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Encyclopedia > Defense budget of Japan

Even during the Cold War arms race of the 1980s, Defense budget was accorded a relatively low priority in Japan. According to Japanese security policy, maintaining a military establishment is only one method—and by no means the best method—to achieve national security. Diplomacy, economic aid and development, and a close relationship with the United States under the terms of the 1960 security treaty are all considered more important. For FY 1986 through FY 1990, defense's share of the general budget was around 6.5 percent, compared with approximately 28 percent for the United States. In 1987 Japan ranked sixth in the world in total defense expenditures behind the Soviet Union, the United States, France, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), and Britain. By 1989 it ranked third after the United States and the Soviet Union, mainly because of the increased value of the yen. In FY 1991, defense accounted for 6.2 percent of the budget. For the generic term for a high-tension struggle between countries, see cold war (war). ... The 1980s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1980 and 1989. ... Main budgets of défense within the world Budgets 2002 for NATO countries Budgets 2002 for OTAN countries in milliards (billions) of US dollars Source : Atlas stratégique 2004 Dépenses en armement (2003) The year rapport from the Stockholm International Peace Research institute show the buy of military products... Foreign relations of Japan - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security (in Japanese, 日本国とアメリカ合衆国との間の相互協力及び安全保障条約, Treaty of mutual cooperation and security between Japan and the United States of America) was signed between the United States and Japan in Washington on January 19, 1960. ... Monetary policy pertains to the regulation, availability, and cost of credit, while fiscal policy deals with government expenditures, taxes, and debt. ... Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ...


In addition to annual budgets, the Defense Agency prepared a series of cabinet-approved buildup plans beginning in 1957, which set goals for specific task capabilities and established procurement targets to achieve them. Under the first three plans (for 1958-60, 1962-66, and 1967-71), funding priorities were set to establish the ability to counter limited aggression. Economic difficulties following the 1973 oil crisis, however, caused major problems in achieving the Fourth Defense Buildup Plan (1972-76), and forced funding to be cut, raising questions about the basic concepts underlying defense policies. The Japan Defense Agency (防衛庁; bouei-cho) is an agency in the Cabinet of Japan. ... At the height of the crisis in the United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ...


In 1976 the government recognized that substantial increases in spending, personnel, and bases would be virtually impossible. Instead, a "standard defense concept" was suggested, one stressing qualitative improvements in the Self-Defense Forces, rather than quantitative ones. It was decided that defense spending would focus on achieving a basic level of defense as set forth in the 1976 National Defense Program Outline. Thereafter, the government ceased to offer buildup plans that alarmed the public by their seemingly open-ended nature and switched to reliance on single fiscal year formulas that offered explicit, attainable goals. It has been suggested that Deployment of Japanese troops to Iraq be merged into this article or section. ...


Defense spending increased slightly during the late 1970s, and in the 1980s only the defense and Official Development Assistance budgets were allowed to increase in real terms. In 1985 the Defense Agency developed the Mid-Term Defense Estimate objectives for FY 1986 through FY 1990, to improve SDF front-line equipment and upgrade logistic support systems. For the GSDF, these measures included the purchase of advanced weapons and equipment to improve antitank, artillery, ground-to-sea firepower, and mobile capabilities. For the MSDF, the focus was on upgrading antisubmarine capabilities, with the purchase of new destroyer escorts equipped with the Aegis system and SH-60J antisubmarine helicopters, and on improving antimine warfare and air defense systems. ASDF funds were concentrated on the purchase of fighter aircraft and rescue helicopters. The entire cost of the Mid-Term Defense Estimate for FY 1986 through FY 1990 was projected at approximately ¥18.4 trillion (approximately US$83.2 billion, at the 1985 exchange rate). JGSDF Central force head office in Itami, Japan Tank Type 74 of Japan Ground Self Defense Force The largest of the three services of the JSDF, the Ground Self-Defense Force (GSDF), operates under the command of the chief of the ground staff, based in the city of Ichikawa, east... The Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Force, tasked with the naval defense of Japan, and was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II. The force is based strictly on defensive armament, lacking the offensive... The Aegis combat system, named for the mythological aegis shield, is a United States Navy weapons system. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging military aircraft in combat from the ground. ... The Japan Air Self-Defense Force (kanji:航空自衛隊 koukuu jieitai) is the aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and other aerospace operations. ...


In FY 1989, the ¥3.9 trillion defense budget accounted for 6.49 percent of the total budget, or 1.006 percent of GNP. In addition to the Defense Agency itself, the defense budget supported the Defense Facilities Administration Agency and the Security Council. Defense Agency funding covered the GSDF, the MSDF, the ASDF, the internal bureaus, the Joint Staff Council, the National Defense Academy, the National Defense Medical College, the National Institute for Defense Studies, the Technical Research and Development Institute, and the Central Procurement Office. The Japan National Defense Academy is an academy aimed to educate and train cadets who will be officers in three services of the Self-Defense Forces of Japan. ...


The FY 1990 defense budget, at 0.997 percent of the forecasted GNP, dipped below the 1 percent level for the first time since it was reached in 1987. But the more than ¥4.1 trillion budget still marked a 6.1 percent increase over the FY 1989 defense budget and provided virtually all of the ¥104 billion requested for research and development, including substantial funds for guided-missile and communications technologies. Although some ¥34.6 billion was authorized over several years for joint Japan-United States research and development of the experimental FSX fighter aircraft, disputes over this project were believed to have convinced the Defense Agency to strengthen the capability of the domestic arms industry and increase its share of SDF contracts. After originally being cut, funds were also restored for thirty advanced model tanks and the last Aegis multiple-targeting-equipped destroyer escort needed to complete the Mid-Term Defense Estimate. The 6.1 percent defense increase was accompanied by an even larger (8.2 percent) increase in Official Development Assistance funding. The defense budget continued to grow in real terms in the early 1990s to ¥43.8 trillion in 1991 and ¥45.5 trillion in 1992 but remained less than 1 percent of GNP. A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. ...


Japanese officials resist United States pressure to agree formally that Japan will support more of the cost of maintaining United States troops, claiming that such a move will require revision of agreements between the two nations. But in FY 1989, the Japanese government contributed US$2.4 billion—roughly 40 percent—of the total cost. The contribution slated for FY 1990 was increased to US$2.8 billion—nearly 10 percent of the total defense budget—and by the end of FY 1990 the Japanese government expected to assume all expenses for utilities and building maintenance costs for United States troops stationed in Japan. United States Forces Japan (USFJ, Japanese: 在日米軍) refers to the various divisions of the United States Armed Forces that are stationed in Japan. ...


Reference

This article incorporates public domain text from the Library of Congress Country Studies. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ...


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Defense Agency funding covered the GSDF, the MSDF, the ASDF, the internal bureaus, the Joint Staff Council, the National Defense Academy, the National Defense Medical College, the National Institute for Defense Studies, the Technical Research and Development Institute, and the Central Procurement Office.
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