manchukuo Government established with Ma as its Minister of War in addition to his post as governor. Aisin-Gioro Puyi¹ (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over...


See also

External links. It has been suggested that Manchuria Incident be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, China Imperial Japanese Army, Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai, Ting Chao Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Tamon Strength 160,000 30,000 - 84,000 Casualties  ?  ? ...

  • [1] Japanese Aggression Against China
  • [2] SATURDAY EVENING. FEBRUARY 27. 1032. THE COSHOCTON TRIBUNE
  • [3] Flight of Ting From the Feb. 15, 1932 issue of TIME magazine
  This article about a historical Japanese battle is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

 
 

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